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1838 TO 1839 

r^ ": 

D, = ,l,z..tvG00gIf 

:f, Google 



Univerfal Hiftt«^ 

£arlieft Account of Time. 

Compiled from 

Original W r i t e r s. 

By the Authors of the Ant ient Part. 


ftinttdforS. Richer D son, T. Osborne, C. Hitch, 
A. MiLLiR, John Ritington, S. Crowdsr, 
F.DlTSTaod B. Law, T. LoNGM*M,apd C.Warb. 


Doiizc^bv Google 


'; TO TH8 

* R E A D E R, 

Relating to this Fourth Volume* 

WE have feen, in the courib of the pre- 
ceding volume, a feries of cleveh Ahi^- 
fine loialife from Al Ka^em, the a6th 
of tidat dyna% -f-, to the total extindtion of the 
khalifat, gradually ftripped of all their fecular au- 
thority and power, and reduced to a mere religi- 
ous and ecclefiaftical fway, by a fucceffion oiSet- 
iuiian monarchs, the de(cendants of the £tmed 
Togrol Begb *, who, under the bare title of Emir 
jfiOmrdy which that unfortunate khalif beftowed 
upon him, governed all dvil and military afiairs 
mth an abfolute and defpotic power, afluming the 
royal title of foltan only over their Seljuk liibjeifls, 
and their other conqueils: fothat, in order to fet 
ibtth the furpriiing decline, as well as the once 
amazing ext^t and power,' of the khali&t, we 
have been under the neccfHty of anticipating, in a 
great meafure, the Seljukian hiftory^ which was 
defied for this volume ; without which that of , 
tbekhalifs muft have appeared maimed and im-< 
j>erftQ toany curious reader. 

t Vol. -iii. p. X07, S: feq. * Ibid. p. 241, ad 


Adverttfemmt to the Reader, 

Being now therefore come to give a particuUt 
account of that celebrated dynafly, the ^me rea- 
ibfts ifcin of couffe 'oblige us to recapitulate, tho' in 
the moA fuccind manner thefubjed will admit of, 
the fame monarchs reigns, cpnqucfts, and tranf- 
Qiftions, in order to render tliar hiilorv, which 
makes no leis a figure in the Oriental one, as 
fiill, cfear, andT com{)leat, as die Jbrmer, which 
we have giveh of the khalifat, eipecially as both 
of them have been fo ibang<eLy mutilated and 
dHguifed by th6 Greek writers : but of (his wc 
fhall fay the lefs here, having prefixed at the 
direfhold of the Seljukian hifbry an account of 
them, as well as of thofe others, whether 7urkiflx 
or Arab^ of whom we have made ufe in the 
CDurfe of it ♦. And that, joined to what we have 
faid above^ will^ we hope, fufficiently account to 
our readers, not only for every -fuch unavoidable 
repetition, but likewife for every contrail and in- 
cx)nfi(lency they may have occafion to remark 
between thofe writers. It being, indeed^ next 
to impoffible it fhould happen otherwjfe, confi- 
dering the vaft difference of their religions and 
interefls : one fet of them zealous Mobamme^m^ 
the other Headien ; the former full of gall and 
icfentment againft thofe monarchs who nad de- 
prived their khatifs of all their fecular power, and 
raifed their own to that envied height upon the 
ruins of theirs. The other no lefs jealous of the 
glory of their own natural princes, re^reicntiog 
their every aiSion, motive, and fuccefstul ftcp ta 
agrandifemcnt, in the moil advantageous light, 
and glofTing over every thing that cafl the Icafl 
tarni^ upon it. 

• Sec hereafter, p. 76, 4: fcq. 

Advertifement to the Reader. 
To give one inftance for all of the diiferent 
reprcfentations of thofc writers; When thchaugh- 
^ khalif i^ Kofem [after having been reftored to 
^dignity, and reconducted to his capital, and 
to his very pal^e, with the grcateft marks of 
honour and refpeft by the generous Tagrul 
Begb] f was obferved to hefitate fo long whether 
ht iaooid c<»idefcend to grant hiin his daughter 
in marriage ; it was natural for the Modern hiftori- 
instoreprefent his behaviour as a mark of his ftrc- 
Buous and laudable zeal for the Mohammedan re- 
Vgion, vbiUl the Seljuks looked upon it as a piece 
of ill-dmed pride and black ingratitude to fo 
noble a prince and benefaftor. We have en- 
<leavoured to account for thefe and odier mate- 
nal variations as often as the nature of the fub- 
jcA would permit it ; the reft we have chofen to 
refer to our reader's judgment ; only defiring 
him to infert with his pen die few following 


'dgf 97. Inw3i. ^fiii ^taking, r«(u/ having exaAed (aft 
oath}. j4iwiiiid. 32. Inflead^Vi, readhom. 

— 109. 31. ^eadtftusovm, r^A^ his rarir's {[riety), 

— 119. 30. ^er altho', read that dignity had b«o 

eojoyed by the (Khalift). 

— 120. tJ. For depart from, read retire to. 

-~ ijp, 17. For Gypfies, read plaiftereri, or vrorkosia 

unc aod mortar. 

t See rol. iii. p. 346, & f«q. 



Modem Hiftory : 




Univedal Hiftory. 


General Hiftory of the Turks, and the 
empires founded fy them /«' Tartary 
a«rf the Lower Alia. 

C H A P. I. 

The origin^ country^ and different, tribes or 
brancbest of tbe Turkifli nation i with an 
account of tbeir affairs till tbe defiruSiion of 
their empire in Tartary. 


^e eriff'n of tbe Turks. . 

ALTHOUGH the origin of the Turks hath beenowri. »/ 
already treated of elf^here t, yet fevera] matters /A/ Turki. 
rdatii^ thereRj were left nnluaidlcd, becanfe they 
fixmed mpre proper for this place, where we ai« to fiseak 
particularly of that warlike nation j whofe empire, fliifting 
gradually from eafl to weft; under different dynafiies, hath 
coatiaued ibr above 2,000 years, and Aill fubiUU under the 
Otbman iuaAj, with no fmaU Inftre. 

•TURK\s zxaiat known in all lasgn^es ; astAthe jfr^g 
hare out of it kamvA the pltinl AtrUk, that Is, Turkt ■>. 

%0T. ^ibl. oncuale, p, 897. An. Tnik. 
HoD.HifT. Vol. IV. B There 

, ... , L.OO'^IC 

£ Gmrat Hijtery of the Turks. ~ B.T. 

Theri are thrM tr&ditioAs or accounts concerning the CHi^n 
of thefe people ; one^vsn by themfelves, the'other by thePA-- 
Jians fiid An^i, and the third by the Chinefis, The reader has 
already, in the placet before referred to, been made acquainted 
wi± that Yelated by the Turki/h hiftorians ; which is, that 
they derive themfelves from one Turk, whom they affirm to 
bff tiie fon of T^si or y^et : we Ihall,- in this place, lay be- 
fore him the tradition of tix Perfiaru, Araii, ^oAChitufes, 
AectrMng as delivered by thor hUlorians, accompanied with remiarlts ; 
to the wherein we fhall examine their refpe^ive authority, and (hew 
Turks, which tradition deferres mofl credit, purfuant to a rule Vhich 
we have always obferved throughout tlus work : ftu: it is the 
duty of an hijftoriaa to examine the memoirs he makes. nlc* 
of, and give his opinion of their iideUty ; not out of often- 
uHon, to fhew his (kill in critical learning, but purely for the 
{akeof truth, and to diftinguilh die fpurious from the genuine. 
There are authors, who, by their Jilence on this important 
head, ml/lead their readers for fear of dilgufting tlwm ; and 
fitcrifice their own credit, to fare that oC fables. 
'JictnBng According tothcPn^onhiftorians, theTurj^/aredefcend- 
Ze/A* Per- ed from77!r, third fon oiFrayhdun (A), tiie feventh kingof i'w- 
fiani. , Jia; or, according to others, fixth king of the firft race of 
kii^oHed ft^Wrfrf, contemporary with v^^roifaim •. Frayh- 
dUn having divided his dominions among his three Cods, Ttfa- 
Jbf&ek, or the Eqfiem Counlrlei (B), fell to the (hare of Tar, 
wiio went and built the city T&rin, in turkefidn, not fer 
eaft from the Cajpian fca. Tur having joined his fecond bro- 
ther Sahn (who had Mogareb, or the IVeJl Countries J, againff 
his eldcft brother Ireje (C), and Ilain him by treachery, Manu- 
cher (D), Ireje's fon, flew him ; whereby, upon Frayhdin's death, 

• Anchift. vol. V. p. 318. 34i,&leq. 

(A)ByfomewrittenvJ'/ir((A(n ter peculiar to it. To prevent 

at Afridun, Phrtdan^a^Fridim, confulion therefore, w* never 

Pbtridan and Ferijim j but we ufc r before tori infiead of y, 

never ufe ph for / in criencal whicn is the proper letter, 
words. (D) It may be written alio 

(B) Thefe are to be under- Manvj-r or Mamyeher, not ilfa- 
ftood more properly of the coun- luger, for the rcafon alligned in 
tries to the North of the river note C ; much left JWinwg/Vr, by 
JifiinOtAmu, containing all that joining g v\Aj, to make a dou- 

i>art of Afia which goes at pre- ble charader ; which is not only 

ent by the nanie of fartary, nnneceilary, bat highly impro- 

(C] Some write /rfff, but im- per, » it may miflcad one to 
propcHy; for, in onenCal names, read Manug-jir. 

the lame charafler oaght not to Obferve alfo that we always 

be ofed for two different founds, nfe cb as id eharm, never as ih 

wl(cn one of them has a chaiac- in cbrtuUU, 

C I. Tbeir Origin: ,. t 

wfakb bappeoed (bon after, TurSn or Tto-kefim fell ander his 
domjtuon c. ' ' 

In the fiftieth year of Manucter or fltanujer'a reign, v^a- ti^nitaf 
fiab, fon of Pa/bangh, king of Turkeftdn, rebels in that conn- Antfimb. 
try, under pretence of revenging Tar's death, from whom he 
wu ddcended ; beats Manucher, and obliges tUm to appcnnt the 
rirer 7'Mff or -^li the boundary betwixt Perjia and Turkeftdtti 
NaaJer (£) fncceeding bis fither Manucher, Afrajic^ invades ' 
fiiin vnth 400,000 men, and never gave over, till he had taken 
ind pQt him to death ; fubdning all Perjia, which, with Tar* 
ktji&it, became ftbjcft to his father Pafhangh ^. 

But the cruelties of Afraftah foon obliged the PerJUns to Hi cm- 
throw off the Turkifli yoke ; and he quitted Perfia, after )\t^un Per- 
had been pdlefled of it twelve years (F). Yet, in the reign of «»• 
Kaykeidd, the eleventh Iting of Perjia, Jfrajiab invades that 
ki^d(»D again, but is beaten by Rojidm, the famous P^f;/na 
cbamiHOff ; who, in the reign of Kayka-ws, the twelfth king, co« 
ianpararywith^abtRox,routedhimarecond time, purfued hint 
■s &r as Tur4n, the capital of Turkeftdn, and plundered it o£ 
»aft treaTures. Kaykhofra-iu, the thirteenth king of P^fyfa, fent 
an army of 30,000 men to, Ipvade Turkeftdn, but they were 
defeaiea ; and thdr general, t/udarz, being befieged by the 
Twit in the mountain of Damhwand, in the province of Ma^ 
zanderdfi, had been loft, 'liRoftdm had not come to liis relief. - 

The feme of that fiege brought two kings, neighbour! 
of the Turks, to their affiftancc ; the one called Hhakhm or 
Kbakhm, the fame as Khaan, a title of the M»gol kinge ; and 
the other Shangtd; the former of whom was fiain. Gudarz . / 
•ferwards beat four armies of the Turks, took an hundred' 
thoa&nd of them prifoners, and, fome time after, Afrafich 
himfelf was taken and flain «. 

This is the acccount o( the original of the Turks, given 

i^ Mirkend (G), a famous Ptrjian hiftorlan, which difTera 


« MiiKoHD. ap. Texeira, hift. Perfia, p. 33. D' HERBEtOT. 
BihL orientale, p. 895. Arr. Toor. See anc. hift. vol. v. p. 3*8^. 
4 feq. ' MiRKOBo. nbi fupr. p. 40. Ant. hift, ubi fup. p, 

349- _■ ■ MiRKOND. ubi fupr. p. 45 fcfeq. s».S^'*t 'eqiv 

;E) Written by fome Nuder. (G) Mirihind, or Mtrkha- 
TJuiuaconfequenceof not in- vend, as ihe P^r^oni pronounce 
ftrtng the vowel points j and of it, is an abbreviation of the iroe 
tikagtacArahUff'irwatdouhU name of this author ; which ii' 
», fometimet for a vowel. . Mebammed Ebn Amir Kho'waiid 

(F) He ii reckoned the 9th Shdb, or Khavdnd Shah.' He 
king of PerSa, of the Pifinlad wrote a general hiftory of the 
na, axdOinl firom FrmMn or world, in Pirjian, from the cr«- 
Ftri&vHt', •■ - V tionioiheyear875ofthcHty. 

■ Ba ■ , Bumb^r^yy^^l^. _ 

Gttural Hipry of tbt Tatia. B.I. 

greatlyfrom that penned by fa<ifeiO(H), another P«:^, who 
wrote the hillory of the Mogeb and Tartars, at the command of 
Cbazan Kh&n, one of Jer^htz KharCi fucceflbrs in Perfia. 

It is cafier to account how the Per/tan hiftoriaos came to 
difier fo much, than to reconcile them : for ihofe who wrote 
before the Turks obtained the dominion in their country, 
framed their hiflory to aggrandize their own nati<»), and 
depredate the Turks, whom they hated, for the injuries re- 
xdvcd from them ; whereas thofe who wrote under the 
Turki/h monarchies, through fear or flattery, conformed ihem- 
felves to the traditions of their mafters ; or, not thinking it 
for their honour to adopt the old Perfian account, framed an- 
other, more agreeable to thdr humour ; from whence natu- 
rally arofe the contradiAions we meet with. 

Nor ii the Perfian Aory perhaps more true than that of 
the Ttirks ; at leaft it is, on many accounts, liable to excep- 
. tion ; particularly as to the chronology of thofe firft kings, 
ind the length of their reigns. 

It is obfcrvablc, that the account atx>ve given v^ .^raftah, 
makes his life of an iiwredible length. The iiiilorian, bong 
aware of this, remarks^n the ocadion, that he waged war with 
fo many princes, that he mult have lived three or rour hundred 
years. Hencefomcauthorsmake^o^aSorfijrySiji (I) (which 
Rffofiei conqueror of Perjui),i title common to thofe kings of 
Turkefian, who obtained fo many viftories over the Perfiatu 
rah, and of Chrift 1471, con-' cxtraCU of the reigns of kinn, 
fiAingoffeventhickvolumesin f\unx&teA hy VHirieln, in his 
folio, colleAed from a great oriental diAionary, fuffidently 
numberof hiAoriei.gcDcrarand particular and accurate. How- 
pifticular (t). ever, for want of better, we 

There ii a Ptrftu alnidge- have made a(t of them, and 
ineut of the whole work of the- tranllation of Textira by 
Mirkhani, by his foa Gajymth Sitphmi, which ii alfo very in- 
jtMn, llrnamed KbmJ .Amiri con-e&l/ printed, 
whom D'Hirhibi confoundt (H) Called alfo Kh^ab Ra- 
wiih hit father (1). He alfo Jltd; from whom chiefly ^/^h'^- 
, wrote a hiflory of the Megili haxi Kban, cited lower down, 
and Tartari, Jenghiv, Khan and extrafted hi* hiftory. An ac- 
hii children, which was pub- count i» given of fadKi/Zai, and 
Lihed about the year 1508 (j). hiscoUeflion, in fea.iii. 

Tixiira, a Pi>rtj«p(«w travel- (I) Called alfo Arjath: he 
Icr and geographer, pablilhed kept hii court at a city in T«r- 
• an abftraft ot Mivkanii hiftory ; ktfiSn, called Uifi, K^m, or Ht/t 
but it is too concifc, and, in Khvvtti. See b'Urrhtht, Art. 
many placei, confufed, ai well Ht/t Khan. 
a* defcflive. ■ Nor are the larger 

C'u*h.f. if Gntiit, C««. p. 4JO, 446. (tj Sit Birk. p. 9M. Af . 

C. I. Tbtir Origin. 5 

in andent tunes : and, for the fame reafon, others compue , 

his rd^ to a very dark night which covered Ptrjia. 

However thatbe, all the Tur;^ families, which have made 
a nmfe in the world) claim to be defcended from this great 
conqaeror. Se^(A, fbtinder of the Se^6k monarchy, would 
have it believed, that he was the thirty-fourth of his de&end- 
aiKS, ID a right male line ; and the Olhman monarchs, who 
pfvtciid to be related to the Se§6ts by the fomily of Ogtig 
Xidtty alTume Id thdr titles that of j4frafiab, as well to de* 
acne their nobility as valour ; cfpecially as they have, in Ut' 
tCT times, obtained great viAories over the Perjiam K 

JFRASIAS muiV have been eight or nine generations ^^^^'i 
later than Og&z Khdn, who, acCOTdiog to the Turkijb hiflorians, ^ ^f™- 
was cotemporary with Kay-umarraz, firft Per/ion king trf"""' 
.the Pyhdddracc; and conquered Perfia during the mln^ty 
of bu fucceflbr Hujbeng, at what time the great lords were 
at variaocc amoi^ themlelves I. But as none of the early 
PerfioK hlftorians make mention of thefe great conquefts, 
{otae of the latter are apt to think that they might have been ' 
efiefled in the interval between the death of Kay-umarraz, 
and the rdgn of Hujbeng, a Ipace of two hundred years ; 
dnring whidi time, we are told, the hUlorians have not taken 
notice of any tranfaf^ions >>. 

HowEvES. this may be, a<xordiDg to the cxtraft we have from 
MIrkhond, a modem author, he mentions no fuch interr^-, 
nnm : be only lays, that when Kay-umarraz died, his grand- 
Ibn ffv/beng was a minor ; and that, as foon as he came of 
age, he al«nded the throne '. Now, though we fliould 
oon£der the throne to be vacant during his minority, yet we 
cannot ratiomlly fuppofe that it laAed two hundred years. 

One would ima^ne that Abidghaz Khan, who undertook JC^jf ^ 
profcflcdiy to write a gmeaJogicaJ hiftary tf the Turks, could Turkef- 
not have avoided fpe^ng of the Khans of Turkefidn, aoi*'^- 
partictilarly of Afrafiah ■■ fo far from that, he treats of Do 
ddcents from Qg&t., but thofe relatii^ to the Mogalt and 
Tartar J ; and never fo much as mentions Afrafiah, except 
once, on occalion of Iltk, KhStn of BeUdfagtin, who, he tells 
OS, vas defcended from Afrafiah Khan ^, udthout faying any 
tfaii^ more of this hero, or his race. 

BoT to return to the origin of the Turks. If the authors, Turkifli 
who have come to our hands, had pven us the genealogyf^"**^ 
of Seij&k, it might have been of ufe in fettling thiS point. ^"> 

'D'Hiai. p. 89J. Art.TooTan. p. 66. Art. Afrafiab. &p, 
800. Art. Selgioak. - ■ Abulohazi Khan Lift. Tarki, Bee. 

f. iQ. D'HiKB. p. 6S3. Art. Ogoox KhSn. ^ O'Herr. 

bU flipT. • MiKKoMD. ap. Texeir. p. i^. 'See 

AivLeuAzi Exah. bift.Tark«,&c. p. 44. 

B 3 Howcrer, 

S General Hipry of tie Turks. B. L 

However, if we inay judge by that of Ozmdn or Otbmditf 
, founder of the Olhnan empire, their pretences to antiquity 
. leun very fufpicious : for, in three liAs of that prince's an- 
ceflors, two given by Leorulavius, one in bis fdfiory tf tb* 
Sobns ', the other in his MuJfiUmaa hiftofy >", and the third 
by Prince Cantemir, in his htftory cfthe growth and decay cf 
the Othman empire ", all taken from the Turkijb hiilorians 
themfelves (K) ; though, in all of them, I fay, we meet with 
the name of Ogilz, yet none of them makes mention of dther 
Afrafiab or Tark (L) ; Butkhas (M) bdng put inftead of the 
. latter in one of them, which alone runs fo high as Jacket, 
The lift found in the hljiary of the Soltans, which was tranf- 
^ . laced from the Turki/h, ends at Leirek, who is but the fifth 
in the other given in the hijiory of the Muffiilnutns. And 
Aougb both genealogies are laid to afcend from fon to fa- 
ther, yet Othmm's anceftors by one are fifty-feven, and by 
the other only feventcen, to Lekrek. 
vtrjfiiM- Prince Cantemir's lift wants three anceftors, found in the 
<i«iis, former, with which St beii agrees, and ends at Takva, called 
in the other Diptakoy (N) ; only adding, that he was of the 
houfe of Jt^et. But although this author reprefcnts his lift 
fts the beft and moft correfl of any which arc to be found 
]r the Turki/b hiftorians, yet he obferves, that his authof, 
Saadi Effendi, does not venture to warrant it as ccrt^. lo 
(hort, the whole hiftory of the origin and defcCnt of the 
Turks carries the marks of fiftion : (or, although we (hould 
admit that there might have been fuch perfons as Afrafiait 
Oguz, and Turk, among^he anceftors of the Turks, yet it u 
manifeft, that both the times and actions afcribed to tho& 
heroes muft be falfe (O), as well as the tradition of Turk be- 
ing the fon (?) of yafet ; lince he is not to Ix found in th« 
genealogy ' 

' P. I. ■ P. 90. n P«f. p. 14. 

(K) We than inferttiem here- wir 1 lift, it nMmedV/^eKtArt 

after, in the Othman hiftory. from whom Ognx Kham WU th* 

' (L) This omiflion may pof- third in defcent. 
fibly be owing to ch? averlioa (O] See what ts remarked 

which the Ot^fflaiu have to be with regard to the 7«ri^ cbro- 

called Turii, as will be obfer^-ed nology, in ibe preface to jiMg- 

when we come tp give their hi- iaxi Khati'i hillory, p. 7. kSa 

ftory. ti|e new colleAion of voyages 

(M) Unleri Bulkhai, or Jhu'I ^nd travels, 410. vol. iv. p. 41 a. 

Juis. may itand for the &ther and Univ. Hift. vol. xii. p. 44. 
of the KSbi or Qaa, who are ' (P) His right of primogeiu- 

the wandering 7^^i^ or Turk' turcis alfo difputed ; for. Tome 

mi"'- hiftoriant give it to Chim, whom 

(N) Son of ^u/it^ni, and fa- others .nue lh« fecond. foiL 

tbor of {akrtk, who, in Cantf^ However, the oriental _ Turh 

i=, L.i. 

C,.l. - ^^r Origin. ^ 

ocnealogjr c^ that patriarch, given by Mofiit. which both the 
Chrifiians and Mahajnmeians follow. 

The truth may pofliblybc, that the SoU3ns of either Ac 
Caznahax Selj&k femilifs, firft Ti/rjtj^ fovereigns yaPerJta,viYia 
vrex& Maiammedani, having had, by tradition, one Turk'for 
their coaunon anceftor, or feeing him to be fuch, their hi- "•'*' 
Jlorians, to honour them, by carrying his origin as high as they-^**™ 
cocild, made him the fon oi Jafcl: whofe pofterity, accord- 
ing to Mohatnmgdans, as well as Jmis and Chrifiians, peopled 
the north parts at AJia, The Othman Turks, who fucceeded 
the Sennits, thought they could not do better than claim or 
acknowlf^ the fame original ; and the fu^ce/Tors of Jenghlz 
Kbiti ia Perjia, the two Bukhariat an4 Karazm, being Mo' 
bammedaru, confcpted to be branches of Turks, that they 
jni^t have the fon of fo great a patriarch as Jafet at th6 
head of their anceflors. It muft farther be confidercd, that 
they who were the firft hifloric^raphers to this laft race, bej 
iw Ptrfiani, took care to make their Hftory tally with that- 
onbrmer writers of their nation, who made all die inhabit- 
ants of Tartary, from one end to the other, to hi Iprnn^ 
{rwD the fame common ftock. But it is hardly to be prefum^ 
that the Mogols, and other tribes of the eaft, who continued 
ia their old religion, acknowleged thcmfelves to be dcfcended 
ifom Turk, though they were poflibly a branch of the Turkijh 
nation ; whom yet they always hated for thdr inroads, and 
had lately conquered. 

According to xht^Chinefe h]ftorians, the Huns and TufisOrigln »/ 
are the lame people} who, at different times, went uaifr tit Tmk» 
thoCe different names. They give them the appellations of/mm ibt 
Jiyong-n& and T£i-ki-iii, that is, ffuns and Turks t the firft Chinde 
is that which they had bef&re the Chrijiian a:ra j the fccond, ^fi'"^'' 
. ifiat which a remnaqt of thofe/^wnj, rc-eftablilhed InTartory, 
affumed afterwards ; and fay, that they dwelt " in the neigh- 
bourhood of the great de^, extanding from the country 
of Korea, io the faft, to that of the Getes, in the weft ; which 
part of Tartary was their, habitation from all antiquity^ : 
That Mau-tan, fon of the laft Chine/e monarch, of the firft 
family, or thf Hya race, was the firft Tanja, or emperor of 

■ Ven-hyen-tqm-kaw, Kam-mo, Ye-tum chl van fan tuiq 
pow fwi fo, at cited by Guigatt fur rwign its Hum £? dit 
icrif, P Vcn-hyen-tam Uiau, Kam-mo. 

tDaiotain. that Tm-h was the count the ibunder of dieir na- 
cZdeft, whom th<y call 'Jaftt tioii (4]. 
Oglan, llb^iaanf Jafet, and ac- 

(4} St D'Btritbt. jt^. Tttt. f, S)S. 



$ CmrailSfiotyoftbeTu^. B.t. 

diefe ffutui aod the lame vith the fomous Og6z Xh^, fe 
renowned among the prefimt Turks and Tartari, aod ac- 
knowl^ed for tbe founder of thdr empire : that, in the 
Tcign of one of his fuccellbrs, they came to be divided nnder 
two diftinA TanjUi ; one branch was called the northern, tbe 
other the fouthern Huns; but the Pfrjian hiftorians dilHn- 
niiihcd them by the tiames of Tartan and Mogols .• that 
me northern Huns, being deftroyed by the Chinefej, remored 
wcftward ;' and lulled, at leail part of them, into Europe. 
That the fouthern Hvms, after tliis, became bcA known by 
the name of Ttirh t aljont which dme they were fubdued 
by the Juijm, eailern Tartars ; and at length, bang gready 
redaced, they retired into tlic mountain of Erganakon, where 
they forged iron for thdr conquerors ; that they after- 
wards overthrew them in their turn, and eftabllfhed a new 
empire under the name of Turktt as vnH be more fully re- 
kted lower down ■). 

In 'this account wc diicover two very material fafts, hi- 
dierto unknown to the hiftorians of Europe, and perhaps to 
lliofe of the weft of j4fia .- namely, firft, the original of the 
Ituiu, about which Jomandes, and other writers, have related 
jbch ridiculous fables ' : fecondly, that the Huns and Turkt 
are the Ikme people, under different names ; which latter 
lecms not to have been gjven them till about the year 500, 
as noted before ; at what time they became known by it in 
t See fcfl. ir. ' See anc. hift. vo]. »x. p. S04, tt fcq^ 

SE CT. n, 

A gntral ikfcripiioH of Great Taitary, mtb sn ac' 
aunt of tbt Turkifh tribes or nations inbabittng it, 
ceetr^ng to tbt Arab authors. 

Great TJEFORE wc treat of the feveral branches of the Turk- 
Tartaiy. Jj ifi nation inhabiting Great Tartary, it will be necelAry 

previoufly to infert fome general account of that vaft n^n ; 

that the reader may be better able to form a fiotion in what 

part of It the feveral tribes formerly were, or at prefent are, 

Beuaii TARTAJtr,os rather7a/<t/7,in its grcateft extent, is fitnate 
end IX' between fifty-feven and one hundred and fixty d^rees of ion* 
tint. gitude (A) I and berween the thirty^eventh and mty-fifth de< 

(A) Reckoning from the weft rh, and fertnteen degrees thirty, 
tedofth'e ifle of Arr«, fuppofcd £ve jninutM weft of ^diw, 
to tw twenty degreci weft *)tP»- 

C. I. XitfiriptiM tf Gnat Tartary. ^ 

grees of hdtnde : being bounded on the north by Siberia, or 

Aat part of North j^ vMch beloi^ to Ruffta ; on the the riven Don (B), the H%<^<t, a^d /fomit, which fepa- 

rate it frocn Rt^a ; on the foath, by the Euxrne and Ca^an 

faas, Karazm, the two Bukharias, China, and Korea i and 

OB tlu eaft, by the oriental or Tartarian ocean. From this 

•coount it appears, that Tartary, or Great Tartary, as we 

oU it, is a vaft r^on, litnate ahnoft in the middle of AJia, 

and ettendtDg the whole length of it, in chat part from weft 

10 call, the ^acc of one hundred and four degrees in loogi- 

tudc, 01- fosr thonfand one hundred and forty-6ve geographiol 

n^ ; bnt its breadth is not proportionable ; being not above 

mac hnndred and ftxty miles where broadeil, and, vrttere nar- - 

Toweft, three hundred and thirty. 

This vaft n^on is divided into two great parts ; the ontj)}^e„^ 
caDed the Wejtern, the other the Ea/fern Tartary : whidi 
hft is Icarce one-fourth part Co large as the, former ; beg^n* 
mag at abcmt the one hnndred and thirty-ninth degree of ]on< 
litDde, and coding at the one hundred and ^xty-flrf^. Hence 
it coatalm only twenty-two degrees of lon^tude, cm- is bnt 
ime hnodred geographical oiiles from weft to eaft, though 
' e^t hundred aad dghty broad, from fouth to north. Bnt 
•ith this part of Tartary we have nothing to do at prefent: 
for althonfi^ foAe oriental authors would derive all toe inha- 
bhants cS Tartary in general from the fame ftock, making 
the people d Katay, under which denominatitm th^ fcem Qi 
COmprile all the inhatHtants of Eafiem Tartary (of whom 
tbey had fcarce any knowlege at aQ}, to be ddcended fron 
Twii, the Ton (rf' Ji^et ; yet, in the genealogy of thofe tribes 
riven by AbttlghStzi Kh&n, and doubtlefs in that of FaaBa/. 
lah (CJ, firom whom chiefly he extra^ed his hillory, we meet 
with Done but what are to be found hi Wefiem Tartary : for 
which realbn we fhall CMifiue our defcription, in this ^aat^ 
ID that part only. 

In this vafl region of Weftim Tartary, (containing ioWeftera 
ottent ooe hundrecl and tlurty-nine degrees of lon^tudeTartary. 
mt of one htukdred and lixty-one), although the lands be* 
kiogn^ to every nat>6n or tribe are' marked out, and 
«dl known to the inhalritaQti ; yet as there are few or do 

_ (6) The limits might be car- (C) We cannot be pofitive 

ricd wcfttvard, beyowl the Dm'* as to thia poiat, becaufe Di I* 

tfr or Barifiham-f but tbcfe Creix, In nil hiltory of Gnt^'h'e 

Cwere rather conquered of Khan, taken clueflv from Fajlal- 

am, tiian originally inha- J«&, has mentioaea only theJV«- 

hiud by Tta-kiA a Twtar n/ttibci. 

' Cities, 

^o Geutral H0^ »/ the ToiH B. I. 

d^es, towns, or villages, to direA ftrangos, tbdr {event 
fimations or poflefSoDS are bcft dUHi^uUhcd and afceitaijied 
by the Jiatnral XB2x\a or boundaries, fuch as motintainE^ r)< 
vers, lakes, and the like, with which Wefiern Tartary abounds. 
But it will be fuffideut for our pre&at purpc^ to. mentiQa 
only the moft remarkable of them. 
Clnif The principal mountain, or rather chains of mountain*, 

tmumtmiitoMrA in this part of Great Tartary, nwy be diWded inui 
three .cMes : firA, thofe which run along the northern bor< 
ders.of it ; and though perhaps not always coatiguoos, or of 
the Ikme denomination, go. under the general name of Vlug 
Tag or Ddg, that is, t^ great mountain : fecondly, tho$ 
wtuch make the foutbem bounds, and are called A7- 
cbuk Tag, or the l^fler mountain : the third great chain K 
called nv>Qnt Altay, l^ng nearly in the middle, between, the 
Cajpian fea and Eafitm Tartary, and extending between tbf 
other two, in- about ttie one hundred and tenth dc^ee of loa- ' 
«m/ir< Tbb chief deCirts or plains are. firft, tho^ <£ Ki^ak or 

firti. Ka^hak in the weft, extending many days journey oa th« 
north and north'^ift <^ the Ca^ian fea. Thefe are ^eraj> 
ly fcrtite lands. Secondly, thofe ftretchin^g eaftward from 
/%'iait to mount ^A<iy. Thirdly, that called the^ra^ HM, 
' or Jiutdy defiirt, by the Mogels, and Sha-ma by the Chinefot, 
It is diia,ded by ridges of hills into three or four parts, vul 
extends eaftward from mount Jltay to Et^ertt Tartaryt 
Siverj. The principal rivers of f^^nToT-for}', befides the Z}>it^ri 
Titjiik. Don, and IValga, we the /aVA or Taii and 11»n, both ddcend* 
ing from the Ubtg; Tag, and falling into the Q^iaH fea, oo 
7bt Hi. llie nordi fide. The river Ui or Khonghis, which rifes out of 
the ICtchuk Tag, on the borders of LittU Bukhar'uh about the 
one hundred and fourth degree of longitude, and runs north- 
weft into the 4ake Paika/t (D) : on this river the K^n o£ 
Thtimfb. the Eluth or KahUiks u^uaiiy r^dea. The river Irti/b, Jhui 
or Erchu, which rifes in mouat Altay, and run* weftward. 
Inclining to the north, between two branches cf it, into thf 
lake Sayfan (E) ; from whace iiTuing again, it pailcs norths 
ICbi Obi. ■weft, tihiough part <rf Siberia, and falls into the Ohi, which 
has its Ibarce out of the- {kme mountains, about one d^ei 
to the north of that of the Irt'^ .■ and fevcn or eight degreei 

(D) It is about forty miles Htithta Ser, ninety miles long 

long, and thirty broad, in lati- from weft to eaft, and forty 

tode forty -eight degrees, longi- broad ; in laiitade forty-feren 

tude ninety-fewi, reckoning degrees thirty mJnates, longi' 

from the ifle of Ferm. - tode one hundred and four de- 

(E)Sfl>*or^«»,wUed9lfo grep, 



C. I.' ^DtfirijOiut t/iStest TKttty. ru 

M Ac obrtfMsaft rifes dttJCmt, or y^ni^; - «4i!ch niDsEvn. 
weftward'for the fpace ct {erea or eight degrees, and rbeQ, 
roitdog northward, eaten' Siieria, 

The oext nter of note is the river SrUnga, which rifes Seling*^ 
oat of die hke Kifogol or Hut6kt& (F), not fu from the 
fboTCetf ^ Jaiifia takes a fweep fouthward round bjr the 
ed^ and bib oMthward into the lake Baykdl, in Siberia, 
about thirty leagues north-weft of the city Sehnghttiflny, 
vbkh ftands upon it. Into the Selinga raat the £Vim, Oricon 
coming from' the fonth-wefV ; and into the Orkm the Tula, WTult. 
rifing eaftward in Mount Kentey s two rivers very famons 
in the hiftory of Jenghtz KMn. Out of the fame moun- 
tain (G), and not &r from the fourcec^ the Tuiii, rife two other 
riven, Itilbniore famous than the fi:»:mer; fiqA, the Ort(m,Oaan tr 
called alfo by theMogolt, Saghahan Via, or the dragon river, Sagl^a. • 
and by the Ruffians Jm&n which running north-eaflward, l""* 
and then taking a large fwcep by riie fouth, rsUs along the 
boDOds of Eaftem Tariary, and fells into the Eafiern oceao, 
in about the 53d degree cJ latitude, and 159th cHPlon^tude. ' 
On its bank ftand two dties; Nerchinfiay, or Nipchew, a 
(rontter of the Rvjfiam, almoft due north of Pe-kin, ib 
China \ and Saghalian Via, po/Ieflcd by the Chinefes. 

The lecond river is the Kerlm, or Kervlon ; which run- Kerloo (r 
rung Dcnth-eaflward, fells into the lake Kulon, or Dalay (H), Argun, 
and, paffing out again, under the name of j!?r^DHa, or ^^vn, , 

jans the Saghalian Ula, about one hundred and feventy miles 
teyood Nerchinjhy. To thefe let us add the river Xalka, Ealka. 
from whence, tho' fmall, the Kdlka-Maguh, or Mongo/j, take 
their name. It rifes in the mountains, feparatifig the Eafiefn 
from the iVefiern Tartary ; and, running wellward, falls into 
die lake Puir, and then into that of Ktihn, before fpoken of. 

Having mentioned the principal lakes of Wefiem Tartary, Ltdm. 
in onr accoont of the riv£rs, wc (hall take notice only of two 
jnore ; firft, the Kimijb, about four hundrtd and eighty-four 
miles long, and near as many broad (I). The fecond, Ifi 
_fiinl% a lake of fmall extent (E), but renowned amonig tt^ 
inh^tants in thcweft of Tartary, for bang the place whet'e 
Turk, their great anceftor, fixed his rehdence, or royal 

Aj to Ihe p(d!rical State of Wefiem Tartary, we (hall only Mogol 
fcy in general that it is intirely poflefled by the Mogol tribes, »«rimw. 

(F) Or Khiituktu, 70 miles foath-weA to north-eaft, and 

bmg ^rom fouth to north, and 27 broad. In lat. 48" 30' long, 

yobroid. In lat. J2°.l<ing. 1 18. 1)5. 

(GJ It lies in about 126 d<t- (1} In lat. 50°, long. 8]* 

neetoflong. and 48 of lat. 30 

(H) Si»t7 mild long from (K) tat. 46". long. 94' 30'. 

t2 Gaural B^ory «/ ibt Tiulcs; B. L 

noder fercral lOini, vhofe dominions -are ruaed af^ the 

people, or thdr prince who nilesover them *. The firft and ' 

Elndu w chirf of thefc Mogol nations are the Eliiths, nicknamed Kai- 

K«linfil«. m&tf by Ac MohamriKdan Tartan. Thefe are divided under 

two Khdns. The firft are called jiyvia Ebabs, from their 

Khin jtyuki, who has the veftem part of Tartaiy, bounded 

by the river Ja'ik, containing moft of that country which was 

formerly called Ki^dk, <x Ki^cbdk, and extendi^ about i o 

d^ees ealhrard from the river Jalk, in the jid d^ee of 

longitude. The fecond are caUed Dfongari or Kmtmjbi 

Elutbt, from the dde of thar prince, fUled Kimti^, whofe 

dominion extends from 72 degrees of lon^tnde as -&r as the 

end of mount Altay, in abont the I02d degree. 

tbi Ktl- The fecond nation or branch of iti&Mogoli ay xhsKillka, 

kai. Khalkba, or H4lha Megeli : thdr country extends from mount 

jiltay eaftward to the fourcc of the river KJilia, whence the/ 

derive their name, in the borders of Eajiern Tartary, and 

^•^ 139th d^ee (rf longitude. The third t»anch are the Ma- 

^ ' ff>^' o"" Moneoli, properly lb called ; whofe territories lie to 

^Moo* (jjg fouth of that of the Kalkas, between them and the great 

^ ' wall of Cbitia ; to whidi.empire both nadons are fubjeft. 

Besides thefe Kbins (who with their fubjefts areidi^tors* 

of the rdigion of Ttbtt, or the D^y Lama) there are two 

others in Grtai Tartary, who poifefs that part of it caHed 

7urktJHn, fttnate to the north of Great Bukbaria and K&- 

raxm, between thofe countries and the dcHninions of the 

Elutbs ; of which we fliall fpeak more particularly in a fuble- 

qnent fcAion, and now return to our fnbjeft, for expl^ning 

which, this fliort difcription of Tartary, with the help olE 

maps, may fuHice. 

TnrkUh It is generally agreed by the oriental hifroriant, that the 

gatimi, Inhalntants of Grgat Tartary are t^i^nally Turks, or fb 

many branches of the iame nation i but thole who wrote of 

Turkijb aliaire, and even the Turki themldves who inhaluted 

Perfia before the time >£ Jenghiz Khan, feem to have had 

but a flender koowl^e of the iefoil tribes of people iotb 

■fitttr£^ which their nation was faid to be divided. The Arab author 

" '** <if the book mifcalled The geography of the Nubian, who 

Arabs, v^ote about the middle of the twelfth century, fays, the 

Turks were branched into many different kinds of people ; as 

the TtAbdt (L), Tagbaz^z (M), Kbarkirt, Kaymakt, Khar- 

* See anc. htft. vol. xx. p. t, &Jeq. 

(LIThefewereprobablyaco- (M) Mifcalled Ba^arihmn 
lony from Tibtt or fabbtt, at the is the Latin tranllation. 
^vnoxVigars fcem tohavcbeen. 

C. I. TurkJdi Trihs. sf 

x^et (N)i Bifaritts, Mobametant, Torkio/h, QJhiqfb, IStef- 
JiakiiO), XhabfiP), Ofghari, aai Bolgixwi{QJ. 

Tbis geographer afibfds us little more coacerning thofe 
£fGamt people than thdr names * ; but ddcribes the coaa- 
tnei iohiiiiteff by feme of them : from whence we fhall ex> 
tiaA fb mDch\u may be proper to lay before our readers. 

Thb country of Tobbat { Tibet J, with part of ItuHa, bOT- ToiboL 
f)er3 oa die weft on MaiuAraUnihr (cm- Great Bui/iariaJ, 
and on the- &R on Sin (or China}. The chief cities are 
Ttbbat and Shih, tVakhan, Sakita, Benuan, Ug, Majag, Ra- 
m^ag, and Danekki. The country of IKiihan and Sa/tita 
border on thoTe of fyaihq/b and j^, in MSwSra'haltr. H^ak- 
6aa abounds -mth rich mines df the fineft gold and ftlrer. 
In it is a lake called Berw&t, forty leagues in length, and 
twenty-^bor in breadth. 

Tbb land of the Tagbazghaz, who are goKraed^ by aTagjbu. 
JFBtttA, is bounded on the eaft by Kkarfdr, oa the fonth by gbaz.' 
Sin, and on the north by the people of Kaymak. It ctnttains 
four cities; Kakben or 7ant(^ee, Mafo, Jormok, and Ba- 
kbv/Sn, Kakhan, the capital, has twdvc iron gates, and is 
leated oo a great river, that runs eaftward : 'tis two months 
journey from Btrfajan the h^^, in the country (rf FarghA- 
na (R), and twelve fonth-eafttrom Baklnuan. In the moun- 
tains near this laA city are found the mnlk goats. There is 
amot^ the Taghazghaz Turh a nation who adore the fire <=. 

The iohabitants of KharHr border os the fea of Sin, and ^^^'■riif^ 
po0e& four populons dties, all lying within the compals 
of fbnr days joamey. The country is large and fertile^ 
kboQoding with water. Some of its rivers de&cnd from the 
coontry of ^in ; the greateft <rf them, called Menhar, is very 
njnd ; runaiag between rocks, and driving mills for grind* 
ing rice and wheat. On its banks grow aloes trees and 
e^tan dulcf. In hs fheam is fonnd a filh called Jbatrun j 
which, being eaten, aHeAs the fenunal vcflels. It is faid,' 
that it has not many bones ; that the ilefti is divided into 
joints, and does not fmell like other filh. The city where the 
V!ai% resides b mofl fhtmgly fortified, -vixk. walls, ditcher 
and ocnaterfcraps, and is three ftages from the lea ; where 

■ Gctm-. Nnbienfif, p. 145. <> P. 144. Tis faid to ettend 
to dN dark Oriental occu. ■ Gcogr.Nub. p. 141 — 141;. 

<N) Or r«her perhaps A}dK- (P) T\MKaUtx. 
a^, hcfBaftcr mentioaed. (QJ 'Dte Bt/gariam, or WU- 

(O) Thcfe mufl be the A^- garimt. 
jOi, wiitten aHb JUfjah, and (R) Whit^ Mongi to U£- 


<U} tLCuKt^bii, vt^Kif 

there- r 

ftfi General ff06fy of /iv Turks. ■ B. I. . 

tbem isnlsMBpeoinfula, called that of the .X^xrinAfr, from 
the precious ftones of the fain« name, which are {bund th«re 
id abvodance ■'. 
Kaynak. The land of the people df Kaymak has, on the foutfa, 
%lgfiazghaz,- oa the ratlth-weft Khaza§, where it joins with 
Tobbot, OQ the welt KhpUkh, and oa the eaA the Tea of dark- 
Tiei&i -wheicin are iOands, to which the mcrchanti pals on 
hprfeback, and lie every night on trees. The king <»* Kay- 
majt is equal to. the grealeA monarchs for power and graa- 
duie ; tlRa Inhalvtaats are very numerous, and Worfliip the 
fir& It contaJDik fixteeq cities ; the principal whereof arc 
^ur, Baragb, Sjfi^n, flfannon, Moftanah, Khakm (S) *, the 
r^fd {eat, ffai^art Dhotant and Hannwes ; to tbefe may be 
added Koran Hiya. 
Rtvir The great river GhainmaSt jifiag in the mountains of 

Gbamf- Betgdr, tuns eaflward to the dty j^ar, on its Ibudi bank, 
>Ui. fa. ftagea diAant, through the deCut ; thence to Sifian, on 
the north fide, tw^ve ftages ; it proceeds forwards to the 
regal city Khakm, which ftanda on the fonth iide : then it 
turns northwards to Mojlanah, on its weft bank, four ftages 
.diftant. From this cicy it advances eaftward tiU it falls into 
the fea, one ftt^ diAant. Along all the coaft of Kaymak b 
found gold, when the Tea rages ; and the country produces 
plenty of mulk ; but not fo good as that of Tobbot, which 
is the beft of all'. 

' Fbou Koran Hiya, the firft city of Kaymak^ to Khakan, 
or the royal city, are twenty-four ftages, from weft to caft. 
From Khakdn to Buragh four ftages, fouth-weftward ; and 
aghteen ftages, through the delist of the Turks of Kha- 
lokh, to Taran (T). From Taran to Bmjar are thirty-fix 
. ftages.: thus, to Kafra forty-five miles ; to Damorrtah, crofling 
a mountain in the way, four ftages; to Khaykham caftle 
twenty ftages, eaftward ; and to Btnjar four ftages. 
Khazalja. , Thb country <^ Kbazalja has feveral cides in it; among 
which are Berfajan the higher, Nawaketb, Rudhan, Tala/i, 
and Berfajan the lower. From Atas (In Farghana) to Ber- 
fyan the higher are fix ft^es, through the country of the 
. Turki : to Naviaketh, in the entrance of Khaza^a, almoft 
ten ftages. From Atrakana to Karanttia, the firft dty of 
Kaymak, ten ftages, through the defarts. From tarht to 
Berfajan the lower, confifting of towns and fields, thirty- 
nine miles. From Berfajan the lower to the higher thtis ; 

* Ibid. p. 145 & feq. * GeofT. Nub. p. 313 & fcq. 

(SI Khakan,withthiiauthor. crery eoontry of the TWnb. 
ji the name of the chief city of (T) Periupi radier farax. 


C( r." Turkifli 9Vr*ff. 15 

&fi, to Ayas caftk fix miks ; ' to KiAfavih twelve tiul«s ; to 
iUmi Gbaya towo fifteen miles; to Botak towa fifteen miles : 
it ftands oa a mountain, frrnn whence the river Borah de- 
{cenda, tad, mnning weftward, through the territories oC ' 

4rbn, &lb into the river ^^ftiJA (the Sil^n or iirj ; to Afi- 
Tti fifaen miles ; to Chant Burekt town twenty-four miles ; 
ta Jmt town twelve miles ; to the city of Khakan twelve 
nils; ioKoh<^ tbirtf-fix miles i to Berjajan the higher near 
milages, with \hz' Kara-wan'. 

The Jrab'um geographer fays little or nothing of the other The Odh- 
Tvriijb nations, and their countries, except the Odhkof and koi. 
(^arians ; dl whom ahnoft every thing he relates may be 
fi^ief^ erf' fable. We ftiall, however, gjve the reader a 
taue of what he has colle^ed on the occafion. The country 
of tiw OtUdios has on the well the land of Al Aazaz ; oa . 
the e^ naiioas, a^d thdr generations. In the fouth part 
i* Ae hke Tahamti, 2 jo miles in compafs, whofe water 
booeedii^ green, but fweet. Four Aages eall of the lake 
it the mountain Jorda, or Bald; which is fo Ilippery that 
ID get to the dry at top they were forced to dig into the 
Ixnids of the hill, and to afcend by the help c£ ladders. 
The north fide of the country is covered by the great mono- 
\KBTaraan, extending fco" dghteen ftages from weft or eafl. 

Thu tribe <£ Turks are repeated to have broad faces, 
great heads, tluck ^ hair, and flamit^ eyes. They have a 
pecnfiar laqgiu^e, and worlhip the fire. However, fome of 
theai are pretended to be Mo/Utns or believers *. 

Eight days journey from the caftle of Jordah afbrefaid Is Mmifaim 
tbe moDDtain of Kokaiya, which is* inaccel&bly Aeef^ and al- Kokaiya. 
ways cohered with fnow and thick clouds. It extends thence 
«> tbe north <Jt Bolgar, and furrounds the country of Tqjuj 
md M^^, which is Aill <^ cldes, cultivated lands, > and cx- 
ceei&ig populous^. 

Ai thde are the fiunous lutions of Gog and Miigag, after Gog »ni 
^num fo much enquiry has been made in £uro^, to little purpofe Magog, 
bitheno, it may not be amils to ^ve the reader fome account 
cf diem, and ^at country, from the Arabian authors, who 
petend to be acqnainted with both f . As a connncing proc^ 
of tUi, they inform us, that the people of Yi^£j are of a 
pnper fize ; bat thofe of Majuj not above three Ipans high 1 
te thcf are covered with a fort of thkk down, and have 
bje roond hanging ears '. 

Bnx let us hear the report of an cye-witnefs, reputable 
t? bis office, Salam the interpreter ; who wag fent by no 

' Gcogr. Nob. p. an. * Ibid. p. 147 &feq. ■■ Ibid. 
F- 14>- s/fi- t Sec anc. hifi. vol. xx. p. 23. ' Ibid. 

■ iff Gb|#-j/ Wfiory »/ the Turks. B. f; 

lefs a pfffonage than Mohammed Amtn Billali, Caab. KhaHfak 

of the Mbas family (U), in order to di&nver tbc moantain of 

Kokaiya, with the bank <^ Taji^ and Majij, of which &cb 

Grange things had come to his ears. 

Salam'i SAhAM, who had with'him fifty men, and proviflons for 

joitrmty a whole year, leaving Sarra. Mantay (X), whm the KhaH- 

tJntbtr. fahi then rcfided, took his way by Tafit (Y), having had 

letters from his maAer to the kii^ of Armtnia, who gave 

him others to the king of Al Sarir (Z). This king fent ^eni' 

' to him of Un (A), and he pa/Ted them on to the Iprd Fila 

Shah, who gave them five gnides. Having, in twenty-feven 

; days, reached the bounds of the r^ons of Be/gert (B), they 

came to a black long Ainking land, in which they travelled 

* ten days, ufing perfumes, to keep ofiT the noxious foiclls. 

They travelled a month ^rther, through a ddart couiUry, 

where they faw the miss of many dtieSt dsftroyed by the 

people of Yiyiij and Majig. Is fix days nUH^ they arrived at 

the caAIes near the mount^a Kokaiya ; in the openi^ of 

which appears the bank. Thofe in the caftles fpc^ Perfiax 

and Arabick. There is al{b a city there, whofe king is called 

KhakanOdhkof ; and the inhabitants, who are Mofinu, have 

tcm;^ and academies. 

Smrprijtmg From that City they went to fee the bank, two ftagea 

tank. diftant. Here they found a moantain, with a ditch cut in It 

oat hundred and fifty cubits wide, and within the chaoel an 

iroogaK, fifty cubits high, fupportedby great bpttrefles, with 

an iron bulwark, crowned ^th iron turrets, reaching to the 

top of die mountain, which is as. high as one can well fee. 

The reader, by the hdghth of the gate, may judge of the 

(U) He began his reign in the couri* of thit journey i* A> 

the year 193 of ti» Htjrah, of manifeftly northward, 'tii nn- 

Ciri^ 808 ; and enjoyed the accountable how Btqrfr ihoold 

XialifM live yean. ftippofe Laa to be L^yia in 

(X) A city on the call fide of Ghildn; and Bt/tjtrd, Btfa or. 

the Ti^h, 64 miles or flage* to Phafa (the old Pajagta-da), V» 

the Dordi of SaghdM', now in the fouih call of Ptrfefatli : a> 

ruins. if the country of T'o/u/ and Jlftf- 

(Y) 7',^"j, orTf^M, isatpre- y^', in TdrMry, lay to theibnth- 

feni the capital of Gn"2ia. eaft of Sarra Manrtn, inftead 

(Z) Or of Shirvjun, a pro- of thenorth-eaft ; or uiatto get 

vince of Ptrfia, on the CeJ^ian to Stfii, inftead c^ goii^ |dired* 

fea. ly fouth-eaflward, the way wu 

(A) Or Allan. firft to uavcl twice at far ttorth 

(B) Rather ipaYix^tiBtfithrrt, to Taflli, and then turn back 
or Safiir, a people of KifjH, again fouth-eaftward, to reach 
borderinz on the Av^m dmni- tut d^. 

nioDs. However thu be, as 

C. r. Tntdfli frUes: tf 

fae of ^le vtita, ^anek, aad AreOebi cf Ae gne, «ith 
dM cf die beltf, lack, aad key, vUcb »e deftribod. Wtitt 
k moft cirioas oS ^, the goverRor of the caAles bdbre- 
laeDAoMd takes borfe every Friderf, ^itii teo otkcn, and, 
toBung n> the gsK^ ftrtus the bolt three times Vtth a ham- 
per, wvn^smg fire pouods, and th«a Itftenitig, baan i niur' 
■nr^ Boife \*fthiB ; &bm whence they ccmdade, diat ■Avt 
T^^ *aA Mt^ xrc otHiftnefl wkhia bousdt. Smhtn -vaa 
tM, tfaM tb^ oftea appeared oa ttte turrets of the bulwark ; 
Ktd that a h3{^ vAad hod once btowti three of them over ; 
who, bong meaitiftd, vftre fonnl to be ettch bat three (pam 
}Mi{C). foiSani icinrned by the dtie9l«4iNan, Aat^^n, Ber- 
fagmn, xxi Tarsx, to AmMr^iBN/, after boring ^etit twtjnty^ 
«^it noMha ifr i4ie journey. 

Thb Cl^pitorr poffiiA inacnfflbte ouHnKstfM, oawtticli STtfT'^oi. 
gglfc atA eafttwv where the kiBgs feriify themrelves, andghar*. 
lay ^ Ad- ^cMfioofi. The cMef of thefe, smd cafMtal of 
OMmtw, U oaoMd /ri)uin. At the foath foot of the Ml, on 
wMch il Aaadtk nine the large river XmUnt (D), eafiward ; 
and {even days jolame]^ down the ftreun is smother city, called 
■ JiffJbt. There are in tWa country ferera] other dries. 

HOftTTrW^Ri^ of the Qty'NiyAn is the great motmtaitt Arnmftinr 
JUtreg ur , wUch i» covered with Iflow, and dMdes ^Ai7r&>Moregar, 
hOm Bejjtrf (E). In a river, defceiKling 6'om it fouthward, 
is found miich gold, and Lapii Lazuli ; and in tbe wootk, 
alcNig its bonks, »e caught the jihebr, tnonftrons be&(b, 
which are carried into all parts of Armenui and Greece ; 
whofe ftia is very beautifal, aad fars furpafs all others in 
goodaels : bot the yetlow f(»t-ftin», bdag fcarc^ are reserved 
far the ofe of the kiags of thofe regions, 

O) t&e Gde f^ the above-meBtiooed river Ihnds a high 
nowHais, ont of which gnih a theufand fprings, that Ac'v' 
ints the river Margka, On the top of it ftand Ntipt and 
Badegha, one day's journey alnntkr ; and on its fldrls Daratf 
dk a^ Darku, three Rages diftant from each other ; and the 
hft, wtuch lies moll ealhrard, (en ft'om J<^An. The lake 
of Kantmn a fix ft^es diitant to the fonth *. 

' Geogr. Nob. p. 34;. 

(C) Tkere an fcond uAeng [T)) Ttili Teems to be detivvd' 

the oiieBtali many fnch tradi- from Ru/ilr, the Perfiam word 

tknu a dMrfe, of a lonz ftand- for a river. . 
iag, poanded cm the liKetelH- (E) Perhaps rather itfihtrt 

meny ; which are as firmly be- qr Bafihen % tbat n, the coun- 

lieved by the anthloking natri- try of the Befiin. 
tsde a> fo inaoy anides of faith. 

HOD.H..T. Vol. IV. C ^ SCoogk- 



Aid or 



General Hifiorj of /fce Turks. B. I, 

' Bbtond the mountain Moregar, fouthward, dwells a na- 
tion of lyandering Caz Turkj,,i^edKhanaket, who deftroyed 
the hni of Samarii, or Walak Turks, which i? di^ed froiD 
that of Khtuiaktt ,by t])e fame mountain. To Samarik be- 
longs the city Lokhman, feated on the mountain Svnia, oat 
of which riles the over Lokhman, on whofe weft fide ftands 
Danbaha, a beautiful city ; from whence boats go up the 
ftream, as far as a great lake, and thence to the city Jermen ', 

With regard to the country c^ BolgA-, it is only obfenred, 
that there is in it a.ctty called Bab^, built on the top of a 
hill, and ftroogly fortified : that, to the north, lies the moun- 
tain Kskaiya; beyond which are found no dwellii^,, nor any 
living (feature, by reafpn of the inteole ccdd t and, lalUy, that 
the land is waih«i ■» by thej4tel{F). This river conTifts of 
two branches, the eaftern flowing oat of Kbarkir, between 
Kaymak and Olgar, runs weftward, till it comes to Bolgar : 
there Ic divides into two arms (G), one of which turns to the 
eaft, and pafltng through the countries of RiU (H), Bo^ar, 
and Bertas, at length ^Is into the fea of Khozar (I) : die 
other flows weflward, to the fea of Nitet (K). 

The city of Mel (LJ, twenty ilages from the bord^ of 
Bertas, is the capital of Khozar, and divided into two parts 
by the river, very populous, and three miks ]ong. The king 
of Khozar refides in the eaft part ; the merchants and , com- 
monalty in the other. The Khozars are Chrljliam, Moham- 
medaru, and Pagans : but there is no contention among tbem 
about religion '. 

To this account of the Arah geogra[^er we may add, from 
Others, that the Khozars were defcended from Khozar, the 
youngeft brother of Turk ; that their king was lUled Khakin ; 
that they made a great figure in the feventh century ; and that 
the capital of the country was called Balanjtir t befides which, 
two other cities are mentioned, viz . Siyaktnueth and Saray '>. 

From this account of the Turkijb nations, and the cono- 
tries th^ inhabit, the reader may perceive how little Tartary 
was known to the j4rabs ; as well as what a knack they have 
at invention. They have mentioned rivers, lakes, aAd moan- 
tains, which, in all probability, never were In being; oor 

' Geogr. Nub. p. 366. " Ibid. p. 376. " Ibid, 

p. 34J, St feq. * D'Hsna. p. 1003. An. KhoitAr. . 

(F) ^(*/or EJtl. the JTcJga. 

(G) Tbe auihar here mull 
make [he i^or7jsdM,« branch 
of Che tfoiga. 

(H) Oi RM^a. 

(I) That is, tbe Cajfian fea. 
(K) Orthe£Mri». 
(L) This ftenu to be the pre- 
sent j^rakban, 


C. I. Turkifli Trihes. 19 

tn thdr names to be found in later writers : they have . 
placed large and rich cities, where never any^thing but detarts - 
ezified; and, in many particulars, had recbiirfe to fiAion. 
lo Qvon, if we except the names of nations, which might 
have been ft^mAly in ule, and of a feW places which ire Itill 
kDowa, the whole feems to be romance. Ndther ait we lure, 
bom what oar author has written, t&at all the nations whom 
lie fflcntio&s were branches of the Turkt ,■ in all probability 
tbcy were only fo in the opinion of the Arais t it being 
cuftomary to coll the ditlereht people, under one power or 
dcHnhiion, by the fame name ; or to ^vc the luune of the 
people who are ncardl, to all the red who are beyond them, 
either for want of knowing better, or to avoid prolixity ia 
fpeakii^ c^ them. 


^ aeeottnf of the Turkifh tribti or nattonSy as. deli' 
vtrtd by the Turkllh and Tartarian btjiorians, 

T~HE oriental authors, who wrote in and after the time ofTurltilh 
■■• the Selj&k Soltdjis reigning in the weft of j^Jia, fccm to*'^*'''«w» 
have been a great deal better acquainted with the Turkj/b na- 
tions than the Jralii, although fome of them extend their 
l»«acbes much too far ; including, under that denomination, 
not only the Mogols, Tartars, and Igurs or Vigurs, but alfo 
the inhabitants of Kitay or Katay ^, which contained the 
nort h ern provinces of China, and great part of Tartary, to 
die nivth and north-weft of it. Others, as Mrkhond iadMetr£Kg 
Arabfitth (A), more dlftin^ly inform us, that the pofterity/a Mirlt- 
of Turk was divided into four great tribes, named £r/a/,hond. 
Jaiayr, Ktruijin, and Berlas or Perlat ^, which were again 
fubdinded by Oguz Khan into twenty-four others, trf which 
riie principal are the Moguls, the Turks properly fo called, 
the Igurt, the Kanghtlis (B), the Kipchaks, the Ktaelaki (C), 

■ D'HiKBiLOT. Bibl. orient, p. 897. Art. Turlc. 
^ Akaish'au. hift. Trim. 1. i. J4. D'Hirb. p. 898. Art. 
Taric. p. 68j. Art. Ogour Khin. 

(A) Jt^ Shah, a Turilfi hi- has been publithed in Freneb, 

ftariao, who wrote the life of tran&ated by Vaiiir, 
^imKr-M, OiTamtrlan, in ele- (B) Cx Kanktis. 

gant JrtJiic : but gives th^t (C) Or Kaxlah j but Kariiks, 

prince a very bad cbaraQer; xnAl^ighStiKhan The reader, 

probably oa account of the vie- in peruling this account gf the 

torin obtained by him over the Turkifi tribeg, may coofulc vol. 

farij, and [be ravage) be made xx.. p. aj, ic fe^. 
ia tbdr country. Tbit hiAory 

c » , ._ mioogif 

9fii Gtneral Hj/ltry of the Turks. ^ L 

aai t>* 7'4fn^' (!>)• Th^Q tweoty-four tribes were Kkcoife 
divided into thq rig^it and Wt. wing, called by the Magila 
Jivangsr and Btrangar, which, by their fiiadaineot^l lent 
were oera- Co Biix; fit, marry one with the other '. 
Abfi'Irfia- Tm? Icrap wWch D'fUi^M hat given a» from the «*• 
aiKMnV ental Wftprians, was all to be m^t with on the fubfeft, iSi 
^'J"rj' the hJAory of Akfit^&ii Khan <rf K<«ivm (E) appored of 
l^e, cme of whofe chief deitgiu wu to treat pankalad; of 
^ tfib^ of the Turkijt natbo, and wk the defcent ai 
^ch. As this book is cHie of the cbid foods which afibni 
nwterials for th<^ hvftary of the Tarht tod Tartan, it will hs 
pamper to toforiQ the rwder oa' what authority it is graand- 
ed< Gktzan or JCa^m Khan, Axth fiu;cefl<^ of ffaUa, 
grandfon of Jenghfz Khan, who fubdued Pfrjiot bong de^ 
ftrotis to preferve the q^eoiory qf the Mogol tribes, at well as 
the great exploits of his anceflors, fcnt one PuMd, or Futai, 
a DOblemaa flcUW ip the -^tj^i^ kngu^e, into Tartary, is 
order to coUeft materials for that fHirpofe. At his return the 
Kb^n put his mcmotrs into the hands of his grand Wazlr or 
Vifier FaSaUah, that he might con^xtfe a regular biftory 
froiq tbem ; and ordered Pulad to affift him in the work, 

* D'H&KB. abi fupr. 

(D) Tamgi^, or Thamgaj, Or cefibrs in the feveral puu sf 

TitiByiK.isbyalttlieDrieatilaii- Tartarj: and the niodi trcBUaf 

thors reckoned a tribe oiTurii, the Khans oF KberaKm, to the 

Klluchhe take* CO be the G<fx, dcathof the author, whowufo- 

defccnded front Gix, tenth Ton vereign of that coumnr, which 

«f Jafu; and from them came lies on the call fide of die Q>f- 

the Tiirimani. But Abulfida fim fea. The Khan dying \m 

ivji, the country of Tamgaj is 166], before the hillory was 

that of Aii/tfji. SttfyiitrMat, quite iini(hed, his fon and fac- 

fiibl. orient. Art. Ghk, Taip celTor, Jmijha Mebmet JOm, 

g^t, aa^Thamgagt. completed it two year* kfter. 

. (B) It is written in the Ms- Befidet the hiftory of Kb^ak. 

pa/ or f»ri// language, and nn- RepU, ei he calU Tadlallah, 

der the tide of Sbajari Turki, and eighieea otben wfaich he 

that it, « wtiif'l'g'cei hifierf ef does not name, he made ale sf 

litTurii. Itis divided into nine particular memoirs relating t» 

parts : the two Drft treat of Icveral Jlfsj»/tribei (■]. 

the Khina and tribes defcend. jtii'/g&a Kbdti's hiftorrt 

ed from 7urk, the fon of Jafii, which was procured by Stnlh- 

to the time of yenthiz Kkdit : Itahtrg, while prifoner in Siht- 

tbe third relates thelife and ac- na, has been tranflated into 

tions of that conqueror: thclire Huffutn, Gtrnum, Frtneb, and 

next ihofe of his Tons and fuc- EngSfi, 

(<] S ff Mi'^gtJKi iaS<^->bi/l':t}, J:S> s>lIta.^.V trmw. 
,41.. W. iv. /.41;. 


, ... , L.OIWIC 

C I. l^ftkilh Trihei. ii 

wUch C(»Gfts 6f thret ^o volmhes (P), VaA was finiftied 
hi the year of ihe ffejrah 70a, and of Chrift 1 302.- It wu 
{ran this hiftory chiefly d)at Jiitlghati Khin cXtnflcd hi>, 
excepui^ as to thar pan which relates to the Uzbeks of Great 
BiA&driit ud iTctruzfft. 

AccoKDiNG to this author, the feveral different nations orTurkifli - 
tribes of people. Called Aym^s, may b£ diAiiwuUhed inco''''^'- 
ttn Ibrts ; thofe defcended from the Mo^s or matgols, and 
cbofe DOC defcended Irofn (hem. Whence many of diele lat- 
ter ore derived, does not appear from ..ibitlgiazi KhSn'i hi- 
Aory d • but they mnfl be either Mogoli or Tartars, who had 
Joft the memory of their origin ; or elfe tribes fprung from 
the Khans preceding Alanta ; fot all the Aymaks, it (eetos. 
Ire derived froai the Khans. 

With refpeft to the tribes not defcended from the Jt^* 
£DJ!(, the ori^Aal of (bme has been already mentioned ■■; as 
the Kankli, Kipjah, Karliks, Kilach, and rigurs : of ttieft 
£re, which derive their oaitie from Ogiiz Khan, the laft qnly, 
«e are told, fprUng from Mogul Kban. 

1. Thb Kankli Atlih, for fome time, jointly with then/Cak.. 
Turkmaiu, la thb faifdy defarts : bat when ihefc laH begankli, 

to live 'm toWBs, the former went to inhabit ahout the ti- 
Teis J/^hit and Talajh [G), Where they have remained for » 
long time. Jenghtz Khdh put to the fword tea thoufaOd of 
tiMm, whMn he found there ; the reft, to the aumbcr of fiftjr 
«ir fiXty thou&nd, had before bicome fubjefls to SoU&n M^ 
Immied Karazm Shah, WhoTe mother was of this tribe. 

2. The Kipfaks (H) haV« always iijhabited the banks cSTitKif- 
the Dm, IFolga, and Jaik. jaki. 

3. tH^ Karliis have conAantly dwelt in the mountains <£Thil^nr 
fhe Afogo// country, living on the produce of th«r lands. l>tu* 
This tribe eleAed their Khan, and might have amounted to 
twenty tboaljud fam^ies in the tfane (AJenghit Khin, Tliit 
{»»qaeror ht«i.i% fiint an efltoy to perfuade them to fubmit, 
^Jiin, dieir SbSrn, carried hiiq a pretty danght«r, befidcs 

' See p. 31, • See vol. kx. p. ij, k feq. 

{ f) The firft volume i« h> Ae (H) Called alfo ttapjSh anj 

trnttb king's library, and was Katchah. Thefe are fuppofeii 

tntadaw^byOi/aGwxthefoA, tobethe fame with th« AT^L, 

biK BM publiftied. who inhabit the fatne pant: - 

(G) The Fmcb tranflator a*d both maybethereiMains sfr 

tayi they are now called Tti'ut the Khatan or KhaxOH, whft 

and lii : but he feema to hare had an empire to.lhp Bprih of 

hesa miffaken, at le^ with re- the CeJ^ian hz. in A^ ^At sf 

gard to the lafi. the Griii empcTuc 7"/""*'"- 

*^3 ...'Soogfe 

ai CttmcdUifioTfoftU Turlu, B. I.* 

very magnificent prefcncs. The receiver, in retnrD, aave 
him a relation in marriage : but, when he was gone, uid, 
the name Arjldn Sirak (1) fuited him better than that dlArflin 
Khan. The Moguls ufe the term Sirak, fignifying a poor- 
fpirited man, when they fpeak of the Tajiks (K), who are 
a very fimple people *. 
Tht Kal- 4. KAL-ACH fignifies hungry, for the reafon already men- 
Ach. tioned g. There are, at prefcnt, fe^•eral numerous branches 
of this tribe, not only in the country of Ma-wara^lnahr, or 
Great Bukharia, but alfo the Perfian provinces of Khorafan 
and Irak l". 
Til Ta- 5, THfe Takrlns. Bugay Z'tnanz, Khan of this tribe, bc- 
kriw. ing invited by Jenghtz Khan to fubmit, he fcnt, among other 
prefents, a daughter, who appeared fo beautiful in the eyes 
of Ugaday, or OHay Khiin, tlwr, after his father's death, he 
married her, and loved her above all his other wives. 
Th Kerg- 6. The tribe of the Kerghis, which was but thin at firft, 
hi*. increafcd confiderably in time, by the acceflion of Moguls, and 

other families who joined them, for fake of the agreeable 
country which they inhabited. Urut Inat, their prince, unable 
to reljfl Jenghtz Khan, who fummoned him, by two anibaT- 
ladors, to mbmit, fcnt that great monarch magnificent pre- 
fents, and, among the refl, a bird called Shuhgar (L). The 
Ikar, or Ikrait Muran, now called Jenifea, glides along the 
borders of the Kerghis {M), and falls into the Azokh Jeng' 
hiz, or bitter fea. Near its mouth, our author tells us, 
there is a great town, called Alakhzin, which fignifies pied (N) ; 
which name it took, becaufe the inlwbitants thereof, and the 

' Abu'lghaziKhan'i hilloryof theTurkt, &c. p. 14. 3i,& 
feq. t See before, vol. xi. p. 31. * Abu'lchazi 

Khan,&c. p. 18. 

(!) This mnft fignify, the (M) At prefent.byJ^pr/Zfcw'a 

funking litn. map, they are placed near dw 

(K) Tajih are the trading hoxixn oi Ra/fia, and iheC/rMi/ 

people or inhabitants of con- Tag. 

quered countries : the fartari (N) Strahltnierg mentioni 

ciKaraxmpve the ^cr/faiu that the ruins of a town called AUk 

nick-name in contempt or aver. Sin or C6i«, which AgiiiJiei the 

fion, being their enemies, and cbequerid triht\ bat places it 

of a different Tefl in reJigion. without the great wall of Cii' 

(L) Or Sktniar ; a bird of m (a). 

Key, found in the plains of 


C I. Turkilh Tribes. aj 

depeodent towns, hare none bat pied hoHet (0) i the& horiet 
arc Toy all ; a. colt of a year old bong as large as a horie of 
three aoy-where clfc. TEcre are likewuc rich filver mines m 
itsodgtdxxiThood. The ftory goes farther; that the favourite 
nUow of Tmili KhSn, fon (rf Jenghiz' Khdn, to whofc (hare 
the Karghu fell, feat three <^cers, with a thoufand men, 
np the river, by -water, to difcovcr this country. After a 
loug ftay, they returned, with only three hundred of their 
company ; the reft beiiw loft, as th^ pretended, by the bad- 
gefs of the* air, Thefe gendemen cooErmed, as truth, all 
which had been reported of the place ; and even declared, that 
dey had loaded thdr veilels with iilver, but wefe obliged to 
throw it all over-board, for want of hands to get it up againft 

7- The tribe of Ifr-maniats, fo called, from their ImngTieVr' 
in i^aces moft remote, and full of fbrefts, are neighbours tom 
the KergMs, on the Ikar Murdn, and fubmittcd, at the fame . 
droc, to Jeaghiz Khan, There is another tribe who bear the 
&ne name, and follow the fame couHe of life, but they are 
Megob >, 

8. The tribe cXTatari, OTTattari, (by the weftern nation* TA^Tt- 
ttSanpe called Tartars ), one of the moft ancient and famoui^tars. 
of the Turlajb nation, oeti^ defcended from Tatar Khan (P), 
' conlifted f<sinerly of above Seventy thoufand ^milies, and 
had ooly <xie Khin, who was very potent ; but coming af- 
towards to be divided into feveral branches, its power, by 
degrees, decUnad. The principal branch fettled iq the coun- 
try of Biurnaver, near the borders of Kitay, to which it 
vas broaght in fnbjeAion,: but, in Ibme time revoldng, the 
cnperor of Kitay forccA them, by arms, to return to their 
dn^ ; and this happened often to be the cafe with them. 
Another Ixanch went and inhabited the river Ikdr, or Ikrdit 
^bavH k above-mentioned. Gaubit informs us, from the 
Qmtfi annals, that, in the time t^'Jenghtz Khaa, they were 
fettled along the rivers A>ru&n, and 0fl(»i or .^^nur I and were 

' Abd'lchazi Kham, p. 3$, 39. ^ Ibid. Hlftory of tfa( ' 

Tvks, ttc. p. 36, & feij. and 39. . 

(0) Tlic KuJfUmi have a tra- ftory of JtngUK Khan, fays, the 

wioB IQce this, of a pied peo- Tartan are the fame called Sk 

fif6fllewberc in Siberia, cal- Mepdi, or the Maguli of tht ii:a- 

tij tbem Pe^ra^ Orda, or teri ; and that they took the 

^pcd tribe. Seehifioryof nameTitfdrfroni a river of that 

^fio-ir, (^e. p. 64S. name, in the country otSiiMa- 

(f) See anc. hift. bookjix. giJ. Yet, in another place, he 

P- t6, Dt U Crmx, in bis hi- acrivei it from TatarKiif- ; ' 

.C ^ «ibutarf 


34 General fHftory ^ibe Turks. B. L 

tributary to the emperor cf die Km, who rd^ml m XktyK 
trom thit tribe ail the reft, vid the couotry they nhabiM. 
to(^ their name, aaaa^ du aadoas of the k/atiiera JfismA 

Tti'Vi- 9- The Viratt{Q). This tribe inhtUt the baiAs of ths 
xats, 0ir/ fffjtir MtirSi, or d^ ftten, whkfa fdl into die Ikir, or 
br4tacbti. Ikr&H Murdn, that U, the Jeriifia, oa the caft Gde (R). Af- 
t^ maiatainino die war a axi&knible while againft Jenghi^ 
Khan, thek KMn Taihtf-A^i, widi his two ftHia, haUi 
vtd TiwniRZf, wer« oUiged to fnboait. Several tribes havs 
fprvQ^ &om ibMi. i. The Targa-uti, fo eaUed, becanfa 
diey dwdc beyond the coaiury of Sdika, whidi lie* beyoad 
that of the MoptU : bat, at present, they are u«der AytM 
Khan, jind make the whole or part of the fccond bnmch af 
the Eltiths or Altdht, ciBed Ebahs-Ayuh, or rorga-uti°. 
a. The Kur'u. 3. The UtiUs. 4. The raawrj. who dwdl 
in the coaatry ot Sarku-chin-tagim (S) ; their Khan. Tatuia 
Sukar Khin, was obli^ to fabmii to Jtngbiz Khan. 5. 
The B^gazim. 6. The Sirnatzim. Thefc two lafl tribei 
dwell near the Ktrghis, and are very peaceable. 7. The 
Teltu^utt, 8. The Oraf-utt. 9. The Ki^tOmMti. Thefc 
three laA base been ahrayt hmoos for dn^ l]dll in phyfk 
and magic, ia wdl as fannting and fiflibg; which carried 
than to dwell near forefts and nren ". 

sr/lJffLBN3SSC rdtta, dial tbcKaimiiiriui&M,ftopetlj. 
called X/k/;^/. call thimfidvBS Amrat, and K/ruf , or Dorhon Virata 
that is, the four Avirat tribes, which are Torga-^h, K^hi- 
9th, Kayoht, DJingsr and Darb-oth, whidi two lafl nuke b«t 
one tribe. He likewHe obferves, that the terminalioas oth, 
ath, and Mitk (or Ut and Vt t, as others write them), ia 
thofc and the like words, are the {omc : that the MoHgalt 
call the above-nentiooed fbnr tribes not only Aw-Ut, bat 

'SimciiT. (Af. math. Sic p. 186. Gjiwaahift. d« Jeaghiz 
Kh&n. p. J. ■> Abu'lohazi Khan, p. ]8. ■■ See new 

collet, irav. p. 401. a; and SouciET'sobf. math, p- 148,160, 
Afeq. " AbuYghazi Kman, p. 40. f AbW'lchaxi 

Jlhan writei ir>,as Torga-iits. 

iQ^) Perhaps die Bwftf/ or rwt, Zt^an Mmm, and iO^tf 
fntff, fbU inbabitiag dierea- Ma-mn. Mardu figsifies a n- 
bout*. Ter. 

IR) Aii'^i^ KbJM fiiyi ( ;), (B) Perhapi die pltin of Air- 
tbe McguU call them K*k Mm. pr, mentioocd by Mara Pth, 
nin, On Mvran, Kam UffioL, St. was in this conotfy. 
rnitm, Ikraii Muran, Akar Mu' 

(j) C««(. t-fi. f. 4t. 

L „.. ..L.OOQIC 

a t. 7\irkiik Triies, tg 

att> yU-*'th, tad ^it-Uti <T) ; and that dwfe an defeesd- 
■Ms of the (uDc peofde, -wham the bter £VwA writerB ^ 
j^iMrii, aad Atari : but yamtMdei, more netrljr, Aviri'x 
«£ both whkfa words D'Heiitht's Avttirat ■ it a Uad of «oo»- 
pMad ". Bat as our aathor 'm&k£s die tivari or Var, aad 
Hmni or f Aim^ dis Ikme with the ^^/ «- Uu-imirs, how Huni. 
cm tbey be KakroAM or Ehuht, who are k very djuKreat |m>- 
pie from the A'^^m / We have already flkcwa how vcr^ 
mmnui n it is to trace the or^ia of people by the oames 
faood in hiltorians of foreign countries i and, to fpeak the 
tontb, Mr. StrmUftiierg, tbowh very happy in nuDyof his 
tagi&mn s, yet was &> Ugot^to this method, that he takes 
die (baaUeft refemblance lo the name as a certain proaf of 
las pant ; and often ftrains matters beyond aMsiiire, to 
Bake tfabgs aafwcr his puipde. 

10. The Nayrmns is a very aodent tribe, and veryr^Nay^ 
fkfa (U) : they dwelt in the country of the Moguls, called maoi. 
Karaiatm, or biack fond (W) ; but did not ufe agriculture. 
Their UiR, in the tinte of jtnghlz Khan, vns called 7a>> 

ymn, who, with his (on Kuthitdi, was fiaio by that conqueror. 
GwmUI iafonns ns, that the Naymaiu were oont^oons to the 
Mtgmli, near the city of Jfoth, or Kan-imrwi, to the north 
of the great fandy defart. At prefent they' are fettled near 
the Sira filvrmn, to the north-eaft of PMr> w. 

11. The Xara-4tj (X), that is, fvMrthy, fb called frottr^Kai^ 
ibe fmrtfay compleuon of feven brothers^ from whom they its'. 
ifMmng. KarzakurKh&n, fumanwd SufnA, fon of Afttrgut- 
JS-XbAi, was the btber of Tayrd KAdit, U> whom the en- 

4 Mevahdek c. 7. ' Dereb. Get, p. 597. 

■ Bibl. orient, p. 14S. " Stbahi.. hift. gcagr. «Ulcr- prcf. 

p. 6, &: feq. * See SoDcitT. as befoM, p. 185 j aUo ita: 

mp of Tarlaiy fubjea M China. 

(T) Hence perhaps the name their capital ^^» is called by 
MBhitit otJhtbi. , the nxnenu SaiUr (4]. Be- 

(U) For tfaii nafoo, along fides, SaiUr t» now known » 

with tW name, Strablnhtrg Tup- be Su-chn/j in China, at a great 

pb&i tbeJVn^Bau or Najmaw, diSaacefi'OiDthccoQncry of th« 

aictheAInitfi, aftervards called Neyniaiii. 

jUtmtri.ot Flitrf: httta'siior- (HT) A aame given to barren 

fri&ig that Dt U Cm*, withoot fandy dcfarta. 

anr apparent noandt, fiioald [%) Written £ert>, and £9'/, 

■mi, that tbw Hrfmaiu are by EJo-tftm*. 
tke ^Ui» St^himu, and that 


L i,.< t.L.OO'^iC 

zS General Hifitry «f the Turks. B. I. 

peror ofjK/iiygaTc the title of #!Mif(Y}! heiiM Totk writtri 
give him the lame of ffioig Khan. This is the famous l/ng 
KhSt, filled Prefter John, by Marco Pole, and odier European 
writers, who reprint him both as a ChrilHan king and- 
prieft ; bat without the leaA foundation that appears from 
any hiftory but thdr own. The Kara-its were neighbours 
to the Naymara, and polIc{!cd a great part ri the countries 
along the rivers Ttda or 7i£* », arid Orghun 7. 
5l«Un- 12. Th^ Ungutti{t), that is, trun -weH to pa/i .■ for thcfe 
jotfi. people, being fituate near the Chhtefe walli Iwd great wages 
of the emperors of Kitay, to guard it and its gates. In the 
time of jenghiz Khan this tribe confifted of about four 
thouland bmilies, whoTe Khan Aiahu, making an alliance 
with that monarch, contributed much to render theconqoeft 
of Kitay eafy, by g(»r^ to meet him as he a[^roached, and 
^nng him a frte entrance by the wall *. 
TfeTar- 13. Tn^Turkdis. This word (Igniiies a guard, in the 
kiks. Turkijb 1 for, among the Turh, while, one halfof the night, 
the guard take thor repofe, the other beat on fomcthing, to 
Aew they are on the watch ; and, when they want to be re- 
lieved, ail to thofe at reft, Turiak, that 'a, get up and beat. 
Tur f^mfies get up, and hti, heat. This tribe is very ou< 
merous ■. 
Vig&rse^ ^^ <^aie now to the flbgulor Mungl tribes, which are 
Oyg&n. in all forty-five. The firft of thefe are the Vi^s (A), who 
took thrir rife in ihe time of OgHz KhSn (B), as hadi been 
before related. They dwelt orlgloaily between the moun- 
tains Tugra TtAuJktk, Ujkualuk'tugra, and Kut, on the wefi 
of the Moguls {mun whom they teem to have been feparated 

* TheacalledEollannar, tccordiltg toBBHTiKx'sNoteiontlie 
luftor7ofdieTiirki,Mogolt,&c. p.76. ' Gadbil'* hifttbjr 
of fengbiz, p 4. note 6. ■ Abv'lokazi Khan, p. 42, &,liB<|. 
* Ibid. p. 4;. 

(Y) In the tranflitiens^««ai, done in imitation of ilfnSaMMA 

and, by Eanfttm writers, do lefi who «ve the name of J^/Srt, 

faultiiv Uap. or htlftrt, to a family ofAivit 
ontheliluoccafian. Wcjadge 
the FifSri to have been a colony 

(A) Wiguri, /giirt, orOjjfii-i, from Tihet, Mi has been already 

u the word is varionfly wntten. obferved, if not the Jitri ot 

it fignilje* ii^iri i at leall diat Jyijtn. 
fenfc has been ^ven to it by the ( B) If fit, how could they be 

Mehammtdan hifloriani, to ho. now exilting ? fincc we are told, 

nour this tribe, which was very none of the Motnls efcaped the 

potent, for joining with TimriiK flauzhter made m the army of J/ 

£&f«. This feemi to have Seen £6ii», except £i]m« and AiifM. 

C. il TorKfli Tribes. 17 

by ibe moantala Xiit or j/l/ay. . 4* there are, in this ttratitry, 
nioeteen rivers, ten on one fide, and nine on the other, thofe 
who fcttied abotit the former were called Un Vigurs (C), and 
(och as dwelt along the latter Tabj yigtirs (D). Thefc two 
ttibes, which cooTiA <^ more than an hundred and twenty, 
bnodies, pollelled a great number of towns and villages, 
yet had no Khans ; tUl at length filing out together, the 
fiiA elcAed a prince, called Mangatati, to whom they gave 
the lame d S-iitar i and the fecond chofe another, whom* 
they called Il-irghifl. Thdr ddcendants had the lame titles : 
but, an hundred years after, the two tribes, coming to unite, 
had but one foyereign, ftiled Idikut ,- which, in Turkijb, fig- 
nifies, fcnt by the fpirit (E), but. In the UJbek tongue, a ' 
free iiuUpeiuJant Perfiit. 

Thbt lived thus in union two thoufand years, in x\i!i7beir 
above-mentioned .mountains: after which a new iASacaxhrmthtti 
arifing between them, (hey feparated, iot good and all ; one 
part -remained where they were, and the other went to dwelt 
on the banks of the river Irtijb. Thefc laft, dividing again 
into three branches, one went and dwelt in Bi/b-ialik{F)f 
and culdvated the lands about it : the fecond difperfed them- 
felves in the neighbourhood of that city, feeding on their 
cattle : and the third branch continued on the Irti/b, \t^ere 
they lived by iilhing, and hunting of fables, caAors, martens, 
Iqulrrc^ and other beafts. On the flefh of thefe they fed, 
and clad themJelves with their Ikins, which had always been 
tbtnr doathingi 

BJNERZIKipy Idikut, their Khln, fubmittcd to Jeng- 
iiz Khan, in order to focure hlmfelf againft Kavar (H) Khso 
of Turktfian 1 and every year fent him confiderable prefents. 

(C) From thefe it U fuppofcd hard to determine, confidering 

came the Vnni or Hnm; bnt how greatly words have been 

more cfpecially the Onagri, Vni- diftorted by thofe means. 

g»i, Tnriti, and Iiugri, as they (D) Vn fiznifies ttn, and 7«- 

arc called by authors ; alfo Utrt- im nine, in Turkifi). 

fri and Kutrigtri, Vth urgMrt (E) W, being ybr/, aai-Kut, 

»nA Kmtb-Mrgari. Whether this /pint. /^iuVy^o; ftiles him M- 

diScrcace in the names had any iui, and fignilici./«r(f s^ 

ml fbondatioi], as belonging the entfin. Hill, dynali. p. z8j. 

todiSerenttribes of people, who {F)BijX!ia/igwAsia Little Bui' 

appeared at different times, or iSria, near the city oiTur/aK, 

in different parts of the itonffA [G] He h cMcd ParebuiarU 

csipire, or was owing to thofe TUm tn the Orintft hiAory. 

who oanfmicted accoants of (H) Rather, perha^K, Gur^ 

them, cither miftaking or cor- or Kmr Kh&». 
rratii^ the aames, feems pretty 


L I,.,. t.L.OO'^IC 

28 Gtntral Hiflsry of thi Turks. B. I. 

He Joiiud the coBqaaoT tUb, when he Went 10 MnA. Mo- 

hdimud Saraxm ShmU. 

JnJltam- In r^ard many x£ Hk y^in were flailed in the turk^ 

iog- iaoguag^ and espert in writing, Jmgidz Khin made ufc of 

them in all his expeditions, as fecretanet to the charxrrf : 

io whkh quality aUb his defcendaaOt who reigned in Ma- 

viata'htiMU' and Perfik, employed thecn for a long time ^. 

On thi« oeUTiOD it may be oblerved, th&t thK Vigirs or Oy- 

gun Were the only people inhabiting Great Tart«ry, who 1^ 

the uie of charaAfirs, whkb were the iame with thole now 

found ia TUat, where they are called diaraAers t>f Tdttgtit '. , 

n* Ur< The VrmanJutt. They lead much the fame courTe of 

mankati. Hft with th'or n»t'>ffrlwt before-mentioDed i and arc dcfcend- 

ed frofn Og/iz Kim .- which is all that is laid <^ them K 

It has been already remarked, that the ddcendams of 

Kayan took the fumaoc of Hayat i and tbofe of tVagas that 

of l)urlagany w NttgoJUr ; whence, in a ffliort time, tihey 

came to lo£i theh- trOe names. The tribes mentloaed u 

&rung from them, are thirty-eight ta number ; thirty derive 

ueir pedigree tri^ Kayan, and iive from f-hgos. 

Nirkhaw Tm ffibe* defccnded fnai Kayan are the foHowii^. 

Kiroii ,. F,oia dw three Ions of AlaAa (I) fprui^ a numerooi 

trtbi. tribe, in the M^td lai^nage fumamed \Nlrkha ; that is, a 

pure family i in mamory that the founders of it were b^ot-* 

. ten withoat any coounerce inth man, as hath been berore 

related : cUnrhere it ia £ud they took the fumame of iVt> 

The Kun. j/ xhe KunlOifaU, ta KmAratt (K). Thefe arc fprOi^ 

■°'^- from Kmhtrat. a Ion (^ Zurhik MtrgMn, who defccnd* 

ed firaak. A<wi (L). They dwelt along the river Kaiafi- 


* Aep'lckazi Khan, p. i], it leq. ji, St fe^. & 46. 
* Gjlctbil in SouciiT. obf. tnaih. p. 146. ' Abu'lohazi 

Khah, p. 38. * Ibid. p. 46, and $3. 

(I) The hldory ttf Jlamiu, drcumftoncei, that tliu ZW«( 

and her three fons, hat been al- Mtrgia lived mtay as^ before 

nady rdated, anc- hilt. vol. </^j(a, and poOibl)', during tha 

"- P- 37' alfo an account given time the Miguh rematned toaX 

of their defcendanct to yenghix up in the mountain of A-^awtiMt, 

XMa: moH of whom are men. fince the tribe of Kvtat derive 

lioncd hereafter, on occelioa of theinlelvet from hira, and Btr- 

the Mtgul tribce being derived /lecso Kbati, of the Megwlt, at 

from t^ipi. Some write jtlan' the time of their famons fall/ 

iaim. ' from thence, wai a dcfcendant 

jK) KeKieraft ai\A Kangerali. ■ oi iiurlai. Mention if made of 

. (L) It appears, from fevcrai Zariui M'r^an't two broUjerSj 


Jia IM). in the time o£ Jenghtz Khn: tq vfiom their 
Khai) Tivi-iA, tyfap vai hi& r^tioa, want over f. 

J. Thr Bm-kut* .' «™J, 4. The JSr»rJi-«*f. Tbefc two^A* Bor- 
tnbis(L fOdBCri,; inhal^icdi dong vixh the iTanlKraei, wbo arel^uu. 
tolaticd to tkem. 

5. The jiahtri^i ukI, 6. The AUlaufs ; wk AsSeenddTh An- 
£roai the two 1^ of Xaiaji SMea, txoiher of ZurM ACt^'karah. 
jM. ^jIkx. caBad alfoi uin iga, and t/Am /Agliit, the mo- 
tjtier <^ Jetigftif Khitt, was of the latter ti^>e. 

7- Th» A^Trt-mrfj. Thde are fprung from ICararua^7h*%axi- 
qJdcA km of 4if6rH^'. third brotb« of Zvrhtk Mrrgan &. nati. 

8. Tu^ Kurtfit, one of the iboA cmkieHt tribes unongT'j^ Knr* 
Uw If^Qgith, vc fprung from KurUs, fot>c«t MtyjSr-Hi, l<»ilas. 
oC Kitt^l^ ibe o£ Sufyuday, youogeft brother of Zwhtk 

oat of the mountain Irgatia Km, was a defcendant of iSv^ 
JW> ThU t{ibe is cfiwled into mao^ bnnches, viio hwe 
the fnroame of Mrm. i. Ilie Kaiagtms, dofiwided from- 
Atttuin Kati^um^ the oUeft of Jknku'% thnc fons. 2. The 
ZoJzti//, from if«^ 2afei, feomd. bm, f£ Attmku. 3, Tli« 
Sayzufi, from Bt^ffikax and JiufmaJdJtbim, font of iKrvok 
Xi«n. 4. The Zif-zutt, from Z<i^zui, A(><£( Jl^^'s third 
fips. {. Tb4//^^:6<f^j, £roraZ<i>ZfniiJfo>>. ti. The^maf, 
furnasied Nagvsy hut <Mcrcat: from the Nt^Jbr: they 
ifxni^ &<»a Ktm^zna and O/oUnzMitii, Ibas gk MvmuJtM- 
kam. 7. The ButaMas, from ButtUdn, eldeft fbn <^ Tunona 
JTMn, gmadibii of Xoyib ATAar. 8. The Urut/u, from 
Urutit lecond fen of Tumund Khan"'. 9. The Mankatt, 
from Tt/tunbif, 7i0Ran<i's third fon : tMe are nick-named' 
Kara Ka^ttki by the Rufftam, atxl poflefs at pveftat the wdVr 
era half of Turkejim, ■with the city of that naoie. But Ky- 
rUUw's map mak^s the Kara. Kalpaki and Mangatt ^inft 
tribes. 10. Badurghinsy from Samkanim, tbtrd fcnof Tii- 
nt«niii X'iMn. 1 1 . The BvJati, from BatHiti, Tttrnma's foiifth 
ioB ''• 1 2' The A«ri^ or Ber/as (H), &om Zedemxi'iupks, 

' Asv'lqhazi Ehah, p. 4S, ^z, & 7j. ■ Ibid, p.481 

ca, & le^. ' ^ Ibid. p. 48, jj. ' Ibid. p. jgi 

* Ibid. p. 59, 567. 575- 

KMb^xShira and Bffyudttf, bvt of Ms ear, Without toucliin|; the 

not of hii father: he was fucli jewel at which it hung. 

•a excellent archer, that, being (M) Now OrkhoB, according 

t9 ieht ea horfebAckwithAa. to Bta/ini'i notei on JkU'lghStLi 

h^ Sbira, and feeing him thro' Kkan. 

fear bend down. en. OBO. fide &r (N) Writun FtrlaJ hy the 

(belter, in pity, would not kill PerSam and TurJu. 

Ua, but ftrack the pendent out 



30 General Hiftory of the Turks. B. I. 

foD of Kazuli, Tumana's fixth fon. Of this tribe was the 
great Ttmur-beigh, or Tamerlan. 13. ,The Kayums, from 
UdUr-iayan, fcrenth fon of Tmrtana Kh&n. 14. The Vilots, 
from Balzar, Tumana's eighth fon, called Oglan, or the lame, 
becaufe he halted, i ;. The Bafutt, or T^uts, from Olzin- 

fan, niofh fon of TWana'. 1 6. The iCayats are defcended 
om the fix fons of Kabul Khan ; in whom, being ftrong men, 
and great warriors, was revived the name of Kayat, which 
had been in a manner unknown for above three dioafand 
' years. I7. ThcBorzugan Kayats fprung from the five fons 
of XeJJughi Bahadur Khan, of whom Temujin, afterwards 
Jenghiz KhSn, was the eldeft. They were all of a fair com- 
plexion, inclining to yellow, with a red circle betweea the 
black and white of didr eyes ; wliich kind of eyes the Mo- 
gah caHBorzugan, &om whence th»r defcendants had that 
yfaUsi- 9. The Hzigans. This tribe is defcended from Nzigan, 
g""' brother of Kurtas, fon of Mcyjir-lti, before-mentioned. 
yi^Dur- lo. The Diirmam, that is, four, in the Moguls language 
"*"*• (0), derive thdr origin from the four eldeft fons of Bizin 
Kayaa Khan ; who, rcfenting the eleftion of Kipzi Mergan 
Khan, though it was made purfuant to the will of their fa- 
ther, left the country : but their defcendants, in protefs <^ 
time, came and dwelt in the dominions of Kipzi Mergan. 
From thefe are defcended two Uibes. ( . The Bariani, from 
one of that name. 2, The Siiktit, from the fon of a Dur- 
taan, by a ihe-Ilave r this (lave coming before her time, througH 
the abufe received from tiis wife, went and hid the infant 
among (hrubs, called, in their language, Tulgun , but, by riic 
Moguls, Suknt (P) : the father finding it here next morning, 
from thence gave it the name of Sukut ", 

The tribes of the Nagojler, or Durlagant, defcended from 
Nagos, are five, 
7ht^K- I. The Bayuts 9tc divided into feveral branches, the moft 
ynti- TOnfiderable of which are nhs Sadaghin Bayuts, and the^a-" 
krim Bayuts, fo named from the rivers Sadaghin and Ma- 
krim,"on the baolts whereof they inhabit ; being oeighbours 
to the Virats. 

' Abu'lchazi Khan, p. 60, ' "Ibid. p. 61. "Ibid, 

p. 49, & fcq. 

(O) fiot, in ilie language of (P) Hence it lootu as if the 
the Eluthi or Kaltnuki, Dirh is Dumuntj had a language of their ' 
/our, accordiDg to Slrabletiberg'i own, different from the Mogul, 
fable of diolvflf. 

a. The 

L ...... L,oo.^lc 

C. i; TurkiOi Trihts. $i 

1. Thb Jaiayrt (Q_) are a very antimt tribe t they were 
{onnerly fcactered over a great extent of country, and had 
many princes ; till, the Kitayam having declared war againft 
them, tl^ were obliged to come doier together, in order 
to be in a capacity to aiG£l one another. Tbdr femilies 
Wtt lb. onnieroas, that they fpread over feventy diflercQt 
provHKcs (R), which they called in theit language Kvrans 
aad the greater part of them dwelt m a quarter (h the Me- 
pds called Ihmn, Bat the empercH: of Kttay havii^ de- 
raeed, and carried away, a great number of them (S), the 
nfl Bed, and were reduced to live oa roots. 
' This happened ic the rdgn of ihffimin A!&in (T), father^^V^. 
of K^du Khan ; who going to be married in another coun- yfr^. 
try, left his fecond brother, Mutuhm, to take care of the 
boofe, and bis fevcn other brothers. Thefe repairing (we 
day to a very level fpot of ground, near their habitatioa, 
i^oc dwy uied to perfcvm their cxercifcs and tournaments, 
ih^ found the Jahtyrs di^^g for roots, which rendered 
the place nofit for their diverlions. They immediately inform- 
cd Mutuhm hereof, who haflened thither with a Arong force, 
and put the Jalayrs to flight ; but the latter returning to the 
charge, after great lo{s, at. length overcame Mutuhtn, killed 
him, and liis feven brethren : not omtent with this, they 
fnJned their habitations, and put to the fword as many of 
dior fubjedls as fell into thdr iLinds. 

KATDU Khan, bong informed of this misfortune, rctum-T'^Kay- 
cd home forthwith, and fent to demand of the Jaiayrt the du Ja- 
Kafinwhy they had killed, his brothers. The Jaiayrt, ter-lsyrs, 
rified at the mcHage, fent five of the chief perfons concerned, 
with their wives and children, to the Khin, to be difpofed 
■tf as he thought fit : but he was content to keep them as 
Ui Oaves ; wluch proved cf good account to him : for they 
took the fnmame of thdr maner, ferving him and his pdle* 
rity Eiithfidly, to the foilrth generaticxi ; infomuch that fome 
<^ his delbendants had ten, twelve, and even twenty, families 
d than, for their portiou. In the rdgn of Jmgbiz Khin 
(be other Jahyrt tcxA the name of their captive brethren '>. 

* Abv'louazi Khah, p. 53,&feq. 

(Q.) Or ChalafTj I in the at prefent, the Cbalayrt inhabit: 

tnnlUdont SiJiubiri, doubdeli Karehin (or Kara-chin) fignlfics 

bj a wrong leadiDe- th blatk irihe. 

(R) Ordiflriaj. (T) Grandfather of J«igbix 

(S) Perlupt into Karihin, to Khda, in the feventh geneia- 

tfcs Borth of Pt-tbt li i where, tion. 


L iu< t.Coogle 

3f Generai-lBjiory of the Turks. B. £ 

BE9T0KS die M^al tribes befiiie-mcqtioiied, thoesre i^ne 
oabcrt : but it b OBCcttaia nbether they are ^pruig boat 
Xt^nar at Nmet. 
Th Mar- ' ■ The MarkMtt^ Toktu~hggii KMn, of tius tribe, was 
kau, abiwp st wUnce vitb Jar^Uz Khan. One tisK, in the ab- 
feaoc of that hvo, he caniot airay his wrwc and liibjcA5> 
"nth aA t&at feU into bis hands:. Aaother tim^ lyu^ ii^ am- 
bofk for pngHx ICbin, hsmadB Uat piifbaei vMk he was 
takinjg a walk ; and it eoft Im fot^eAB a laige fun oC moneje 
K>. rasfbnfr liiiti. 

n>a"at>. a^ derived fout tribes; i. Trb Ktmakbrnars, fjwog fpcMa 
£t pcrfon of that name. Mmglik, fwDamed /zjI^ or ths iJr- 
i»Mf, fev his pM«y and virtse, was of tins tribe, and marri^ 
tte-wkIowC%n-i^ (U), lAotfaec of Timti^, or ^_^iMe JKhnr, 
w*ow»9 then bnr (felrteen ye^-s of age. Some yews after 
Kaig X^ (Wy, of ikt Kara-its, fell a letter to tdai, pro^ 
poAag to kill Tfom^r anc^ divide his polTdTiDils between' 
'them. This was K>> be dboe at the tucte of a vifit Vaxgl^iAf 
was te make so MtngUk. Sooa a£tcF he gave Temujm an in-- 
i^anon, under pretence of treating aboiM a toamage betWecH- 
Ks' dau^ter tmd the other's dtkll: fon. Twugin, who fre- 
quefltly^£ted hint, » having been ui ttitinate-of Ids Other's, 
iaunediaKl^ itt fcrward, with only two- dontefticks : but' 
neeciogon the road with Iri^ father-in-law, who ii rf o ri —d Mm- 
- -, , (rf f^dng Halt's treachcFf, he retiuned, »id (o craped the 
mbraiKb- fggpg 2 -pjj^ fecond branch of the Umma-utt is the Ariatf, 
fpFBng iaxa. jMht, focond foa of Mmglik hka, by hb SpA 
wl^. 3. The /TalKfs, front KaSHr, third fbn of ItUngHk-; 
{^ nafoed becsufc hcocKdid net fpeak ptaib. From ^ KtU- 
kMt are detived, 4. The Ky^iks, htm. one lafim. This 
Uan^ whot with \m brochv Ray^t kept the horfiiE of a 
great Ibrd l>d«ngiBg lo Taw^" **ai's cotftl, goii^ to hid ma^ 
iter's wi* a (Ifver^days gathering Of mares milk, otneriward" 
Mm t»d his wife get- re^ylus amis, for that the Khta ifltend- 
tA (o invade T'emujin naawflres ; and' being Iprung irom the 
Mtgutt, !a foon as tfiey- had deUvered ii> the aulk, they west 
and difcovered the plot ; for which fervice JengMz Khan 
made them and thdr ifcfccntfeMs, for nine generations, Tar- 
kan (X) J which frees them from all forts of taxes. 

(U) Otlierwifc called Ulan- writers. InthctranfladoiuAt»«* 

iaxin. Khan. 

( W) Or Wang KhSn, the fa- (X) OiTtrtan, as wrirten by 

Dioas Uxg Khan of the Earapean DiJa Creix. 

3. The 

Ci t. TurkUh tfihti. gf 

3. The Vifimu! 4. The Suldut .■ and 5, The OiliMtu.fh Vi' 
Of whom ftothiog mor« u nmitioned, than that they atefli<>nk> 
bnoches <^ the MoguU P. 

This ii tha account ef the tribes or bnmcbcs of tht Turi- 
t/b luttioA, ^ven by Abu'lghizi Khdn ; which, though the moA , 
extEniira of any whJch has yet come to oar hands, is, after all. 
Very fupcrficial : nor indeed could it well be otherwlfe, iince 
it docs not «[^>ear, that any of the inhabitants of Tartary had 
written records, or even made ule of letters, except the Igin 
Or yigAti, before the time of Jcnghiz Khan i and tlicir oril 
irtditSoDS mufl needs, from the nature of the thing itfdf, 
hxK. been very Impcrfct^, as well as liable to much uscer* , 
tuncy, and even corruption. 

However that be, Ahtilghhzi KhAi, and the authors /)//«jw/. 
wbont he made Ufe of, dlifer much from thofc quoted hywuMef 
D'Herbelot, and apparently go upon a didcrenc plan (V). FofC'^n* 
he fpeaks ndther <»' Turk's poflerl^ being divided tnio foUr 
tribes, Dor of any fubdivifion into four others by Og^z, con- 
fonnaUe to JUir/toad, and the earlier Perfiut hUtoriaos. In 
all probability we Ihould difcorer a ftill greater difagree- 
ment, had D'HerbeUt but ^veo us the names <^ all ±e 
Turkiji tribes fiotti that author, or his i<iii Kond jiitdr, who 
■wrote a particular hiftof y of the Mogii tribes, Jenghiz Khah , 

and his lucceiTorS *>. 

What in Ahu'lgh^i Khan leems moft iingular is, that heA^j ttih 
mentions no particular tribe properly called Turks, as ihtitUhd 
Ptrfian luftorians have done. Whether he omitted thcm.Turks, 
in conlcqueoce of ttothlng bang fald about them in the au- 
thors he made his extracts from (Z) ; or as intending tt> treat 
chiefly of the Moguls, which fcCms indeed to have been^ hie 
muo delign; or laAly, becaufe there is at prefent no tribe HMuitr 
in all Tartary exifting under the name dTurks, that people l^arury. 
having long fince p^d intb other connft-ies, or been dc< 
ftroyed by wars ; 'wt cannot deiermlsc. Sut lu Vrhaterer 

> Asu'LCHAzt KhaD, p. 47, b leq. and p, 73. . « See 

before, p. 4, noteC 

{Y) Thrii hUlory Brdonbted- fliwy of JiHgtiKKhSH, publUM 

ly was calculated to do honour hyDc la Crtix, whidi, thoogh 

to the JUirgv/j ; a* that |ivenby. extrafted cblcSy fromFa//aXc^, 

the authon before- mentioned the principal author made ufe 

was to do honour to the £//- of by Abu'lghatuKhSm mentions 

jih. fcarce any iribes befidei thoft 

(Z) We csn form no jodg- which «e Mtjels. 
ment on this point fiom the hi- 

MoD. Hut. Voi.IV. D vA\\ 

L i,.< t.L.OO'^IC 

^ Gneral Wfiary of tht Turks : B. I. 

vf6^ han been the itaSoa, it is certain, that there wu ^maerly 
■ particular tribe or oatioo amoag the inhabitanK of Tartary 
fiamed Turks ; for tlicy are mentioned both by the Xoman 
mi Ctine/e, u well as the yfr^ and Ptrfian hlfloriaas al- 
ready cited. Tlus will ^pcar dkkv evidoit AiU from thdr 
• ' faiftory, deliTcred in the foUowiog fe^ion. 

S E C T. IV. 

The affdn of the Turks with the nations herdering 
an Tartaryi and among tbtmfehet, from their firfi 
appearance^ till the tinu of Jei^z Ktian. 

Pariieular TT may well be qudtioiied, whether all the diilerent tribes 
triit ^ -^ of people inhabiting Tartary are branches of Turks ; but 
it leems probable that there was a particular nation among 
*- the antient Scythians \^ho went by that name ; £nce the 
Turd, perhaps better written Turki, are mentioned by Pom- 
pomus Mela the geographer *, and PHny ^ \ who place them 
am^ng the nations dwelling in the nughbourhood of the ri- 
ver Tanait, and the Palus Mxotis. 
»rie»tal How the Turks Should be known fo early to the Romans, 
T^nk.9 ^"^ '^°^ ^° ^^ Greeks, who lay much nearer to them, may 
fecm a little ftrange ; for they are not mentioned by Ptola- 
my (A), nor any writer of that nation, who has come to our 
, hands, before die middle of the fixdi century. Then, in- 
deed, they fpeak of them for the Brft time ; but, far fix>in 
placing them in the weft of Afta, diey give them a fituadon 
in the fartheft eaft ; yet it muft be confefTed, that the name 
of wiental Turks, by which they call them, (hould fcem to 
be conferred on them, with a view to difKnguifti them from 
other Turks, Icnown to them in the weft. However this be, 
it is furprizing that KhaUiokondilas, who, in his hiftory <ji 
ihe fall ca the G^eek empire, treats of the name and origia 
of ihe^Turks, ftiould fay nothing of thefe eaftem Turks, meo- 
jdened by preceding hiftorians : but indeed he feems to be 
, quite a ftrangcr to 3ie Seljuks, or any kind of Turks, though 

living near the northern borders of the empire (B), before th* 
lime cH the Ogizians or OlMn4tu. 

■^De fitn orbis, 1, , cap. nit. *> Hift. nat. 1. vi. e. 7. 

(A) For the Tu/d ctn't be [B] In Humri, in and b» 
faid to be the Turii, without fore the time Of &f^M/iw Per- 
flraining matters bcy«nd rca- flyragtnitiu. 



Tbb Bizantixe biifaMians teU us, that thcfe oriental Ttirks^heir fitm- 
mat ^ lame feniwrly called Sak£{C\: Hm d>ey dwelt '*''»'* 
beyood the SagiSans (D) ; aad were divided into dgbc 
cribes (E) i thai they had greatly kcreafed in power wkhia 
a £ew yews, fo as to border on the Xoman empire : that 
their ku^ nafloed Difahtdej, Jeot ambaHadOTs in the fotirth « 

year of Jtifiin the youqger (F) ; and that th^ broiight mtb 
then iron, to fell, to make it believed, that there were mines is 
their coontry : that DifabuUs encamped near the piouatain oenrMag 
Eitai: that this name figDiBes tia mountain of gold ^ a^'^^'rV 
vat g^ren o it on account of the abundance of fhuts and ** 
cattle which were on it : that it flood in the mod eaftran part 
«f )us docnipions : that to the fouth of it was a plane called 
Tolas, and ioar hundred Ihdia to the welt a plain> called 

Whether this Talat was the fiune menticsted by latec 
travdleia^t or the plain of liar had any relatKHi to the river 
Sar or Jiran ', now called Jenifea, we (hall ncft pretend to 
£ky : bat 'tia certain th}s account agrees very wqll with what 
js cdated by a curious miilionary, from the Onntfa hilVory, ond Chl- 
wtuch bq^ to fpeak of the Turks, whom they <ill Tu-que, ""'f *i'* 
in the year 54$ j at which time they were an inconfiderablc '*"*'"' 
people, who dwelt to tl^ north-welt of Turfm (G), In Uttk 
Jakbariai and,^not long before, th^ employment was to 
work iron, near a mountain called Kin (H) (that is, gold) : 
but, in a few years, they grew very powerful ; fubduing the 
whale coomry between the Ca/^ian fea and the river tyan, 

■ MtNAHDEK, cap. 6. to the 14th. SlUOCATTA, I. vii. c. 

8. ap. new collcA. of voy. and trav. vol. iv. p. 537. ' Rv- 

BKoqvii, yincwcollcA. voy. andtrav. vol.iv. p-5;6. 'See 
Aio'lghazi Khan's hilt. p. 39. 

(C) According to thii ac- (D) By the Sii^<tf«u are to be 

ooBBt, the name of TMrh was anderflood the inhabitanis of 

bat newly fptoRg up. What the couotry about SamarianJ, 

vai their forBier name muft be called SogJ; or, in a larger 

very nocertain. The antient fenfc, alt Mawara'hahr, or - 

hiftorians were not always geo- Grtat Buiharia. 
graphen, and guelled in this [£] By the Alison's or X^itr's 

ofe mi the moderns do, who letter to the emperor A/dsn'/fuj, 

aie oftcncr in the wrong than in their number was only feven. 
the right. BeJidcs, how flioald (P) Which was in 569. 
Ae Gnrii koow much of peo- (G) Named perhaps from the 

pfe wbo lived at fach adiSance, Turii. 

and with whom all interconrfe (H) Or Tu-Hiir. Kin in Chi- 

had been broken off for fomc ntft figoifics gold : poffibly that 

aptl called Irganahn by iixTwh. 
D 3 , in 

L „., ..L.OOQIC 

S6 Gmral Hijtay of the Turiu i 6, 1. 

in the ^ovince <£ LyaU'tmg, thcf woe dlndcd ion 
Tu-fivof duaonh, and Tu-yw of the weft; udhkdgrat 
wan dtbcr amoog therafelTes, «r wi± tlic Ciin^, to vAna 
tbey wen very fbrmidable ^ Whether they made u; on- 
qodts in CimU itfeif, does t»t as yet ^ppeu : bat we nt 
* vAd, that the fbonders of the ^lyiiaftics of the Utter Tm^ 

and Haa in that empire were of thefe Tu-^e > ; the fonncr 
comniendi^ tn the year 933, die latter in 947, of the driT- 
dan Kra. 

Besides the great ccnfbnnity betweca the Xomat mi 

Chifufi hiftory, relating to the rife of the Turiifi power, it 

b worth oblendng, that they both oonfirm a very rcgartilite 

drcamftance in the hiftory of the Mcgo/s, md alnoA pnrn 

them to be the lame people with the Twii ; aamdy, tbar 

f" *^ working in kon, near a mounts called Kin. This moim- 

""' Tain is probably the Jame mth that of Irganakon, ErbuM, 

Iw'i'it ** ^rkenekami}), fitnated in the extreme north parts of the 

Mogolj coDDtry ; where, we are tdd, a fouodery was crefled 

by the chiek of the Kayat (K) tribes, thence called die ^ 

kenekoK finiths * (L). And hence the fable related by -*"'/■ 

ghizi. Khan of the Mcgab, making a way. iIhod^ that 

mountain, by meldog the iron mines ', doubtlels had its rile. 

MttKKtun Whether the monntaia Kia, which in Qnneft fignifiet 

Kin. gold, be the fame with that called Ek tak, jx Ak tak (M], i 

will not pretend to lay, the fituatioD c£ this laA not bdag 

fnllicicntly fixed by the Byzantine writers : ndtber does the 

name fignlfy ihe fome as Am ; for althoogh thofe hiAonuH ' 

explain it gold, yet in reality /iltAn lai or t^g fignlfies the 

mountain ^ gold, in the Mogol or Turkijb laogns^; Ek tak 

' Gaobil. hift. Jenghiz Khao, p. z. New ccdtcikioii of tri- 
Tch, 4(0. vol. iv. p. 43}. ■ Gaobil. p. 11. in the ooccfc 

* Di LA C»oix, hift. Jeng. p. 6. 'See ancient hitoij. 

vol, XX p. 

(I) D^UerteUl writes ErJu- ivire in fcr Hmt iratfrfMiW 

titiun. with. Jhu'lghaxi Khd», in hit 

(K) JCdjifff lignifies, «/»'(£. hiftoiy, p. 28. pnteoditbe fti> 

(L) Z>f/aCr«ix (from whom, was appoioiea in memory of 

io his life ofJengbiT: Khan, p. 6. their famous fally ou of It*- 

we have this circumftance), tells naiea. 

US of an annual feill obfervcd (M) Perhaps Jrtt^ ; to the 

by thiMogf/s, in mimoiy of this eaft of which the Megili dwelti 

foundery ; or r.ither, perhaps, between it and the mount»in 

of their having found out the Karieg. SetMu^igiaKi Kitu* 

way of working iron, which, hiftory, p. lo; and GiSui 3f- 

SiiiJai informs m, t'lt Turks Hoin. arc. iVu*, p. n6. 


C. I? Their affairs till Jenghfz Yihia. ^f 

or ^ilftak, the vtlnte mountain. Pa-haps it wait t>y both 
BtBKs, «h1 the Greeks bnm^t home only the latter. 

Im cfleft, if VR may be aUe to judge, from the imperfeft 
aoconnt that U left hs, of the roads which the ambaHadors 
took to aod from the Turlafii camp or court, the mountain 
Ek tai, ia cafe it be the fame with that of Kin, muft be ra-' 
ther to the weft than caft of it. 

That o«r reader may the better jadge of tMs, we Ihall 
Jay before him what Ultle wc Hud coDCcming thofc roods. 

With rward to the route taken t^ Zemari, the firft Rttdi intt 
awhaf&dor from the Rtmuau to the Turks, we are only 
told, that he was' fent back with Mamak, priqte of the Sog- 
tSaiu i and that, being arrived in his country, he travelled frc^ 
dicnce to mount Ek tak, and returned to Cenfiantiraple thro' 
the coantry <^ the Kliatmaru, and town cfKatHtet. The 
amba&don fent to Toxander, fon of Difabulei, took a dif- 
ferent coorie ; they failed from Ccnfiantino^ to Sinope, oa 
the north coaft of Afia Mmor^ and thence crolfed over the 
Emxme fea to Kherfomt, in the Kherfonefiu .- they proceeded 
throagh the country of the Opturiant, and other fandy teni- 
tones, and the (both frontiers ofTaurica : then, pafling over 
marftiy places, fuH of reeds, they came to the coantry of Ak '** Twt* 
^a (N) ; fo named from a lady, who formerly ccHmnanded """'^• 
the Scythians, and received that power from linimgeus, prince 
of the UtragurUns. LafUy, th^ arrived at the {daces where 
tf»e trophies of ToxandSw were fet up *. 

This is all we meet with relating to the roads into the 
ootiniry of the Turis, taken by the Roman attAafTadon : nor 
is there any thing faid of that rood which the ambaSdors of 
DifiUndes K>ok in their way to ConfiantinopU ; farther than 
tint, after travelling over a vail extent of country, and 
mountains covered imth fnow, they entered (0) into die Cap- 
fian Hraits. 

Ova author is fomewhat more particular in his account Kllat am^ 
of the road takes by the ambaJ&dws of the fSiats. After s.hajfiid»ft, 
Vn% march they arrived at a marfhy traft of land, of great 
cxteBt : here ooc of the ambafladors lakbg the flvxtell but 

^ MtHAHD. c. 13. 19. 

(N]^^«fignifies,f^u'&Vr dlmUiAPiuiiiahj Pt»iiMf,Mnd 

l^- a day's lovia^j man Rmnt bjr 

(0) One wonld have ima- jirriaa which Xofo or JCoriw, ' 

piled, that they pafled Ibuth- la ti\ probability, is the &nie 

waiti, between the Baxint and with Raj or Rtf, once the capi- 

C0MS feat t bat the Ca^om tal of Ptr&m Irdi, abow eighty 

Initi ve placed becwecn Mt- miles foath-eaft ^Kawiia, 

■* L „/t,L.oogIe 

^ GnuratOi/hfyeftbtTiiTki: B.Ii 

moft ddort road, tbe otha advanced aloag the iniirai9 for 
twelve days togettMr ; then, contiDuiag bis jonmey over biHg, 
ft$ loigth came to the river hik (P) ; and next to the river 
Zfaii (QJ. From thence, trtvelling along another lake, they 
Uiived at Atrila (R), and the country cf the Hungart. Pro- 
ceeding through a dry defart country, along ievenl great 
lakes, they came to a niorafs, into which tbe river Kafm diT- 
Tr^w,t ^^^^S^ itfelf. Then they entered the country of the ^lAiu ; 
i,^f but were afnud of the //oramo/it ; and, being advifcd not to 

Gtvece. go into the territories of ^e Mimiimiaiu (bccauie the Per- 
Jians lay ia ambafti, in Siv^nU, to intercept than), they 
turned off to the right, and, ftrikiiig tbroagh theJ?(w-uM(S), 
. or two gates, a pafs, arrived in J^iia (T) : thcjuce tbcy proceed- 
ed ut ftttaurion (U), and the Euxine k^ ; afterward, crofliiig 
rthe Pha/ii (X), ibsy cams to Traiixond, and fo to Cott/tan- 

Ws are bdioldea to Menander for thele notkeri; which, 
though Ihcrt, deserve to be prefcrved, as bei^ almoft tbe 
only account we find of travels into Tartary rar many cen- 
turies together. 
Tufci But to return to the aj&ks of the oriental Turks. Dif- 

t^'^ abultt having, at the requeft of the Segdiiuu (Y), wfaooft, 
with the Nt^talitet (Z), he had newly oMtquered, feoc 
two emb^Ces to tbe Perfiam, to fdicit a trade for lilk; 
the PirJUmt were not content with rge^Hng the alli»ice of 
the Turkst 6a account of theu- inconflancy and breach of 
faith, as they alleged ; but, to give them an averficm to die 
country, pcnfoned thdr amliafladors : from whence b^tn the 
enmity between thole two nations. It was on this occaJioa 
that DifiAuks feat ambafladors to the empercH- Jufiin, ai be- 
ibre-mentioned ; who concluding a treaty of peace, ^he Tarks 
became die friends and alliee c^ the Semaru ; with wbioai 
fg iif they never had any dealings before. Much about tbe ume 
Xomiiu. time the XSatt (A) aUb, who were iiib^ K> DiJmhtUt, and 

' MiNAHD. c. 6, « 

(Py TEis miy bt tSc Tem. (D) Rtttoiritn, a town, orca- 

(d) Which feems to be the ftle, belobgiag to the Ramami. 
Jdii, or r«ii, (X] Now F^, or JWhi. 

(R) I>Otft>tle& die IFff^i (V) Tbe Stg^mi were the 

C«ned ^ Jtil, or BtU; or alfe people about Samarkmnd, which 

ibme towa apoa it. ftands in avdiey called S»gJ. 

(S) i)«rtf^ figaifiei, nJwa- (Z) Called, by ?r«^'«i.£/tfr> 

ht, titttutgMt). talim, of whom kereaner. 

(T) JtfiiU, IbnewlUre in (A) Perhapt the fame widi 

- JtfupwEo. the£(£Mc 

I fi^t»ted 

'atuldtad 'Dear th« borders ti the Roman empire,, box am* 
hK&don to Jiifim. The coaatry t^ the Turkj vu thcD di* 
Tided iBU> fonrgownunents, aU under the command of Dj/a* 
fcJtf : fereral latioas, and, anoog the.reA, the ^ar» (B) 
Kkd Hangort (C), were fnbjeft to them ; bat ao,ooo of the. 
famMt had rmlted, and paJIed into SurePe'^. 

The ambal&dors engaged Jufiin to maltc war upCKi tbePrr- 7*^ Per. 
JSaao, ofiering to ravage Media at the fame time : aad, at tb«fiins in- 
eod of lus tbnrth year (D), the emperor lent Zatiark on sav^Ad. 
anbaffj to Difatulet .- who, profdCng much {nendlhip, feail* 
td the smbafiadors nnder a teat, fpi^ with carpets, of le> 
veral coloars, twt phin maon&Aure; where they eai and 
- dnuifc all day. At this entertainment there was no wine ; 
for no grapes were found in their country^ but they had 
other Gqstx-, whidt was fwcet and agrectd>le. Next day they 
c treated in another tent, wbofe fnmiture was rich an4 

SooH after, Difabidti, fettii^ forward en his maich agUnA' 
the Perfians, took ZemurA with him, and fonlodf hi*retiiioe| 
bat left the refl ia the oonntry of the KHatorioKt (£). He 
aUa gave the ainhq^ftfjor a cwcuirine t£ Ha, who was one d 
dkofe called CerkMfet ' {¥). 

In the fccond year of the emperor Tiieriui (G), ^nJtgntiVu'iKoinaii 
was (eat oa an cmbafTy to Di/abukt, in coqipuy with 600 tmbaj^. 
Tmrks, who came to Confiantinop/e, with feveral ambafliulGn : 
bat D^ihJft dying Iboa after VaUntin^i arrival, be was tha 
next day admitted to audience by his fsn Toxaiidtr; who 
charged the Romans with ntifice, and breach oi faith, for con- 
fcdentiiig ^th the yarhmttt, or Avaresy who were ia i;e« 
beffioD againft him. After this, he gave the ambofladoi ta 
ondcrfbkd, that he had fubdned the Alains and Utrigoriani ; 
and that Ananceas (H) was then a^knlly encamped befera 
B^borui (I), with an army of Turks. In flicMt, the Creek 
hiftooffli complains, that 'he treated die ambtfladcr very Ul». 

■ KievAifD. c. 6, 7, IS- ■■ Ibid. c. x. 1 j. • Ibid. c. 19. 

(B) Evaffius fay». the Ahari (F) Donbtlcf) cither Cbiria^ 

wcfc driven out of their coun- Jl^mi, or Ktrghis. ' 

Py ly the Turit. (G) That is, in 5 80. 

(q Perbapi Un-iitrt. (H) Perhipt the Tafflc witA 

(D) The foonfa of hii reign, Anangam. ' 

An. Or. 569; and feconj of (I) A city of iki lUmaki, iA 

ik thy years troce with Khaf- the Tavriea Kherfin^i of the 

niut iprefnme. c\i Paniieapjum ; and, if 'lltli 

(EJ Or KliatH befoie-mcn- exiOing in the KAm, if eiihe^ 

Boaed. " Ttni ia!^, ax Kerch. ;' \ 

D 4 This 

40 . ' CtntralJ^ory of Ait v^ : B.I. 

CtHgu0i This account we have bom fltenander, Th« next aewi 
»ft%t w« hear of the Turks is from Siaukatta; who mforms as, 
Ti>ric>> ttiat the KagSn (E) of hb tipie ^vhoin he aames not), fo fa- 
tnons among thie oriental Titrii, fent an amboflador to the 
emperor Mauritius, in the beginning of the fuRUncT(L), with 
a letter, fpcakijig in high terms of hn li^toriet •■ the fupcr-< 
fcrtption ran thuB; 7ha Kagan, the grtat hrd ^ fevm na- 
tions, and mafler ef fgvtn climates of the werld, tg the kaig 
tf tie Romans. la effeA, continues Shtukatta, this Kagia 
had conquered the Ahte&ans, or AephtaJites, and f«zed thrir- 
dffistnions : after whkh, being dated with hii fuccefs, hs 
jtwted Stembtjhadv; utd fubdned the Avareu NcKt be 
marehed againft the Ogoritu (M), asd amqnered them (M), 
killing 300,000, atid pnt 10 death their king K^k, 
their eivU This TlAory was followed by a dnl war among the Turi^/. 
Vl0r4' One of his relations, named Turon, having revolted, he was 
obliged to implore tlie aid of Sparxugun, Khunaxohis, and 
Tumk I "With which he defeated the tyrant, in the plain a£ 
Ikar. After he had thus fettled his afiairs, he lent the abovci 
mentioned cmbaily to tlie emperor Mauritius, to acquaint 
him vni&i his good foccefs. The Kagin, ferther to luep 
things in a fettled pofture, made alliance with the inhabitants 
pf Taugafla (0), whofc prince was called Tayfim *. 

Thesk are all the tranfaftions which the RmufRs had with 
the Turks, till the time of the Se^&is. La us now turn our 
eyes towards tbc tfifiher ^/a, asd f« What they wre doing 
on that Rdp, 
Tit ling Wk have already glvcir an acoaunt of the ori^ <^ the 
S^P^lia, Turks, from an extr»& latdy mode from the annals of £&Vu, 
ttd publifli^ by Mr^ Cuaues, under the title of The or^n 

> Siuoc4TT«, I. vii. c. 7, 2, t 

(K) iCkAf, Kmu, QTKuhan, ^uttn.wliencf thofe people hav« 

^itht^tknxMutgflsaad^Iiithi taken the fame names. Sime- 

jiroiioun^ it. juitta, book vii. ch. 7. 

(L) la the year 600. (N) SSmakatta teems to coa< 

(M)Tl)efeOfanV/j, or C^arj, found the conqaefts of P/AiwSrf 

feem tp be the Ojiun, or yigSrt, with thpfe of the J^hjn of hii 

eft mcatiQncdlMfare: they were Qtyn time. 
bcFOnu! powerfii) by (hf ir nnm- (O) A famou* city of the 

pers. and dexterity at their wea- Tiirh, near Sis^bib, according 

fon$: they inhdvtfd ihf banlcs to CaJifius, c. ;o. SogJianM is 

•f the rim Til, called by the the fame, at preient, with the 

Turks th? ilfick rivf fKara-jU, province of Samariaitd, in Great 

V Kfiramvrtn). The ancient J?«i(iar/(i, or perhaps with Qrfof 

priocei who commanded them, ' Bukbarim ilfelf. 
Wfre G4Ut4 r#r, wd Khm, 01 

. . ,..,,.,003. ' 

C. I. fiiir a§mi tHl Jenghhi Kiiiln. 4t 

^ tie Hma atiJ Turks; who, from thence, appear to hare 
bem the bmt people, under didereot aames. We Ihall ia 
ttui place give the fubAance of that memoire at large, at it 
SBiy hdp to fapplr and explain many imperfeA and obfcure 
yafiagts b tBe hifiory wfaidi follows of thofc people, taken 
fron the oriental hiftoiians. 

The Huiu were a conTiderable nation of Great Tarlary ; gamed offi 
sbI lad the dominion there more than 200 years before the Turks. 
Qt^caa zra. They inhabited fomteily ^ in the ndghbonr- 
bood of the great ddart, extending from the country of Ko- 
ni, on the eaSt, to that of the Getet {?), on the weft. 
'^Chvufe hlftoiians (pve them two dilierent names, Hyong- 
mfaod TUdHk ; that i«, Hunt and Turlu. The firft is that 
vUcli they had beibre the time of Chrift : the {econd, that ' 
widdi a remnant of ihefe Htau, re-cftabliAied in Tartary, 
aSmied afKTwards. 

These Huns or Turki ^ dwelt in teatt, placed In carti, Way of 
ad mnorcd from place to place, for the conTeniency oiliving. 
ptftnre 10 feed their cattle ; which fupplied them with both 
food and doathing. They defpiied old people, and only fet 
I nine on the young, as more proper for war, which was 
thar lolc occupation. Their riches confiAed in fheep and 
catle; but chiefly in the number of Haves, taken in war. 
Tfae flutUs of ibek enemies ferved for cups to drink out of in 
■itcir ptiocipal ceremoiues. Once every year they aHembled at 
die imperial c»mp, '&nd facrlEced to their anceAors, heaven, 
tbe earth, and fpiiits. Every morning the emperor adored 
the ri&if fan, and in the evening the motm. The left band 
VM the poft of honour with thete people, as it is at prefent 
>ith the Turkt : and in all thdr encampments the emperor's 
Kut ii«i placed fronting the north. At his death, they put 
QtD the coAia with his body his richell habits ; and conveyed 
bim to hit lepulchre, attended by all^ofe of his family, and 
tusdSccrs. For the fpace of one month, they attended on lum 
ia ibc (ame manner at when he was alive : and the men of 
talmrcD^ged in siting, like onr knights formerly, in tbor 

^VenkyentmnluuiiEara-inOfOr Knjc-mn- Vetamchi van 
aatua pow fwifhu. ' Yetumchi. ven byeii turn kau. 

[(P) Or J4iah, at the oiien' by the Chinefi Sbama, and by 
^ wiiu it ; the defart which the Mangpli, who inhabit it, Ke- 
Mr. GmiMii calls the difan of li; a word which AgilifiM a de- 
PliM, ii that vaft defart to the fartl, - 
194 of the ChiM/t wall, called 


t, Coogle 

^ General Hifiory of the Turfcs : B. R 

JBarSarmi - TWos lived the. Huns in the earlteft dmcs, that is, under 
tu/iettu their Taitjilf, or emperors* : but their manners changed in 
timo. When re-sftabliftted in Turkeftan, they introduced a 
barbarous cuAom, with regard to their Itings. As foon as 
their grand Khdn was dead, lus fon, or neareft relation, ■was 
declared emperor ; and, to know if his reign would be happ7 
and lor^, they put a filk cord about his neck, and after 
dra\«iig it fo tight as to flop rcfpiration, then flackened it, 
and the iirft words which he pronounced in coming ra him- 
fclf, were coniidered as predictions of what was to happen Id 
his reign. 
Ogoz These ffartj.have inhabited Turkeftm from a!I anti- 

Khin quity': and it appears from thdr hiftory, that, in procefe 
tbtirfrfi of time, fevcrd Chinefes alfo removed into tliat part of tar- 
attror. tary. Aftcrthedcftrnftioriof the /fyadynafty, a prince of that 
faimly, foo of the Jaft emperor ,( Q_^), retired thither. -with ail 
his people ; and, according both to the Chinefe and Perfian « 
hiftorians, the Tanjut or emperors of the Huni are liis de- 
f^dants. Dibbakaivi, mentioned by Mirkond (R), is no 
ether titan the empertM- fi?, founder d[ the feme Chtru/e dy- 
nafly : and one of his defcendants, named Mau-ton Tait^u, 
is the femous Oguz fChm (S), who is confidered thronghont 
7artary as the founder of Hvt empire of the Huns (T) : he 
maintained fierce wars againft- the Chinefes. His pofterity 
reigned a long time oi-er Ac whole nation of the Hnns, wth 
the title of Tanju ; bung the ccmtTaiftioa of a wca-d which, 

'.Swilhu. Tamfliu. Ven hyen torn kau. • Ven hyen turn 
flWD. Kam-mo. " AlBeidawi. Mirkond. 

(QJ [This.emperor's liame urae hia Taiterian wTufiffi. .All tlw 

Ki*i ae reigned fifty two years, inhabicaots of Wefiens Tartarj, 

"Diedynalty C0DUaiied44t,a:id as well as the Qtbmaa Turin, 

ended 1767 years befoit the put him among their earlieft 

bifth of Chrift. Mr. Gulgua ancefldr*, and greiteft conqncr- 

omitsthe dates of many remark- Op}; 

able tianfaflions, which renden (T)-Kam-ino'. Vea-fayen turn 
hb cxtrafl imperfefl and ob- kau. [Thebiftory.inthitplaev, 
fcure}. feemsio beobfcure, ifnoccon- 
(R) Dthbaiaviii, or, as others fiifed: fiom-the circumftance of 
wrifie, Hibbakui Khan, is men- the//nneDipeTorsbeingdefceDfI> - 
tionid by AbH'lgha%i Khan, in ed from the fon of the lafl cm- 
Its hiftory of the Tiirii. If he is peror of the Hya, he fecms to be 
Aefamewiih Ya, he began his the fame with Offcc Khin. ff 
Kign in the year 7107 before the time of their reivns had 
Chrift. been fpeci&ed, it would have 

(S) ^Man-tin muft be confider- cleared Up the point-} 
«i a:fcisCi(WjiDa:nc; Ogaaat 


in Aar l n ^pttge, fignified ths/on tf heaven ; and often com- 
mitted b omikies agsbA* the Ciine/es, normthftan^g the 
treaties tjE peace and allUnces which were made mth them. 

Ohdbr one of tbefe princes, named Pu W Tanf^ *, the^j^^^ 
cBfHre of the Ntau begun confiderably to decline. A lerrible^Mvrr- 
haiat, \rhkh h^pened among them, proved the foTt-raimerJtcli»a. 
of aany other e^. The Ctanefes, taking advantage of thor 
mifenUe drtamftancM, attacked them; but, at theu- humble 
fiiit, graated them peace. Yet fcaice were the Chine/es retired, 
wha the Eafiem Taflatj entered thnr country, and bbligcd 
thetn to remove more to the north. But that which was the 
fiwrcc of all tbdr evils, and c(HApleted the ruin of this em- 
ptre, was the dilftniSon '^riiich crept into the royal &mily, on 
the -following occafion. PtHtHTofijS fU) put to death a bro- 
ther of bis, urtio w« to have been his ruccefTor, in order to 
place his own foD on the throne. Hereupon, a prince of the 
lame fanuly, the foa of an emperor, condnded,. that the fuc- 
ceffioQ beloved to him ; which h^ lilte to have coft him his 
Hfe: bat, bdng'wamed in time of his danger, he found 
means to elcapc, and put himfdf at the head of certain Hor- 
dti or tribes, who proclvmed him emperor. 

Thus the empire of ti»e Huns came to be dtrided into nrojieir 
fMTts. Thofc <w the fonth, over whom the new monarch ot/iV* 
reigned ; aftd thefe of the north, fubjeft to Piikd Tanju. \iM-jiJtd. 
is ihb <UTiltoo of which the Per/tan hifVorians Mirkond nnd 
Seidiwi make mentioa ; ^ving to one party the name of Mo- 
gob, and to the other that \A Tartan (WJ. 

Aptbr this defeAion, the itorthem Hxms found the Chi-jiattf&m 
tt^t Icfs <fi^9olcd to affift them m their calamities than theymr/ikra 
were before. They wae continually oppofed by thole dTHmu.^ 
dK fimth } who at length granted them peace. They t\ixsif"V*^- 
nfblved to carry tbeir arms into Ma-wara'lnahn where, 
.dated with their fnccofi, they, witl»nt r^ard to the &th of 
treatiet, bent thdr forces againft China. But there they found 
the Htmt of the foatb. Who rcpulfed them vigoronfly. At 
Ja^^ tbe Chinas, always ta&eA by thefe ktter, after fevefal 
battles, determined ntterly to defb-oy the Huns of the north ; 
vfaidi they cffirfted by their general trai-hycn, who, in the 
ragn of Hyau ffo-H (X), emperor of the ffan dynafly irv 
£hina, defeated the northers ffuns in Tarltu-y : and, in or- 

<■ Kam-mo. VeD-hxentiuDkaw. Kam-(b». 

(U) fltrthe copy before os, 'tis ( W ) fThe Tartars feem to b» 
kete rpelt Ptnacn, which h be- the rabjcAs ofPu kiTanjul. 
fn^ writtca Pnttaii]. (X) [He began his reJgo A. 


- ^"-'"81^ 

44. General I^fisry ef the Turks : B. I. 

dn- to tiviltnit to pofterity the memory ti diit rtAory, he 
cauled an infcription to be cat on a moutitaia in Turkeftan, 
indicating the time vrbea it happened (Y). 

The Perftan hiftorians ' afcribe this defeat cS the Huns to 
7ur, the fon of Feridun : but it is eafy to fee, feys our aa-" 
thor, that they were led into this error by the ilmilitude of 
the names feu) and Tur (Z) : withal, being fend of thdr 
antlent heroes, they laid h<Md of this otxaTion to advance their 

Of the Huns, thus vanquifhed *, fome remained in Tir- 

tary, and mingled with the tribes who had been broughf from 

the farthefl parts of the eaft, to re-peo[^ dus coantry. Bat 

Tkiy ad- the major part of theis continued to advance towards the weA, 

'vanet through the re^ons to the north <A Samarkand, till they 

•wefi- reached the Cafpian fea, uk! parts dKHit j4ftrakan. Here, 

•ward. where the Chinefe hiftorians lofe ifight of them, ours begin to 

have them in view; and, condu^ii^ them into ^wro/r, over the 

Paliu Maotis, after pointing out their various migrations, feat 

them in Pannonia, as hath been already mentioned. 

Southern The fouthern Huns, who ' remained in then- jintieijt 

Huns ■ country, prefervcd their pbwer, till fuch time as a tribe of 

the oriental Tartars, named Ju^en, intirely fabdued them, 

and brought almoft the whole extent of Tartary under their 

dominion. The title borne by their kings was that of Kh&n, 

or Khakdn, w^ich was fubftituted in the place of Ta«ju, 

The Huns, thus driven out, went and eftaUilbed lereral prin- 

rities in the northern China ; which were deflroyed one 
the other. One of them, whofe princes defceaded from ■ 
the emperor of the Hum, was defeated by Tajr-v^-ti, tm- 
peror c^ the northern China. Upon this misfortune, the 
whole famil}', together with the Huns, retired into a moun- 
/"*^""^ hta.iao(Tarlary, named Erkena-Kom. Thefe people, at that 
/ Juijen.jjjjjg jjjpij known by the yme of Turks, were employed, ac- 
cording to th^ Chinefe, as well as Mohammedan hiftorians " , in 
forging iron works, for the fervice of the Khans of the Jui- 
jtn Tartars ; and continued in this mamiCT to fupport them- 

' r MtRKOHD. D'Hehbelot. ■ Ven hyen torn lean. 
Kim-mo. ■ Hif han (hu. KaQ-mo. Chin (hu. U-tay fhu, 
* Kim-mo. Swiflia. Biidawi. Mirkond. T^-lhn. 

(Y) [Mr- Gtiiguei would have Taur. Thi* conjeflurc feern* too 

done well to mention when this forced. Belide9,the?(r/(a« hi- 

wu, or in what year of Hjau flariaiu refer the reigna of TSr 

Jla-ii, emperor of the Han, this and ftrUiin, or Fraydbin, to the 

defeuhappened]. ages long before di6 Cbrijiian 

(Z) [In thg Frtnch, Ttott ttA sera]. 


C. I. Tbeif avoirs till Jen^i^ Khk. 45 

blves for a certain number of years ; that is, dll the Juijen came 
to be attacked by the nations inhabitii^ to the weft of them. 

TU-MWEN (A) Khan, at that time chief of the Irkena- 
KoM tvrks, inarched out c^ the mountwi, at the head of 
nhofe pec^de, and defeated the enemy. Tu-mnuen, making a 7^ Jul. 
merit <rf this fervice which he had done the Khak&n or em-jen bjiht 
■ pmM* of the Juijen, imagined he was intitled to demand his1'ttrlE&. 
daughter in marriage. The Khak^n, fsx from being of the 
£mieo[nnioD, rejected the propofal with difd^n ; faying, that 
rt did not become a JlAve to ajpire to fitch an alliance -with hit 
/everrign'. Tu-mvien, incenfed at fo contemptuous a rcpulfe, 
immediately revolted againll his prince ; and, having flain the 
Juijen envoy, entered into a confederacy withA>n-ri, emperor 
of the northern fTitfffo. Next year he marched agaiofl the ^ui/Vn, 
defeated them, and llew their /Ciiin ; after which he turned 
that title, and caufed hlmfelf to be called Tu-m-wen llkhan. 

Im this manner was eftablifhed a powerful dominioo in Tar- 
tary, at that time called the empire of the Ttirki, To prc- 
ferve the memory of the origin of this fomily, they ufed to 
allcmble every year, and, with much ceremony, beat a piece E'«pi'-e of 
di hot iron upon an anvil : a cuftcMn vhich continunl to'^Turlcs. 
the time of Jatghiz Khan *, who descended from this Tie 
tmwen Khan ; and 'tis from hence that fomc of our hlftorians 
luve re|»'efented this prince as the fon of a blackimith. 

The Juijen, thus driven out of tbdr country by the 
Tarh ', in all probability palTcd into Europe ; where, brtng 
known by- the name of the falfe Avares, or Abares, they 
mixed with the Huns c^ the north, who had been fettled Hanga- 
there a long time before : and thefe two people uniting tc«e-rians 
tber formed the nation of the Hungarians; that is to ix<f,'"'hii(e. 
Hun-lkoriant .- whkh lad name is that which die Juijen went 
by in Great Tartary, 

This is the true wi^nal of the fepond Huns, or Turks, 'm 
Turkefi^, according to the Chinefe hTnorians. But, not con- 
tent with a beginning which had not fomething extraordinary 
in it, they amm ', that a nation of Tartars, bang at war, Fable af 
was (b intirely defeated by thar enemies, that only one child'^Zena^ 
c&aped theflaughter, whofe arms and l^s, howe^'er, they cut 

* Ram-mo. ' La Ckaix hilt, de Jenghjz Kh^a. ■ Kam- 
mo Nicepborus Cal. ' Vcd hyen tum ihau. 

(A) [By the WeAfljmw^n'r hi- oaXof Irgamaie>s,nnieTSertk:tra 
Soriant written Tmnatia Khan. Klin, nineteen grneiatior; bt. 
AbiilghafdKhan malccj him the fore ; aod, by his reckoning, 
fifiliaaceftor ofTi^pi^fz^^^ii; above z ,00 years. Seeanc.hiU. 
ud pan the fall/ of the Mvi»U voLiip. 3J — ^i\- 


. 46 General Wfiery of the Tprks : B. I. 

oS, and then threw him into a. lake : that « flu-wolf, u>uchcd 
Miith the misfortunes of the boy, drew him ogt of the dan- 
ger he was in, and, provided for his fnppon : that the child, _ 
out of gratitude, married this wolf ; and, returnmg with hor 
into tile mountains to the north-weft of the Igurs country, Sbm 
there brought forth twelve children; whole ddcendants todt. 
the name of Ajfena. 
havi tx- The account which is ^vcn (by the weflern hiftorians) of 
fiaiaed. Tu-mwen Hkbdn «, will explab the abwe fable. This prince, 
named Tumana by the Perjian hiftorians, was the Con of Sif- 
ter, (oa. oi A'aydu, defcended from Bizeiijir, fcm of queen 
Manka-wa. This queen of the MogoU ix Turkt; then inha- 
biting the mountains of Tartary, and before the re-cftablifli- 
meat of their empire, being Idt a widow, with two children, 
according to the account both of Mshammtdan and Chinefr 
writers, took, the govefoment of her finall ftate, during the 
cunority of her fons, and conftantly refuled to marry a^n. 
However, her firm attachment to viduity did not hinder her 
from being the mother of three other children, one of whcxn 
was named Buzn^ir. The grandfon of Buzenjir, called 
Duiumin, had nine children, eight of whom pertftied on s 
certain occaiion '' : and our author is perfuaded, that the 
above-mentionai fable had on eye to th^ maiTacre. 
Triie of The ninth fon of Dutumin, who efcaped, was Kaydu, the 
'** Zenas g^iier of BiJIkar, and another called Hurmalanktan, whofc 
, «-w«A»«, (jjij^ji-g,^ bore the name of wolves ; on which the feble la ap- 
parently founded : but then this biftory does not refpeft the 
Turks in general, but only the particular hord of them called 
Zenas (B), or Ajfcnas, as the Chinefe pronounce it, defcend- 
ed from liurmalankum. 
Saftem TU-MWEN liibda, after he had fubdued the yuijen, 
, attJ attacked and defeated feveral other people of Tariary. His 

"^^b"* ^^' imitating their father's exaim)le, formed an empire 
Turu. vhich extended fi-om the Cafpian fea to Korea. But as fo 
vaft a re^n could not \oo% remain under the dominioo of 
one prince, thefe Turks divided into two branches ', the 
caftern and the weftem, who had each their particnlar Kh^. 
Whcy-ke The empire of the latter extended as far as the Sibun *, 
Turks, and more than once became f<Mmidable to the kings of Per- 
^, particularly HarmAzd, fx Hormifdas, fon of K^hi Anujb- 

■ Hill. gen. At% Tartarcs. Mirkohd. bift. de Jenghiz Khin. 
■Hill, des Mongula. Ywen Iha, K-am-mo, * bee before, 

.p. 38. 'JCamfhu. Ram-mo. Anc. hiKvol. xx. ^ Ferdo^. 

(B) Zma, in Turkifi, fignliies ««i'e^ as hath been obfenred 


C. x^ 3%«r tf^Wn /*!/ Jengluz Khan^ 47 

ina&i. But, in procefs of time, this empire of the weftcm 
Turks 'Was dtAroyei by other Turlu of the-hord, named 
Vhey-ke, wlio founded a new domiaioQ in the fame country; 
and from thefe Wbey-ke Turks, in the opinion of our author, 
VCTC dcfcended the four famous Seijuk dynaAics of Irdrit ixfi-avt ^ 
Perjia at large, Kermm, Rum, or Afia. mitwr, and Syria, i>:betn tht 
rdgnitw; in Aleppo and Damafcus. Seljiilu. 

As ^r the oriental Turks, who inhabited at the fardier end 
of TurhtJloR, their branch was dcftroyed by the people named Eajtmi 
XJntan ', who came originally from Eajiem Tartary :■ tbcTurlcsr 
Khitan were, in their turn, invarfed fccrni the: fame quarter, 
by the Nyu-che Tartars '■, who arc t!ic Alu'm A'Aflnj.(C) <£ 
.die MfihamTtudan writers, and called by us- at prefeni vWan- 
chnus. This nation having ruined the empire of the Khitan, ri-^ j . 
ftune of the latter paffed into Pcrfta, and there efiablilhed a^^£j_ 
dynafty, known to the Mahammedan authors by the name (^^q, 
Kara Khatayans, 

The Turks, after the deflruftion dL their empire, as above 
related, formed themfelves into fmall principalities -, and '^'^^Breiea ^ 
hord had its particular Kh^n. The Kera-its, or Kara~its,t9 tribes, 
ooe <rf" thefe Turkijb tribes ", were, in the twelfth centurj', 
gcnremed by s prince named Tuli Khan, otherwife called Onk 
Khan ', whom the Arai writers Hile King John, and European 
travclleis Prejier John. 

The poftcrity of Tu-tttwen Rkhan dwindled infenfibly, and 
was on the point of being extinguilhed, or at leaA of never 
making any confidcrable Hgure again^in Tartary, when the 
£unous Jenghix Khan appeared c. 

This is die original of the Turks, according to the Chineje 
hJAorians; but compared, in certain periods, with the zo-Somrt- 
counts given by the wellcrn .;^a/jV writers. In this cato^- marks ttt 
rilbn, however, Mr. Cmgues docs not fuSiciently dillinguiiU 
what is taken from the authors of each kind, ci±er in the 
text, or by the references : neither dfles he ollign dates to all 
the jHiDcipal fafts. When he lays Dibakkdiui Khan is the em- 
peror Yu, and that Mau ton Tanjou is Ogiiz Khan, it does not 
^>pear whether thole are the words of the Chineje annals, or ''^'/'"'egt- 
<Kily conje^hires rf his own. Suppofing them to be the Chi-'^""'^ **' 
i^fe accoKDt, there will be fouod a great difagrcement be- 

'Somlha. Kam-mo. Venhyenfimflian. ■» Aflu'tFAitAj. 
BiiiiAwr. " V wen Aid. ° Abu'lfaraj. r Gut cues 
orig. del Huns tt TdtIcs. 

[C) [And the Kin Tartan of neft, appellative fos^^eU, as hath 
die Cbim/t hilloriam : Aliiii be- been already remained] . 
vg the Turkifi, and Kin the thi- ■ ^ 


4? Geftertl Hifiory of the Turks : B. I. 

tween it and the Tartar relation ■* for Og&x Khan will be the 
nineteenth in defcent from Dibbakiwii or Tu, accordii^ to ths 
former, and but the fifth according to the kttd-. By this 
latter alfo Tu-mwen is only the fifth ancdtor of Jenghtz Kh&n i 
but the Chintfe annals fet him at the head of the Irgaaak^ti 
felly, inftead oi Bertiztita, nineteen generations before. If Mr. 
Guigues had been mote, copious and diAinft in his extra^ it 
would have fupplied many dcfeifls, and cleared up many ob- 
fcurities in the hiitory of the Turks, which, for want there- 
of, we meet with in the Mohammedan hiftoiians, from whom 
we arc now going to give an account of their aiTairs, till the 
Seljfiks founded their empire in" Iran. 

MIRKOND, the Perfian hiftorian, informs us, that, 
i»^en Ke/re AmjlHrvidn, the famous Khofroes (D) of the Cretk 
hiftorians, came to the throne, which was about the year 
^uhiui 531, he was podeflcd of Maviara'inahr (E), to which he 
the Ab- added other countries ; and, among the reft, that of Mtela *. 
«•»■ The country of Abtela, which fignifies, in Perfian, water 

of gold, takes its name from 2 people fo called ; who, fome 
time before, had conquered it. The Greeks, corrupting the 
word, called them Nephtalites (P), Eutalitei, and, mcH'enear' 
ly, Ephtalites. They were denominated, by the Arabs, Hay 
atelah. According to Precopius, the Ephtalites were thofe 
called the -whtte Huns : they fecm ta have been mafters, for 
a time, of ail Mawara'lnabr, or Great Bukharia ; to whidi 
. Abulfeda gives the name of Hayatelah ', Dr. Hyde obforeS, 

'their Jt- ^j( Heyateleh was the title of the king of KatlAn ', a pro- 
mmtiu.- ^jj^ jjj jjjp caftcrn part oiMaviara'lnahr : and Eutychius in* 
forms us, iixatGoJbnawaz, ]iAi\goij1bte!ah, who raifed /tr^ 
to the throne of Perfia, about the year 465, was king rf 
BeMi ■, and part of Khorafin ; which fhews, that the domi- 
nion of the Abtela had once been ve ry extenfivc (G) ; though 
we may fuppofe their fower to have been much reduced, at 
the time when Anujhirwan conquered them. 

4 MiKKOKD. ap, Teixeiram, p. 16]. - ' AbVlf. defer. 

Chowarazro, p. 29. * Hvde in Peritrol. itin. nand. p. 156. 

,*'£vTYCH. annal. vol. ii. p. iit, 

(D) Son of Keioj^t. ThtPtr- (G) D'Htr^A/ fays they were 
Juhj write Kb^Jrtnv and Kgbad. the antienc InJa-Sejibt, wid in- 

(£^ Which name >nfwcr« to habited the countries of ^nub- 
Trai^oxaxa. bar, Titet, and BarenUla, a Mfl 

(F) Hence fome fi/re^rmaU' ofTibit; from whence he liip- 
thors have fuppored thofe coun- pofes the name to be derivea. 
trie» to have been peopled by Blbl. orient, art. Hialhela and 
7^1', p.irticulaily of ttK Vibe t\euf.-crifan, p. 431, 680- 
of N^ihbali. 

L „. ..L.OOQIC 

C. r. fiiir affmH tiil Jenghiz Khan. 49 

bvT.wUle this prince, vas tinfy id extcadii^ his domt* 
nkns, d>ey 'wtre iuv^dedby Kh^in Chiki, king of Tatar or' * 
Tarfary, vri(h a ml^ty army, who took from him Samar- ' 
hand, Sokbilra, and feveral bthir cities in fltawafa'haf^, 
vtndi be afterwards was forced to quit npoa the fuccefln of 
Us gran^bn Harrraz '. 

D'HE K BE LOT rcpfjra, itom Mirkond.^tax. AnuJbinoJhi 
hxnog reptitled xbeMiyatelah beyond the monnt^ Parafia' 
mfiu (H), in his twdtfth year, marched agaioft the Kh^iat 
of the oriental Turin, irfio then rdgaed in the Tranfoxatte 
pnmnces, and ob&ged him to fue fw peace, as alfo to yidd 
him ooK of ^ai daughters In marriage *. Eutychius idate* 
ihls tranfadticn with fome variation : he tells us, that the 
Perfian monarch, refdving to rcrcnge on the Hiyatilah the 
mjnry done his grandlathcr ftr^z, lirft makes an ^Uance 
vith the great KhaXin of the Turks, and acquaints him with 
his is&ffi ; that then marching againft the enemy, he orer- 
dtmr tbem, and killed their Idng ; by this means the conn- 
try of Balii, and the adjacent para of Kherafm, were deli- 
vned np to him ; after which he encamped in Fargdna (I), 
and mamed the Khakan'i daughter >. 

Thb reader, from what has been £ud, may fee thatJC^i- 
iAi is a general name given by the Psrfian hifhnlatil to the 
princes of the Turij, called alfo emperors of Tdr/nrjiicfwhcMa 
ve find mentkm fitim the time cf Bahram-jaur, fon ofTgxde- 
jrrd I. king of Perfta, who began his reign about the ye^r 
ofChrift4i7', as a people different, at Inift with rward to 
dieir or^^inal country, from the antient Turks, or inhutitants 
of Turk^Ai, Gxwat to the north of Per/ia, mth \riMin the 

■ MivKOHD. ap.Texeir. p. 163. * D'HiitatLOT. biU. 

•lien p. 680. art. Nouihirwan. ' Eitttch. annal. vol. 

u. p. iM. r Ibid. p-Sj. 

(H) Tbii can't be the name than in giving the antient names 

viven by Mr^ini^i not can we forthemodern) orthofeoflheir 

determine what. monntaiBi i)' own fancy, inflead of the names 

H*rhtiBt iDtendi thereby. We found in the writen they copy 

frefame he m'eaiu ihofe divide' from : what is fUU worfe, tbcy' 

ttg cither the coDntry of 5a/M, commonly omit inferting, by 

« £(wr^S», fh)m India. An- way of note, the names ofed in 

Aon,often cndeavoaiinetoex- the original] which often puts 

flaia, become more OMCure ; it oat of thepgwcr of otKen to 

and, egt of an affcdaei^n of correA theit miHakef . 
ibemog (heir flcill in geography, (I) A province of JifMiuo 

betray tkeit want of it. There rdhuAr, or Grta Bnkbmia, Ik* 

i* so point in which they yond the river Sibin ot Sir, 

hare committed more errorit Strk, Btrmx. 457. 

Mod. Hist. Vd. IV. E Ptrfimti 

go . GMtrel Hifiafjf «f the Turks. Q. I. 

. P<r^Atl,'Kcordii)g to their hiAcny, had van {K.), m fhe 
* e^ueft timet of their monarchy. The former ue c^led ot\- 
aOAiTitrks, bf way of diftmfUon ; and tbegendc name of 
Chin Ls added to the title of Kh^n, in all prebobitity tQ 
4eaote thqir coming from the eaftem parts of Tartary to- 
wards China ; although It muft be obferrcd, that Chia is a 
gcmeral name, fometimcs tiled by the oiiestsls, to caiB{rc' 
bend both thofe re^oos <. 
SntaJ h- . BORMOZ (L). fiicceeded his £»ha ^ai^irtii^ about 
vaJioH, ^ year 586, and \ra5 not Ions after invaded by the Creek 
emperor (M) ; of which Shabafbah, bis cftulio-gennaa, foa 
ci the KhaJtan, whofe daughter Ni^/binuan had aarried, takc- 
isg the advantage, pafles the Jfihin, or Ami, with 300,009 
naen^ (T^), and fubdues Kbora/M. Pirfia bdng in this difirc&, 
fa^rjia Chubin, the braveft man of his time, was lent for to 
<^pofe the eoeiny> (O) ; wlio taking with him but 12,000 
expcraenced foldiers, made a great Oaughter of them, flew 
their luagi and took his fon prtfoner, befides an immcnle 
booty : bnt afterwards being defeated in his attempts agaiafl 
JChqfraiu Parviz, the Ion and fuccenbr of Hormoz, he fled in- 
to Turhjien, where he lenrsd the Kiakm Chini *. 
. thnvw ^01' ^t time, the Turkx leem to have remained QViet, 
rwiPerfia. «tU the year 654, being the nineteenth of the reign ofTks- 
dgerd, kfl king of Perjia^ ; at which time vail moltkudes 
of than (P) from Turin, or Turkefian, palled the river StAwt, 
or Sir, aid bud walU the countries to the (oath of it. Ar 
the lame jnD£ture the Arabs imraded his donunioDs on the 
other iide ;. and he during next year, the whole, by df^grees, 
fell apr^ to dte latter. At lei^h, in 716, the^^f drovo 
the Turks ont of Karazm and Mavtara'Inahr. 

HoWEVSR, from that time they fwarmed all over the do> 
minions of the Ehali^, and, by degrees, got the pofleflkm 
of them : for being a handfome people, and famous for tbdr 

» SeeTEXtiBA'shiB, p. loj- » MiaKOHD.ap. Te«ir, p.' 
' 186. EuTYcA. annal. vol. ii. p. zoo. 

(K) Thefe were the y^jm, hiHorianj, RtrwiixJat invade^ 

whofe princes had the tick «f iirft, in $87. See ant. hill. vol. 

^l)aM,ai Khakan. See p. 44. xvii. p. 8. 

(L)HeisalfocatlcdMmms^ (N} Ttxetrahaa 400,000. 

whence the Grttk Htrmixdiu ; (O) Ttxdra ftill calls them 

alfo Tegtiar, or the crown-car- Tartari. 

rirri bccaBfe he wore the Ti^'f (P) Thu is. tke fifft tims 

enajl oecafioBi. ' Hiriemd calls them^wix, ac- 

(M) This was UUmritius, cording to Tw/w-a'* ahftraft, 
^ whom, accor.disg to,, the Qrtfk 

C. ,-1. TStir^airs tiUJenghiz'KM.n^ 51 

copr^ge, the Khallfahs, and, after their example, feveral of ' ' 
the princes, who, in time, threw off their yoke, caufdd great 
DoihbeFG of young Turkijb Haves to be bought, and educated 
in their courts. Out of thcfe they formed troops of militia, 
■who' often rebelled, and 4epofcd the Khallfah himlelf. la 
,efi*c^ 2t length their commanders became mafters, not only 
of the Ch^itat, and perfons of the Khallfehs ^ whofe guards 
,tbcy were ; but alfo of great dominions, which they eref^ 
in Khora/an, Karazm, Egypt, and India Itfelf ', as hath bedi 
llready iex. forth at large. 

But to return to the afiairs of the Turks at home. In 
the year 894 Ifmael aI_Samm^i, who, throwing olFhis fnb- 
je^OD to the Khdifah, fet up for king of ma-wara'lnahr 
and Khorafdn, marched into turkejian', and, defeating the 
Ehan, took Idm prifener, with 10,000 men, befides a vaft 
treafure. Some time before his death, which happened in 
909, be made another expedidoa thither, fubdoing feveral 
provinces ''. 

The Turks feem to have kept within theu- bomids till the Umtii tf 
Fdgn of Nut Ebi Manfur, fixth king of the race o^ the Sam- rtbth. 
maid, jvho afccndcd the throne in the year of the, ff grab . 
365 {QJ,andof Ci;i/?975, This prince, being polTeflcd of "^"* 
all Mavsara Inahr and Khorafm, gave the government of two * '* 
conCderable diArifls to (wo brothers, Mtiali and Faekh, 
Thde, at length, quarrelling together, the latter firA, and . 
then the former, rebelled, and invited K^-a Khht (R) of Tw 
ktfim to invade the dominions of Nih (S). The ICilaknas 
them ; and, routing the army of Nih, takes Samdrkatta and 
Bokhara, while Nib made lufte to mufler another'. Kara 
Khan, falling Tick, was advifed hy his phyfldans to return 
to Ttirkiftan ; wMch he attonpted to do, but died by the 

HowETEE, the rebel brothers ftill held out, and railed 
great forces ; being aiEfted by the nrighbouring princes : at 
what Qme SaiekteHn, a famous general of Nih's, havii^ re- 

^ See D'Herbilot. p. 8q8, & feq. Art. Turk. < Se« 

lefbrevTol. ii.andiii. ' MtitKOND. tp. Texeir. p. 197, aofi, 
*}-' *39- 

(QJ D^Htri^t, by miftake, (R) So lyHiritlet. Ttx*ira 

Mb tbit erent twenty years cslli him Bekra Khan. 
{awtr : and tbo* fextira doei (S) There trouble*, accord' 

OM date all U* ft&a, yet he iag to D'Hiritkf, began about 

ieemi more con«£t in hii num< the year 371 of the Bgrak, sf 

boi. Cbrtfi^i, ■ 

E a XSfUti 

L ... . L.OOQlC 

52 Cmerat Hiftory of the Tories. B. t 

mroed wth laurels &om IiuUa, the king, by hu afGftaace, 
marched agaiaft,'~an(l, after a doubtful batde, routed them *. 

After this battle, JViih, at the requcll of Sabektektn, maik 
hJs Ion Mahmiid general of his forces, and went, to BtikMra ; 
Sdiekleiln to Caznm (T], a territory in K/iora/Sn, and Mai- 
mad to Nijbabur ; whence Abuaii and Fa'ikh, -vrho had redrcd 
thither, Bed; but, raiflng forces, they drove out Mahnud: 
however, th^ latter, rallying his troops, and being joined by 
his &ther Scbekteklm, routed the brothers in thdr turn. 
jibuali, upon this, lubmltted to Nuh; but Faekh retired to 
&k Khan, who fuccceded Bikra Khm in Turkefim, and 'was 
peHiiaded by him to make war on Nih. 
ItekEhan NUH, bdag informed of what \i-as in 'agitation, ordered 
<onth' Saliekitkin to attend him, and Ma/rmud, W'di his troops, be- 
drmvi. tweea Kejb and Nejdf, near Samarkand; but an accommo- 
dation being agreed on, whereby FaJiifi was to have the go- 
vernment of Samarkand, an intire end was put to thcTe troo- 
bles in 995;' and Nui died in peace two years after, baring 
rcigndd tweoty-two years, leaving hb fon Mu'Ihares Man/Sr, 
a youth, to fucceed him at Bai/f^a, in the dominidn (^ JHa- 
vjara'laahr and Khorafin. 
Sttntiri Ov the death of iVi^, Sek Khan invades Abu'lhares % and, 
Maiia- bang joined by Faekh, governor of Samarkand, attacks Bo- 
n'lnahr. kbarai from whence Abu'lhares flics, but foon after returns 
again, on aifurances of Udeltty given by Fa'ikh, whom be 
makes his general, and Bakiuzun governor of Khorajan ', 

MAHMVD Cazni (U), fon of Sahektek'tn, whofc go- 

vcrment Khorafm, was complaining of this injury, Abu'lbaret 

gives him Balkh, Termed and Herat in lieu thereof : but Mah- 

mud, not being content with the exchange, marches to Ntjba- 

b&r, from whence the king fled ; yet, fearing to be deemed a 

rebel, turns otf, without feeing tliat city. Bakiuzun marches 

to the king's relict ; and, meeting him on his return, un- 

-- ,. . der fome pretence confpires with Faekh, and puts out 

Xho n'"^^ ^y^' ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ reigned one year and feven months. 

■^ °'They entlirone A\>daimMek, the eighth king ; but MaMmkl 

marcliing againll the traitors, they Hcd different ways; Fa'Skh 

carrying the new king to Bokhara. Thus Mahmud became 

poUeHed of all Khorafdn. The traitors, gathering forces, 

' MiBBOND. ap. Temram, p- ISS» * f**]- D'HsuBEtOT. 
.p. 679. ^it. NouhBen Manfcur. ^ Mirkohp. abi fi^ 

- p. JS9. & 'eq- 

. (T) Ofwhich the city Ga*. (U) Or Gaa^mi. fo called 
'■Hoi, or Ctauia, b the capiiaU, istta die cicyGd:ui«i,whcre hit 
father refided. 
A mATch 

C. I. yJetr €gms till Jenghiz Khan,. 53 

march ^aioft him ; but Fa'Hh dy'ttig, the expedition cime to 

Mean, tmt Sek JTiWo, taking advantage of thefe troublcs,Tal« 
advances to Bokl^&ra, under pretence of affifting y/Wd/mJ/cA-Bokhtra. 
The young king, giving credit to his words. Cent the beft com- 
inandera he had to return him thanks, whom the Khan fe- 
cored. AbdalmAlek, in a fright, hid himfdf, with an intent 
to clcape ; but Ilek Khan having taken the city, and ftrift 
fearch being made, Mdalm^k was found, and fent to Uf- _ 
Awn/(X), where he died in confinement. This happened in "*J"h 
the year 999. ^^' 

Hie fubje^h proclaimed Ung a younger brother of his; hrstf*'^"^' 
he enjoyed not the dignity long. !Uk Khan, being thus pof-*'"?- . , . 
icflcd of Bokhara, feiies the' blind king Aki'!hares Man- 
fir, his two brothers, and two . uncles, with others of the- 
royal &mily, who were all confined apart, and .attended by 
his women flaves. She who attended Mu Ibtyihim Montefer; 
taking a liking to him, procured his efcape by means of her vdl. 
Bring at libCTty, he went to Karazm, where crouds refort- 
ing to him, he fent a numerous army to BokhAra, which ic~D/fiateJ 
feated &k Khan's forces, and took thrir general prifoner.'iHMi-;, , 
Marching forward, he routed another of his armies, com- 
dianded by Takln Khan, governor of Samarkand. 

MONTESER, after this, returned to SolA^d ; bvt Hek 
Khan foon marching againfl him, he fled ; and palling th&Jih^n, 
came to Nijhabur, in the year 1000 : about the beginning of H*]™" 
the next year, by the afllilance of the Turkmdnt, he marched 39'- 
into Mawara'Inahr, where IL'k Khan met him with a great 5^ Mo«t 
army : but ds they lay encamped near each other, the Turk- cefer. 
mans one nigjit, by furprize, fell upon the Kh&n's camp, 
and killing many men, put the,rcft to flight: after which 
they rettirned to their hords, wth the better part of the 
plunder. Montffir, finding himfelf deferted by theTurkmans, 
crofled the JiA^n, \rfiich was then froien, upon the ice; Mean 
rime' the Turkmans, repenting that they had left him any part 
of the booty, returned to take it away ; but coming to the -- 

river by day, found it thawed, and were thus baulked, as •. 
not bring able to purfue him. Montrfir, after this, got jf third 
feme viAtMics ia Kharafan j but finding he coQld not ftay in'V'*'* 
that province, repafled the Jihuit, with his fo!lo*ers t and 
though he l<rfV moll of his men, in a conflift *ith the Skntit, ■ . * 

or governor of Bokhara, yet, with the reft, he aHatilted that ' 

rity by night, and took h. 'Upon this. Ilek Khm haftened 
thither; but.bringmet in thcterritory of iamarifciWbyiHon. • 

■ (X) D'Herhitof writes DixghnJ, '. ■ ' 

E 3 tefert 

54, General mjiolj of therix^. ■ B.I; 

H^rah f^r, was there oveithrowD; \wdi whofe' plunder die i^flor's" 
394*' anny was enriched. This was in 1003. 

ILEK Kfiat, after this defeat, having recruited his forces, 
marched again towards Montefir, and found him, When tbofe!; 
who tiad aiBAed turn were gone. What was worfe, one of 
bis generals going over to the enemy, with 4000 men, he, 
defpajringof fuccels, fied. Finding no poSibility of croffing 
the Jibun, he came to BokhSra, with veryfcw followers ; and 
though the governor promifed to aiTiH him, yet knowing that 
- he ws purlued by Ikk Khan's general, to whom moft of his' 
men had gone over in di%uA, he left the city ; and getting 
into Kkorafim, hid himfelf in a poor houfe ; whldi bdng 
Hejrah fijrced in the n^t by one who was in fcarch of him,- he was 

395- there lulled, in 1004*. 

Mahmud ^j-jjjj ,y^ tijg ^tg Qf ([,g dj-nafty of the SammM fe- 

/wc6 tit jpiij, j„ p^^_ ^1jJ(Jj properly ended in NiHi Ehn Manfur, 

ip whofe Fdgn fprung up the Cazni monarchy, under Mah- 

tn^C^znt before-meotioned; the foua'dation of which was 

laid by his father Sabektekln. This Sahektekin was a Turk 

by nation, and originally Have to Jilptckin, another Turk, who 

Gazni *^ general to Nub Ebn Manfur .- on whofe death Sahck- 

mtnarch- ''*^'' ^^^°^^ '" "^^ po^ > ^^^' ''7 ^'^ conqucfls ia India^ 

and authority with the foldiery, became equal in power to the 

Jung himfelf. D'Herbtht tells us, that he defeated Kara Khan. 

of Turkeftan in feveral battles (though Texeira fpeaks of but 

■ one, which he had with lUk Kbaii) 1 and that, at his return' 

H^^ from the expedition, he died at BAlkh, in the year 9^7 j 

387. which is the fame year in which Nub Bin Manfur died. 

, How£.v£R that be, his fon Hiahmid, who fucceeded to 
his father's power and authority, being dilgnlled, as bath 
been befoi:<»-mentioaed, at his government of Kborafon being 
l^veaioanoihcr, by Jiu'lbares, fucceflbr 1:^ Nub Ebn Man- 
fur, fubdued the whole promce to himfelf ; and having In- 
tircly pacified the troubles which reigned there, as hath been 
Hejrah before fet forth, in the year 958, went from Cdznab to 
389. BdJki, where the Khatifah Kider fent hima rich vcft, by way 
of inyeftiture in his new dominions : and thus the monarchy 
. -. ' , pailU fro?! the /ilfammdni to the Gazni^ ''. 
Javajedfy Soo^. filter, Maknud concluded a perpetual peace with Ilek 
I'*|tKh4n Khani find, p> make if tiie firmer, took one of his daugh- 
Hejrat) ^5 j^ marriage; In 1002 the governcH" of Sijlan, or Seje-. 
353- _^fflj,having revolted, he has regourfc for affiilanceta/ilfAJrAain 

■ MiBEiMD. ubi fupr. p. 267, 270, & feq. *■ D'Hikbcl. 

&^79> 79tt 533< An> Nguh ben MaatQur, Sebcktdun, and 


. ,„..=, t,pi.wlc 

■wfee, ib looSt tdn^ adraiubge of ^tfAnwi ^iag c^Uod Hejrali 
iaifac «rvoliB&i, iAKte nm gsnenis totbTadc fAvud*; 39^* 
bat MMtki rduf^li| m the BC*a, the; fooa wcTe obttoetf 
to retreat. Ilek Khan, upon thia, applies fer iuocoar to Km- •. 
rfrr£fcw,of JCtfau A!ofdn(T^; Vbojoioiaghiiawitk so,ooa . 
JneTer.gttthaei is X^au.Kotan, Turkt/iM, a»d JUmodrs't- ■ 
luir, . they paSTed the /I'Mn. 

MJSMUD, oa this iiew% hafiens to BdM, «nth a DO-9%£f 
Ue annj of runlx (Z), Gatmit, ad other people, «>' Btectvvfr- 
tbe eiamif. They came to a battle; aad MakH^i force* '^nw*. 
^ling gcoMtii, he, almoA in de^iairi rnihed Into &e thicloA - 
of the cBOMy; and cutting his way through them, cai&e Dp to 
Ak KhAa I yAam bJs defiant, oahorfing him, tofled np in the 
vr. Hit Bteti, at this, refaOUBg tfaar courage, put the enc? 
mytadi^t. This battle happened in 1006(A),. udfi-oveil 
•■e of tlis moft bloody which was fought in that age '. 

ILSJC Kbin, after this lofs, retir^ into Mav)ara'lnahr\ 

.' Tbizbika, p. 278. D'Hekbel. p. 554. | 

(V)Ti» kaol to (xj what t)i!ieveatiiiK9ni44iO,oriot9 

ttwM iry tiinii'. iaTtxarmihen ofCirifi, and varj oracb front 

is a4(M> 4(Mbt)c& by hinifelf, the account ofMirlmi. The{« 

which yn tali K^af. 'Tietnie. autkortcaUJ&JJQi^ldBgafdis 

the im^an of £[>«; or ^- oriental T'wij.aJid all th«coun> 

iaj migbt have extended, at try bejrond the 7''^»i'* They add, 

Ai* time, andcr ihe Kudu, xs that, dying in his own country. 

fer wdtwaid at K^/bgnr; and in 403'(ioi2), he wu faccecd- 

tiut KaJtr_ Ifidn ^eca the go- cd byhisfon £i^irr£}jfn; who,' 

vcnior, «T onH fet up there for being Joined by Arfl&n Khmn, 

hinlelf : or lie country here kingofTiKr^isttfacypiiAddis 

.neatioafid night haTeJ)ecn£0' 7iMn, and advanced to Aj/jU ; 

aoa tie htim, a aoced city aad but thac, being met by Jt^^ 

Kovinoe to tiu ibath-eaft of miJ, moaatul on a while ele. 

Ktl/bgar } which formerly had phant, they were driven back to 

Ungsof its own, but then fecmt that river, wherejn moll of them 

to have been under the Ki/dn perilhed. The Solian,croj&tg , . 

bereafcer mentioned. the ^(£«i>,|quite ruined the ene- 

(Z) Theft Tarij were eithet mies country,and then returned ' 

loi^ as be and hi« father, who in 410. 1O19, above-mentioned 

were fanb, dwaya c»iniHnd- (■). Accordiagto thiiaccoont/ 

edj or elfe Siliiii Turli, who, there were two great monarchies 

many ysfttt bcfon, bad fistdcd' oftbeTicr^ eaifting in Torr^r^ 

in Mteuiort^buthr. But nei^er at the lame time. lUk KhiiK 

D'HtrbiUi nor Tixiira are ex- who, in the other account, ia 

plicit enough otl this point. called king iATsrieftan, ic here 

[A] Three other authors, made king of the oncntalTvrjf/, 

made oft ofbyCtirr^^r, place and Aiuirr A^n to be his fon. 

£ 4 had 

' ^riwM nodafiaading that his brodur ti^kn (B) £Ui, vho 

had been 'wid) him in that fi^t, had feat tD mike his i^o- 

- logy to Matmad, he mardied a^iinfllum ; bot Ma im M i»- 

terpofing, they were r^»nciled ^. 

Sifit/thr During ^de invaTioni by Sek Khin, great itnniben of 

^«Xy&.tfy-7urki took the oppcrtanity of pajBng ont (rf TWrilgrifi Isi* 

K^^w- Jl£iwar.i7nfij6r. Among the relt was &jfitt, «}>■>• ^1^ ^** 

family and followers, fettled about Samarbmd and BMJrm, 

' __ vhere, by d^;recE, they acquired large pofleffioru t at le^di. 

Hqnh in ,034, bang the fifth yea* of the reign of Sol^ (C) 

f ^* Ata^, fon and focceflcx- gf MahmUd <7ium, . tho graadfous 

of Se^ik, Mohammed and David (D), called afterwards Ti^rM- 

beg and Jafar-keg) paflioe the J'Mn or At^, and fiu dowa 

about N«fet aod Ahhaera, or Baward, in Khonf^Sn,' 'wbere 

they began Ibme commotions ; but, on the return of Mmff^d, 

who was then in /«<£«, they fat fUll, and fent an envoy to 

turn, oflerii^ to become his fubjc^. Maff$d rejefted their 

meflagc with contempt : yet, conUary to the advi9e of hi* 

council, fet out again for his Indian conquefh,' before the 

a^irs of the Twkt were fettled. They, in his ab&ace, bes> 

gan to make their inroads through Khorafan, mth (b macfa 

fuccefs, that, in two years, they conquered olmoft all that 

Hejrab province, ^^* Ptrjian Irak (E) ; founding, in (537. the 

4JO. feconil great monarchy of the Turks, in the fouth of Afia g 

which, in time, fpread over all Perfia, and the coadtries 

wcftward, ^ far as the Archi^tiago : whereof we AuU ^ve 

the peader an account in the next chapter. 

Turin Having brought down the foreign hiHory of the TiwAc, 

tm^ft from their firA ^pcaranoe out of Tartary, to this pedod, we 

ought now to return to thor domeftic affairs, and fee wbar 

they were doing in Tartary unoi^ themfelves, or with tlMir 

kindrcd nations, dnriiw ^at intaral. fint here we are mt 

a greater lofs than before : for the memory of tranla^Hoiu, 

which are not committed to writing, can never poflibly be 

irtitn in ' hlling ; and oral records are foon dcbced. In ihort, we 

T'artary. f^^ne know any thing of ther domeftic affairs during that 

long interval. We can <»ily collet, in general, from certain 

circumAances, that their dpcainioo, whkh once extended over 

" T^xEtf A, p- iKi. 'D'Hbrbilot. p. 8oo,& le^. 

An. Sclgiook. TexiiRA, p. 19), Ic (isq. 

(B) Or Dagan tChan. (D1 Daiu^. or DomJ, is the 

|C) iii% hiMer Mahn-ui was fane with Dirvi/. 

the firftwiio took the tide of ' (E) That is, the !>(»£» /rXt. 

Soltin, There is another caird the Arm- 

iimlrii. , 


C.I. ^Tw- afairs till JtDf^KJAa. '57 

■B TarUrjr, 'm prooeft of dme hecatne divided among fercnl 
Kh^ ; and tbeir power bdog thos broken, gave c^ier na- 
.tioos aa opponnni^ of depriviog them d the prater part of 
what they formerly poflefled. 

Wb leara £x>m the Ciiiufi Wlory, that, at the hepmaagThit^tl* 
of the tenth century, the Kitin or Lyail, who founded the^^n^ 
empire of kitay or Katay (wtuch comprized the owthera K'"" » 
provincesof £'ib>M, with the ^joining part of Tiir/iir^, thence 
<alled Kara- Kitay), fubdued all the countries wefhwd from i 
Koretif as.^ as Kifbgar '^. And the Perfian authors inform 
lu, that, in the year 1017, 300,000 Tartars and Mogpk, "^i^ 
oxnfrized under the name of Turks, iiTuing from the borders ^°^- 
at CbhtA, ravaged the country from the OTiental ocean, as fas 
at BaJu/agm, then the c^tai oi what is more properly c^ 
led Tiiriefim .- bat that Togan, or DogSn Khm, who at that 
time reigned there (F), not only prevcoted their prc^ic& 
any iarther wefhvard, but, pUijpng them to retreat, puriged 
them &>r three mOTihstf^jnhcr, and killed more than 100,000, . . 
of them '. 

Thbse, which are here called Tartars uid Mogols, wererAfM Km-' other than ^ KitSn, or thofeifrom Xetan /Co-TaiutMy' 
tan before-mentioned ' ; who, under JCadrr Khan, or his fuc-ani, 
cedbr, aimed to have extent^ thdr dominiiivia, which al< ' 

ready- reached from Kitay to K&Jbgar, as far wefiward as the 
Cajpiaa fea. Not but a great part of thdr army might have 
coafiflcd of Mogols and Tartars ; thefe people probably, at 
that dme, having been fubje£t to the KitJn, as we know 
they were not long after. 

Tia. JGtaa kavisig, inii24, been difpollefled by the JS!ifl,n4irj6«« 
another oatioa (G) ^ eaftem Tartary retired weftward, smdthmtMt. 
fonnded the empire of the weftward Lyai, . near Kajbgar P. 
The Iiifiorians of the weft of J/ia call - thefe Lyafi or KitAn, 
who, after this event, became better known to them, KarakU 
tayans ; and fay they fettled in the parts about hnU (H), 
mating themfelves with the Turks 9 ; who, at that time, 
were divided into many natieos, under difieratt chiefe. The 

. ■> Ga«!»ii.. hift. de Gentch. p. it. " I^UsaaiL. p. 899. 
Art. Turk. "Sec before, p. 55. , r Gavbil. ibid. 

p.127. 1 MiRKoHD. ap. Horn. arc. KoK, p> 287, &feq. 

Atu'LONAzi Khah^ hifi.- p. 44. 

(P) He wa* brother to Iltk led Mmthfun, mw togning in 
Khia, at hath been befere-men- Chhui. 

(ioaed, ai|d probably foccceded . (H) Cal]sda]ro>Ain/«nd.A. 
him. . mil, to the w«ft of JiauUtk, in 

{G) The lame with thoftcaU UhU Bukbaria, 


■jatMiMM fbnk trftes AoM tW/Sr, ttd otlLers oa die 

borScrs of Gi'eat SiMdria, tHwm they iefcated. 

W«Tiirfc.'' These ftteft te1ia»frbe«i indepen^nr tribes, ■which own- 

iShemfir^ ^. 00 fubjefHon to the Khan a Tunkefim ; who, though 

.poflciflcd of bat apatt ctf the denrirriom of hk aooeftors, Ml 

',' eltfeved a fttt# of grandeur. Bat, in a firort dtbe after, 

■ loi p#t»«r began gfeatly to dedlntf ; infomtich that Set: X%m, 

Wfto're'g'^^ *t Bai^&t, about the ttiiddte of the twdffti . 

tSimiry, to ^deferiif himfelf agaiftft the A'-mM, Ko'BkT, and 

«^/ IB, '^jdks, fcfigned his AsmiBions to Ac Kng o£ the wrifem 

''"f^- KitAn,,oT Kandttaayatis r, before-meiltidfted * ; and tfem Tvr- 

■*rf(l«, TpfetfK for fo many ages had been pofleifcd by EhftnS 

W Ws ,<hm, feH 'ufi9er the domitrioD of a fordgo prince : ft* 

■^Aou^ 'foiiifiorfeBtal hlAoiians preteOd to derhre even' the 

JfSiyranJ fropi T^nt, the fuppofed fon of Jdfet ; yet'tlieir 

laJ^aae and inansm, at well as remofe ittnation, (hew them 

robe people lif-a dafirent origin. 

7hi •whoU'^'- f^x iiion as - tWs prince was fetded in his new domlitloBs, 

ftfftjfti lij according to AhSlgH^ Khm, he aiTumed the title -of Kavai- 

>- ■■. "JCMft, tiiuis, ^athrd. But ^r*o«* writes VKrJeM>'(I), 

■"'ahd fcwit -was thethleof thekingsof jr^ruA/fii)", wJding, 

- ■'■^tfiat after he had vinqniflied the KankTi, he pnrfned his gorf 

ftfrtfmt, And co rt q w e t c d. In the year' 1 141 (K), thecWestrf 

3rif%ilr, Khatn;i^bikg, wATitrkefidn : and rfin3.dir«ri 

f:irv, between moum jUtay and the Ca^JiMi fca, became agwfl 

ftnjtcd under -one fovercigD, who was tfie greatefi prince whb 

had reigned in northoti Afa for taany ages, befete the dme 

oi Jengbiz Khan. 

/felCwt- lij (01 probrtiffity aB the TW-ti* trftes, and efen thofc 

Vxxxftm. fetiied tboatTarfin, had ftibmitted to ^rfr ^*fti j "fince we 

fliia fl«*'i£ifrjQr /^/, their lieighbonrs to the cah, were 

^mter hi* proeeftion; and fo continued till the year 1212, 

wtwh flaying Ms tax-giiKerer, they went over to Jtnghiz 

' Seetn'dceoMtoF thenbefere, p. $7. • Abu'lcha^ 

zi Khah, p. 44. MiKKOKD. ap. Horn. arc. No». p. 288. 
t MiKxaHD. ap. Hofn. arc. Naz, 'p< 367. ■ Ab^'lcha- 

11 Kkxiti p-'t/i GaorHa UlL Jn^ p. 13. 

(I) Which, in Hanum, is faid iJh!m,. fco' iinri it Cgoafitt tit.Jkn- 

o &giufy iingt/iiirgi. Alcho' in-lmu and kin/man of kingt 

Ins nent to "be ioiinted ai ike and prfiTKi. Sec IXHtfi. p. 

-(phnation"of Mtrkend, wc ftall 878. An. 7tMtm'. 

R-gtn « OS tii»; -fine*, ja Y'li {Vi) MtttgH^- tCMn placet 

»Ko<Mit«f7'A»u^'w TaMriMri thcTe •events in die year ii77> 

who afTumed th«-title of Ji4t' pi -44. 



To ctieei^- iS& gftswagji^^, Sii^it, ^xtW Soldo -of d^ 
Jfffa Turks', bfefore^rtnt^Med; bring at Swti»liatd Oasot 
die jca ^145, wU prevailed cfK to attSclE lltirlt^ (^, 
Ki^ of &irtAati^r but he ^kms defeaiol,' asd^^'faifr #<itt^ 
(or women) tiicd'*! 

fen'nifcr of the CiS«1 monaKhy), tfilrt! ftJtaS of/K«az» (a 
new donMniori, -whicV ^uftg up ifi flj* itett: of the A^l-); ^ 

xp(ijing to the lar^ of /ToraySAflj- fftr aid.againft ht* fcffbtb* 
Sotan ahih, he fen* Karamafa, hiS fon-ip-law, with a pBflt 
erfiil army, ■which reeoviitd the crown for him''. 

Tbs Karazm ^ah4 were' tribntary (M) to the Kiirk^s' '; 
bnt, 00 the death a^TafaJh, brTflitw/*, his fon, MoMnHui 
iefaCci to pay tRi tribute; and raiJli^ great forces,- In t^i 
jeir I2QO, firft reduced BokhA-d, arid (he other drfet <jf JHa- 
Hiart^lnithr (which had- feccMne independent under M^ika of 
d>^ own) ; then.-dMiVhing into the dbtMifiOns of KafMtt^ ' 
Kurkh&n, overthrew his army, commanded by Taniiu Taraz, 
z &moas commander, ^et* thi;, lie took &trdr\ at that ffine 
the capital of aU Turhjl&ti, atid retucned home. 9oiBe Jeari 
after, the Karakitaynns, efttering Mdvjdra' Ifiaht, laid negd to 
SiofLirkant : but hearing, at the (ahie time, both of the 'a|f> 
proach of Mohammed, and the revolt of Ktuhliik the Jfayr 
min, ^aioA Mrkhin his fether-in-law, they ralfed thc,fieg^ '' 
toA returned to Turkejlm ». 

This account of the Karakitaytms reigmng hi TurAtfiein Hi^triaiu 
«fe have made up the beft ve could, froth the for'imfiafeA^fi^nt. 
JDemtHTs we meet with extrafled from Mirkond j according 
to which, there were two Kitrkhirts Who rdgned in TitrheJiSn, 
Wwe the invafion of Jengh'iz Khin j the firft tailed 'Curjajbi 
tb whom, by the courfe of the hiflory, Hek Kh^ ToaSthixvi 
lefigDcd his dominion [ the other JCuya/tg, to whom Kucbbat 
RtiKd. Bat jIH'lgHzl Khan m^iieq only one khan qt tbcj^hnl. 
two, and dl&rs in the date of tis rci^, and odier drcuiv'' ghazi 
' ftancCs, He tiells ns, that the Khin of Jurjut (N)iiavin^ Khan's 
conqu'cred Karakitay, its (iriitce, called Niifi Tay^Sr ili, wUhmm*/. 

» D'Hexbilot, p. ^36. Art. Sadgiar. * IbU. Art.'Moi 

lumoieil KhoaarazA Shah. r Ibid. p. S16. Ah. SoMitShlt^ 
■ Ibid.p.609. ATt.MohainiDedKhoiiaXazroSblh.p.6i'0;-'YlQrh. 
ire. Nooe, p. 288. ' *' 

(L) Namtid Giijj4(!S. ' fNy (*eilia bs 9Wi^ M, ^ tlw 

(M) D'Htrbekt mcntiont no. ft&imAiiiShni-fi'mGUhtkA^iid 

thiDg of this iribatf in the life tbe>capital of an ci>pU«>ealled 

other of Teitjh Oi hi* fon Mo- Hja. 


.GateratH^try tf the Turks.': Bw I. 

el£gedf in the year 1 1 77, to retire anm^ the Kerghls, and 
thence to a mwj of Kit^ (0), called hdh that, tiro years 
yfter, TlrA £^^, a defcendant of Afrajiab KhAn, who r^ded 
mt Bals/agAt (P). being oppofed by his nei^bours the Kan- 
tlit, who had Ipoiled all his cuhivated lands, for fake of his 
sffiifarace, resigned the fovcmgnty of that dty to the Karaki- 
tayaa priDce*(Q_), who immediately alTumcd the name of iTn' 
par Kban (R), or the grtat krd\ after which he conquered 
the towns of Andijan, Tqflikant, and Turktfian, and made 
SammrkanJ tributary. After he was retnrned home, he lent 
Arij, one .of his generals, \rith a numerous aimy, towards 
Vrg^ (^) ' "^^ obliged Vighijb (T), Khan of that cttr, to 
pay his maAer a tribute of ao,ooo gold dinars. However, 
Sotltan Mohammed, his fuccedor, refufing to do what his fa- 
Aa had done, prepared i(x war. But though he had ga* 
thcred all the forces of his dominions, which extended as far 
as Aim (U), yet be was defeated by Kavar Khan, and obliged 

' (O) R«thcrAfiV.iifV<t7,uid year 1133; wliich is to make 

(iibieA 10 Kita;/, him begin liia reign in turktfiin. 

(P:' }n the Englifi tnnflation eight yearg befort bis predecef- 

jaiifi^aM ; It was the capital , for ; to whom, according n 

of TKritJ}aw, about 140 milet Mirimd'i uxonnt, liei Khairn- 

io the north-eaft of Ttahrt, on Jigned in 1 1 41 ; wheieis JiuU* 

ihe river Sir. giaxi £ii« places that event in 

(QJ It is hard to fay which of 1 1 77, We frequenily meet with 

' Ax twoaccoonti is, in die main, fucli irreconoleable difagtee- 

Ibe m«ft exaA; but both are ments id the extrafif made from 

erroiMOus, at well ai defeflive, the oriental hilloriaai : whether 

)b certain particulars. Jiiil- theoriginalsare more conGftent 

^dKt Khan feemi to make we Icnow not ; but polTibly the 

A'o/f Tajghrr Hi die foander difficnltiei might be cleared t)p 

of the dyDifty of the weftem from the hiilory of the weflern 

Keraiifa^airi ;' Whereas there Ljau of Kitax, which, we ara 

were-ieveral kings of that race told, is given atlarge in thcCi^< 

(i), which began in 1114, ai ntfi wuaXt (■^). 

hath been related above. On (R) A miftake, perhl^, in ' 

the other hand, JlfintW g^ves the reading, f;r Kurkhix: for 

Kiyang, hii fecond Kurihan, a the fame fetters may admit of 

reignof eighty-one yean, if we both rcadiogi. 

max depend on the extrad (z). (S) Or Orktid, the capital 

$0 that, on a fuppoCcion that it of Karaxa. 

ended in 1114, oy the conqueft {T) A miRake, perhaps, for 

Off Kacblak, whom that author 7tktfi, orTakafi. 

naka Kt^/m^* fuoceflbr, die (U] Of A/Mtlia. 

twginning of it will falf in ^e , 

' fi}C—yt tijl-ftu. ftxx. tS n-j. ft)*,P.iti4 


C.i. Their affmrs tiU Jtn^lz Ki^. «l 

to &y fin- Aielter to the Kai^, till he could find metuu to 
obeda a peace *. 

In .die year 1209, Kuchluk, the foa of Tayyan (X) JCMiEanki- 
of tfae^ T^oyntonf, having been defeated by Jenghiz Khan, and Uyaaov 
his &ther nain, fled for fltelter to Karahtay Kirkhin, -whofi^ 
received him hooourably, and gave him his daughter in mu- 
riage ^ : wtiich favours, not long after, he repud vAth io- 
graiitade. Upon hia revdt, he feat ambafladors- to conclude 
3 peace vndi SolUa Mohammed, whom be left at liberty (o 
tak« Kajbgar and Khotan, in cafe he could conquer them t)C* 
fixe lum. Xuchhik attacked his fatber-in-Uw nrft, and pre- 
vailed for a while, but was at length defeated. Soltap Mih ^. ,j.j 
hammeJ', on his fide, entered KirkhSn't dominionE, and would ~^ 
have made great pragrefs, but for the revolt of one <A his*' 
geoeral* with part of his troops. This accident, which hap- 
pened in the midft of a batde, put the Sdtin in no finaU 
danger ; ib that at length he was forced, in the habit of a 
Tartar, to cot his way through the enemy to join his vnscf. 
After which he founded a retreat ; and, by flow niRFCbes, re- 
mwd to Kafami '. ' 

Af for Kuchluk, he flill continued his rebellion, and at length ^«te- 
deprived his father-in-law of more than half of his domini-Mur- 
otts. But his ingradnide did not remain kn^ nnpuniflied i i h n^ oii • 
for, in 1 2 1 6, Jenghiz Khan fent one of his meat experienoed 
genetsls agaiiift him % and, although he advanced -iri^ an 
army fuperior to the Mogeh, yet he was overthrown ; vai, 
fijdng with fome troops, was at laft overtaken near .Badag- 
fian in Great Bukharia, and put to death '. After this the 
Ategel forces over-ran Tvrkejiin, flaughtering all who o]:^x>ftil 
ihrai. And thus an end was put to the very name, as wd) 
as 'douiinioD, of the Turks in Tartary. 

S E C T. V. 

CbaraStr ef the Turks before the time af Jengjilz 
Kbin 1 and tobetber they were the dtfeendants of 
the antient Sqrthians, or the prefent inbabitantt ef 
Tarury are defcendid from tbm, 

AFTER what has been laid of the early Turtf and ibfiSxCi^hm 
affairs, it might be proper to pve fome account of die*/ **» 
BianDcrs and cuftoms of tliole people : but our meffl<^ are 

• See ABu'toHAZi Khah, p, 44. & feq. * Ibid. p. 85, 

94. ' D'HssBBLOT. p. 610. Alt. Mohammed Kboaaiaua 

Shih * Asu'to»»zi'£.tiAti, p. 94> 



L l,_< l;,L.OO'^IC 

6^ ^^d^^ffMy^af, 0(1-3^^, .p,^, 

already dted, tajte notice of very few things coofxpupg^thoi}, 

, - - ^^ t^ oi4y .OFCfifiijbaJly i as, t^it Ebe^ftnon an^bpi^dorB ' 

,,€i>Snd didr-iipg, ..ijtj^a/fj, , uadFr,,a .toit, -attended, by .a 

fixifh,..ifi^ ^ggW) >'fvith |:wo wheels *.: ^hat it was tbeur 

Mcitni .G^j^pf^ ta ^ve che;b|fard,in'^ql|L«i of ^tsf ; ii&d thatTkxon- 

(TuHu, ^rrifPUuirpArtiiSiFemflODy pf iJje -Swiiiw.amballadcas.fiiKV 

• * !)|he'ifliwh-:i^ h>S:6per-'' : tlBti.-^ri^g. the.f^eral, hepc- 

d^efif^fopr ^/^iuj.-to ^.brQueht 9Utof,pr:if9n,.^d Jla)n \ipoa 

-Sbe^mW-'W'fi* ^e Wfes. (oTthe, deceafcd ■ jyince ' : that, thajr 

^y iplttlic fjgas ;of . rffpe^ to t,he Hn: and .vacer, and diaot 

4linnfUilia^:ttop9ut: e£ lhe.eiir;h i l^t, ho>werer, th^^^doicc^y 

HMie JG^- G^euor^, (he , vi^lile ij^o^, and iixaS^ci. to . hioi ~ 

■^l^ffftSrt'bvil?. «n4:ih^ '..M}y» Jiiat- ^j priefts,can fiace- 

^[j r8T- ^h3,r^wt;of i,ff(»*^gif()U Jthf^ Bipnk, , apd 9thers,,who 

Tana< jiw9Uc^ia*9 T^rfAO'ii'^^^^'in'Bcadi^ceai^iyt^.as 

nan. ,ef'-ttarff"t*«aJft -who-Jwota the-, hiftory^f 741^1^^ ^^\ J* 

.gpoew^itbatthe liiAa ^itilorosiWfre cootinon. to. the Jiiege^, 

and other inhabitants of Tartary, in the ^timc.oi ^hat '00a- 

Badfha- ;TaP Q»*«'J Wteoans. .fewn '^hpnceiyc topic thpfe notjces, 
''4^'*:,^[.%,\DMhiB9as-tq thech^nifl^r of jihc' Ti^ri/ .■ .-but-fhat defea 
•fa»)i)<b&^ c^lUy -&fU)lifd istfca the jfrah and P^artf autWi, 
rwith'Wh^m^.w^TurA [i^eS;.pifiiaUy for a t^igl^wajjinan 
PC ;f obiter. \Jft^'tz, a /V^^ p«et,,yho,pved ia £h«,fiFcpefith 
-Wftpay^ fpeaJJipg of.iMJi* evil,,j&ys^ that, it takes f rani our 
■JmntAfiliM^'^f^^"^ ^o/ifVlith ai -^(h .violence . as tie 
[T Wlti or.^^ggar^, d» 4bt viiluah./rmt a we!l/tarftifi>t4 ^^> 
jllVhat<4s,-mor^ fufp ri/ing, wei piaet /with 3 diAich ia the Tunt- 
^ language to this pucpofe: jffl(^:fgh a Turk or-it^^rtar 
Jbould excel in all the fciences, yet the barbarian iiiouldJlUl he 
Arabs end""'*"^ '" *" f^t""., Vlt may bp ^i\,in the hiflory of the 
Pcrfiaiu. Kiialifahs^ of the.faa?(lyof..^iiAr„ to,viiat a degree uieblgod 
.■bf'^cTanfx Y^'^fiought unworthy to be mixed wiui thdrs, 
Xrhen it ■was^prqpofed to give a prlneefs of that hobfe iQ mar- 
Ijagft-tn'Tc^ At^/.fitfl.9oltin ofithe S^^ cace. 

BOT that thefe thii^[kV4re^iUL^CBat.tiMa&re atJtaft. ov- 
1 log tq .prtijudke,! aiyiears frQin a .proverb which ,^ Etrfi^ 
. hive,, i^nporting, that wo pcrfin joeed ^er fcruple. io Ml a 
.ttir\i,evea though he. v^as a Do^er ^ tie Viohzmmeian latu. 
The Araht and Per/tans bore a hatred to the Ttirki, /or the 
■injiiliea.'jncdved fnun ti)eai,.{or-bffril,agt^ together, -aot 

, 'MiHAKDBK, c. I}, ^ec'sirabefbro, p. 44. ^lUd-'C 

, J9. < Id. ibid. . 4.S.i»9KA.TrTA, L.viL c. 8. 

3 onl; 

only by dwr freaoeat toraiuxiE &om Tartaryt but alio hy^lyiautl 
the difturbaDces tOCT rH&S in their doodiflofls. To expMah tbtm. 
Ms, it moft be obfervtd, that ^ Ajota^mi eightft thdlfeb 
of the ^hhoi race, 5i6f^^ ini&n, Sott^n Of ' ttie r^ce dGaur, 
^ MAlet al S4Ui, SbltSn of the faifiify of Ayyai^ in Sgypt. 
and leveral other pcinces (^ ^a, caufed a great nntnber <£ 
young Turkijb flavcs, the handfomeft who coUldbe prooiKcl, 
to be bso^t, and educated in their coucts (A).; thefe being 
fbraed mto troops of .miTitia, as hath been already mentbii- 
fld f, not only often j-et«Ded, and dfepdfeJ tho iCh^fiih, bnr, 
iiin>I,nng the country in cruel M-ar, c&mmitted tinheai'iJ of ^ 
mtragos on the inhabitants e. 

This is the true foundation of the great. ^riimofitT •fs'^fiiTtt tfim- 
Ac Arabs and Perftam bore the Turks j "who, It muft be"ac-«/^ 
kuo^t^d, always were a moA curbijent and infoknt race 
of mortab, as they lUU are, Where they had. power ; though 
homble enough where they had none. Hcnvevecr they were 
not alK^ethcr fo defpicatue and brucilh as thdr enemlra re- 
prfleat them. The naod ur and mien of thole young Qssf&tbarhmii- 
dxire-menuoned pleafed the eyes of the Perjuuts ; inK>madiy»»'"^> 
diat the poet H^sz himfelf, who had oafled fo ferere a reit 
fle£tion <xi them, would have the word tW^ to lignify a y^an^- ' 
Jime moA: and was charmed with one of them to fuch ft 
ijegree, that, in his Divan,. he cries out, ^ I cauld but gaia • 
the good-^iU if thit Taxi, of the city ofSKir^, f would give, ' 
fw the JmalUJk of Mt favours, the cities of Samarhand and 
Bokhara !>. 

AoTuoBS divide the turks into two kinds, "mth rel^efVOnjimt^ 
tD their way <^ Uviqg, fome dwelling in towns and RxcdJiveJ 
habitations, others in the iields, and leacUng a wandering 
Cfe, like tix BedviSn Arabs .- thefe are called, by the Turks^ 
Cucigutyi Atrak, and Konar Kocber ; which iinpUes a ravii^ 
kind of life, and without fixed dwellings ^ From thefe the 
TarkmoBs, and even the founder of the Othman family (B), 
defc e pdcj. In eSc^ the Turks orl^nally, like all the other 
aataoDs iabablting Tartary, lived in the £elds, under tents,^ ivanitr* 
aod without any houles, but fnch as were caffied oa carts. j,»^. 
Ibis appears pUmly eoough from the maaner in which the 

*Seebdtwe, p. 51. »D'HE»BFt."p. i^ft, Acftq.Jnt. ' 

Tntk. <• H. ibid. ■ * D'Hbkbsl. p. S98, An. Ti^. 

CAXTtifiK. Ufl. Othffl. preT, p. 13. 

(A) Much io the fame bmb- at wtU ai &f»b, &w h«aii- * * 
' Mrai ^KjmiisawUs, tt preftiit fligmitiMd wiA tW iBama^al: 

AMBg the rwi/. TwrimJba, hf lid JrA Awtt 

(B) Aadbencc ^Otimdtt, Ptfjlmu. 1 . 1 



Gemr^'H^ory */ At Turks." 6. t 

Simuai ambofladors (bund thdr kiog D'^ahulet eocaAipcd, ii^ 
the fixth «Dtury». with tents and carts, jull as the fliogolt, 
Slutht or KaMAs, and Turhnins, encamp at [H^eat, And 
we preTume it vnll be veir difficult to prove, that ever thtf 
Tvrks lived la towos, or fixed habitatioas, till fuch time, as 
they had conquered them (C) from their oeighbonrs la the 

Thus we have,, from the imperfcA memoirs which are in 

our podeflkm, gjven the bc(t account we could of the orig^ 

of the Tvrkt, m the tribes into which thdr nation is divided 

tiy the oriental authors, and of their affairs from the fixth 

century, when they became cooridcrable, till the time of 

' Jenghiz Kbitt. But, before we quit the fubjcft, it will be 

necdlary to examioe Into three particulars ; i . Whether the 

^^'tTurks are defcended from the andent Scyt^am, mentioned 

^fjfgf by the Gretk and Roman authors. i. Whether all the inha- 

Scytbi- tntants of 7artdry are dther originally Titrki, or fprung 

am. .frcHD one and the fame root. 3. Whether Turkeft&i always 

had the fame fituation and extent that it has at prefcnt. 

First, Whether the Turks, or, if you will, all the pre- 
Jeot inhabitants of Tartary, are defcended &om the antient 
Scythians, If, by Scytfnatu, is to be under/food not thofc 
properly lb called, but all the different nations mentioned by 
^ SerodotuSf PSny, Ptolomy, and other authors^ which, undo- 
that common name, inhabited that vail r^on ; it may, mih- 
out hesitation, be anfwered, that the prefent inhabitants are 
the defcendants of the antient ; or rather of fuch of them as 
Tcmained in Tartary, over and above thofe which might have 
t)een defbroyed, or migrated into other regions : for not cmly 
there is a great conformity m the pcrfbns, manners, and cu- 
Aoms of both, but no other nation or nadons can be adiga- 
ed, from whence the prefent poileilbrs oiTartary could pro- 
ceed. To the fouth of them live people, fuch as the Per^ 
fi(^nt, hearts, Tihetians, and CUneft, who always dwdt in 
dties, QIC fixed habitations ; and, confequently, could never 
be tempted to change their country and way of living for 
diole <£ the Scyihians, unlefs compelled by force (D), c^ 
which we meet "^th no inAances in hiflory. 
*j^^**■ -Indeed, if we defcwid to-particnlar nations or tribes, and 

" ■ (C) Thoi the ManiSit and Unit BuibAria xAfihet,vih*n 

Ke0it never dwelt in ciciei, till the Khia, at certain times, re- 

* tbevfetdod'iDTKrif/iaai yet ftitl fidet, 

iit fununtt encamp in fields. So ifi) A» the Hgiri, who feem- 

the£Z«AitfOiijafai&Vtiever lived to be ^Uttiant, might have 

in towni, till tkcy coDquered been. ' . j . - 


C. 1. Tbiir affmts litl Jenghtz KI4b. 6$ 

Tnut to know vhedier the Turks are fprung from the Maffd\ 
gfttr, the Naymiiu from the Jffidon Scythians, or would 
trwx (he migrationi of the Saii*, Ham, Sarvjatiant, or other 
fwarms frran that' immenfe and proUfick hive, the attempt 
will prove a fruitlcl) labour. This will plainly appear, if i( 
be only conlidered, i. that moft of the names of the ^c^f^un 
mtioiu, which wc find in the authort above-mention^, did 
not properly belong to them, but were given them by the 
Greets. Even the general name q£ ScytBant was uni^owo 
to the ScytHaiu, who, we are told by Htrodetui, called them* 
fcbres Skolot. Again ; thofe naines which cannot be aflirffled 
to tme been corrupted, or impofed by tiie Gretkt, were fucb, 
perhaps, as were ^ven to them by other nationi (£). Thus 
the people, whom they called Siythiatit, were named by the 
Perfiatu Sagm or Saks, as we learn from Mela and PUny ) 
yet the Crtekt conlutered the Saka as a particular nation at 
tribe of Scythumi. Hence the Creeks confoooded the feveral 
nations together, gave one nation the name of another, and 
often the fame nadoo fevcral difierenfc names, as bath bcea 
already hinted. 

2. Ahother reafon which makes it Very difiicult, if noC 
aloMift impollible, to difcover what lutiocs or tribci the an- 
lient names found in authors belong to,, or to d-ace the ,fe- 
Teral rcmorals of thofe tribes, is ; that it feems to have beeri 
always cnflomary with the inhabitants of Tartaryt as it is at 
pcdeot, to change their names on various occafions, as oa 
removing their fituadoo, dividing into difierent branches, 
bring brought in fubjeAion by other tribes, or in compliment 
to the rtignihg prince, if much bebved by them, of which 
fbmc infrJnTT l^ve been already produced ^, and more will 
be ^ven, when we come to the hUlory of the Tartars. 

As to the lecc»id qucftion, whether all the inhabitants d/gig^f. 
Tartasy are rither wiginally Turks, or fprung from one andan^^ ^f • 
die fiune root, oor ofunion is in the negadvc : for there is tioTartaryi 
probat»lity that people, fo extremely diflecent in their makeaaf ait 
and features, as inoft di Ate Mehamnedan Tartars, and theTurkti 
tMtbt as lUkniks are, fluuld proceed from the fiime ftock, 

k See before, p. Sj, * le^. 

(E) Tltii it tomtnonly done E&ibi, KalinUt • knd M^e, in 

^ prefcDtfro^i various tnotlvei. the reituh, name the cthen. 

The Turki cail the folti Lth. H»/ai Parui. So the Jr^, call 

from a king or graerkl of tfi« the Perfians, Ajtm, chat is, &ir. 

tiki. The UxitiTmHtrt, by hmimt; ai the Gw** formerly , 

my of nick-name, eall the did all foreign natieiu. 


,. reioogle 

f • General Hificry of the Turks ? B. L 

any more than frc/h and fait water IKould proceed from the 
fame fountain. It is true, all the inhabitants otH^^trn Tar- 
inry (for thofe of the Enfiern «re oucof the cafe), fpeak the 
fame language, or at leaA diakfh <^ it : but mighc not this 
ha^en through cooAant iaKrcoiirie, at one power prevait 
ing over the reft, as that of the Turh did in the fisuh cen- 
tury, and that oi t\ic Mogott in thc> twelfth? the cooquered 
^)eople generally fpeak the language of the conquerors, as vrcll 
Us their own, which, by degrees, becomes extindt, as chat of 
the Kopts ahnoA already is in Egypt, where the Arabic pre- 
vails ; th« Cehk in Gauf, where the French takes place ; and 
in England the Britijb, which has been fuperfeded by th« 
ihaagb all HowEVBR, It miift be allowed, that the identity ac affi* 
jptai hity rf Ungaages would go for alnicrt a certain proof of tiw 
thefamt identity of nations, as to origin, did they agree in the other 
iM^uap. circiimAances before-mentioned ; and tinght aUb bcadnitted 
fts a tolerably fure rule in tracing the m^radoni of people i 
becaufe the imgrating' nation cannot receive their language 
from people (rf' a diiferent language among whom they live ; 
and then^fbre muft be a-kin fo the Unmigraring latiOi, whofc 
tangnage -happens to be the fame with theirs. Thus the 
btngnage which the Othm&n Tvrks fpeak, tbcngh mixed mth 
I'crfian, Arabic, and even Greek words, dcaionftrates that 
they came from Tartary, or arc defccndoJ frt»n feme of the 
Inhalntants of that rej^n, known by the name cf Turhi *^ 
though it may not be cafy to afcertafn the psntcuhir tribe or 
tribes from which they draw their or^nal. 

We come now to the third queftion, whether Tvrhcftm 
always had the fame fitnnticm and extent which it hai at 
prefent. To this we 4nfwer bkewife in the n^dve ; and 
make no fimiple to affirm, that it hath often chai^edlts litu- 
ation as well as bounds; which vc'JhaU endeavcnr tt^ dc- 
monftrace in the next leAion.- 


Of tbe original country inhabited by the Turks, to//* 
. a ^feription of -tbe^ prefejtt Turkeftin. 

Kama of TT-appeM-s, .from the account already given, both by the 
Turkef- X R^man and Chinffe hiftorians, that the country pollefled by 
**"■ the Turks, at their firft becomii^ known m the world, was 

about the middle of all Tarlary, towards mount Mlay, which 
divides that great region, u it Wck,' into two patts : and 
that, in a few years, they, ^m a very iDeoofidtrable begin- 
ning, extended their donumoa from the nver ^lu- in the 

C.I. tteif original zountry^. 67 

taft. as til "vcHward as the Ca/pian Tea. Thns almoft die 
whole (rf' Great Tartary (A), becoming fubjeft to the Turkt, 
. giight have' taken the name of Turktjlan, Or country <f tb» 
'Tu.ks ; at Icaft the oriental writers giVe that name to all the 
Countries lying north of the river Saiin or Sir, the Jaxartft 
of the aniieiits. 

The name of TurSrt they extend fiill farther, making itandTti 
to iacludf; all the countries to the north of the Jihun prrtn. 
Amu, that is Tartary and MaviardUnahr, no^ called Greai 
Bukbaria * ; and thus thev feem to make their oWn hero T£r 
amends for the lots ftiflained by the Tartarian hero Turk^ 
Who hils iogroOed all the inhabitants c& Tartary as his de- . 
fcendants. But the fault lay in the framers of the ftntient 
Prrfian hiftoj^-, *ho, by leaving the final k out .of Tiir'i 
bame, gave their rivals the Turks an opportunity, by the ad- 
dition c^ that letter, to fortn one more lultablC to the perfoil 
who was to reprefent their great auce^or. 

It may be prefumed, if the name of TurkeJIan ever pre- Sxtrad 
vailed over all Tartary, that it continued In ufe fo long otdyw^Tafi 
as the dominion of the Turks Vas intire : but that when^T- 
their power was broken, and they became divided undet' 
many fov^elgns, TurkeJIan alfo became divided into fo many 
diflerent part$, and lod the^ame, which ifcmed to havie 
Icttled in the weftern part of Tartary, to the north of Per- 
Jia and Great BukhSria ; where probably the defcendants c£ , 
their firft KhaD,> Difaiulcs ^, fixed their feat. Frorti thcCj 
qoarters it \vas, that they made continual War upon the Per- 
finns and Arabs, for feveral ages tcmtther ; and here they 
maJDtained their dominioa longeft, and with greateft lultrei 

This, at lealt, we know from hlllory; that, fooh ^txxCeafisth 
the time irf Toxander, \a the feventh century, the Turks ft^tbeiadi 
at war among .themfelves, which probably ended in a par- 
tidoaof the aomini<»i5 * : wd, tn the feventh, eighth, and 
pinth centnries, we find the country of the Turks aftually 
diiidedampi^ jeveral£akhans, or kings, fome of whom had 
tCTj large eerritorles, caUed by dliferent names, or thofe. of 
the trib^ under their fubjeflion, as hath been already f<t 
fiwth' in a foregoing feftlon. However, it miift be ob' 
lerved, that all thofe territories extending over abnoft the 
Vhole of Wefittn. Tartary, are reprefented as parts of llie 

• D'HtRBKL. p. 899. Art. Turk. ^ Sec before, p. 37, 

ft ftq. • See ilfo p. 4J & 46. ■ Set before, p. 56, & feq. 

(A) All b« what is, by as, called lafltm Taftary, to the eaft 
•f LiM ttng. 

^ Fa Bttui 

68 Gttttral Hifiorj of the Turlo : B. L 

Bclad .41 Jtrdk, which is the Arabic word anrweriag to lit 
_ Per/itui Turktftm, that w, the country of the Turks. 
Settki in It may be prcfumcd, that the natious who were not im- 
tht tvtfl, mediately fubjeft to the fuccefTors of Dlfahukt, were, in 
time, con<^uered or brought in fubjeflion by ibmc ocbci u- 
tioa or nations, more to the eaA or Ibuth ; aoA thus ibt 
name of Turkefian came to ccale, or be djfufed, in all but the 
weftera parw of .that empire, where the Turks ftUl prdemd 
their power : on whicfi account it always retained the mt 
of Turkeftm vnth the Perfians. 
Rtvivti However, from time, to time, tbtTurksia this wdbs 
in tie ta/t.region, at diilerent times, leein to have recovered or extcol- 
ed their dominion eaftward, as they found opportunity, fim 
their own tncreafe of ftrength, or the weakncfs df tbor 
ndghbours, whom they had to deal with. Thus, b iht 
time of Ehi Said al Magrehl, the geographer *, Kafligar, b 
Little Bukhdria, was the capital of Turkejian .- as it ueas » 
have been alfo in g^6, under Hek Khm. At leaft Turhtjih 
mufl, at that time, have been divided into two difbnA do- 
minions, the Weftern and the eaAern : of which lad, acconl- 
ing to fomc authors ', Ilek Khan was the ibvcrdgn Iwd, vbik i 
Jrjian Khan reigned over the former. i 

ExtenJt Ejisterm Turkeftan, If \A' may fo call it, that is, ibe 

1 ever countries eaft of Kijbgar, foon after fell into the hands of 
Tartar/, the Karakitayans ; and from thence had the TomctAKirf 
kitay given to it by the Per/tan hUlorians. But at Icwth, 
alx>ut the middle of the twelfth century, both the eaJun 
and weftern TurkefiM were united again under one prince 
in' confequence of the furrender made by Ilek Khan of BaJa- 
faguH to Karakitay Kurkhhn, or Kavar Khan ' : dot did the 
weftern Turkefian, upon that revolution, take the aanie of 
Karakitay, blit Aill retained its own, at leaft wilfa the Per' 
fans. ^ 

AgaincoH- But things did not long continue in thisftateU 
trm^td. the b^inning of the thirteenth (rntury, Kuchbik ihe/wSl 
rebelling agalnft his father-in-law KHrkhAn, wreHed Fronl 
the eaftern Turkffian ; and thus once more caufed a diX 
of the empire. Some fay both parts were united again iii 
perfon of Kuchluk hlmfelf, who fucceeded Kurkiin, Be r 
as it will, in a i^ fe\v years after, Jenghiz Khan the orell 
having over-run the whole weiWm Tartary with hU ^ngjl 
all Turkejian became a province of his immcnfe empire. Sine 

* ^bu'lfeda ubi. Cbowarafmix. tec. in «dit. Hudfon, p. , 
* Sec before, p-.ja. ' Sec before, p. ;S. 


C. I .' Deftriptim of Turkeftaa. 6^ 

-which time we have heard no more of caftem Turktftm, or 
oriental Turks. 

However, the part of Tartary to the north of PerftARtmainiin 
and Grtat BukhSria, ftill retained the name of Tvrkeftan .- the iwi/t. 
aod, in the partition which Jeaghiz Khan made of bis ecn- 
pire among his four fons, fell to tlie Ihare of Jagatay (B), 
who was the fecond. But, in proce& of time, th^ new 
m^tMiarchies being fpiit into iefler {ktes hy intcAine f^ioas, 
sod the defcendants of one brother invading thole of ano- 
ther, Turkefian fell into the hands of the Uzbeks, and, at laft, 
into tht^c of the KaJfMs and MankAts; who were formerly 
the rafa[ie£ts of Juji, eldeA fon of Jenghiz Kk&rt, and at pre- 
fent U pofleflcd by them : the Kaffdts having the eaftehi 
part, and the Mankats (better known In Eitre^ by the aJck- 
sxuacai KaraKA!paks}, the wellern part, andcr (hdr refpec-. 
live Khans ; who, vrith their fubjefls, are Mohammedans. 

From what has been laid on this fubjeft, it appears thaxWhyfa 
Turkeftin had not always the fame fituatioa and extent ; butA^"^ 
varying both, from time to time, is found fometimes in one , 

pan of Tartly, fometimes in another ; juA as the Turks, 
who, like the other tribes, lived fiar the moA part in the 
fields, were able to ftand their ground, or obliged to give way 
to (iipericH- force. Thus countries, which have neither cities, 
nor any fixed habitations, may be faid to be of an itinerant'*'*^/' 
natnre, and follow thdr inhabitants wherever they remove. ""' 
However, the Turks, who inhabited to the n(»'th of either Great 
Bukhiria or Perfia, had generally towiu along the Sir la. 
their poncHion, as the MankAts and Kajfits have at prefent : 
and ai it was from the liunc quarter that thofe countries were, 
from time to time, invaded by them, It always retained, 
among the Pet-fians, the name of TurkefiSn t with the de- 
feription of which we Hiall doCe this Introdu^ion to the hi- 
ftory of the Turks. 

The prefent Turkefiin Is frcnatc betweed 42 and 50 or 51 Prefmt 
d^rces of latitude, and between 73 and 90 degrees of Ion- Turkef- 
Bkadc, reckoning frran Frrro, one of the Canary ifles. iitan'j/«. 
IS bounded on the north by the jlril Tdg, or mountains of 
tagf^it which are no better than hills in thole .quarters ; on 
the call, by die dominions of the grand Khan c^ the Eliths 
or Katinuks; on the fouth, by the river Sir, which feparates 
it from Karazm and Great BukkAria (C) ; and on the weA by 

(flj See D'H,rM,t. Art. AS-f-. See jitu'/ghAxi XiSn't 

Gngiiix KhoM, aaiQiagathay, h\A.oryoft\>tTiiris, 

But perhap) part of it was in (C) But Mr, StrabUnbrrgi 

Ac lot o( J")], and given by map extends it much to me 

Btgiu to J^s brotbei Shiybani Ibuth of the fj^. 

F 3 the 

yd ' pefiriplioH ef Turfceli&n, B. I, 

0ie C(0ian Tea, and river Tem, It may be aboat 66t miles 
in length from we(l to eaft, and 540 in breadth from fonth 
to north, 
Natural The country CQnfifo generally of vftft e:it?nded plains, 
J^'U which are very fruitful ; and has but a few mount^s, 
^ceptins thofc befprc-mcnttoned. It Is watered by fomo 
rivd's* fu^h as the Tariz, or Taiijh, -which fells into the 
Sir ; the ^«rugay, which falls Into the Talajh ; the KarafA\ 
and others of left note. They all defcend from the north, 
and ^, for the moft part, into the Sir', but authors dUIer 
as to the particular places where they enter that river <. 
Here likewife one meets with feveral lakes. Among the reft, 
one called Kamtjb Nor, that is, ihe lake of reeds, is 40 or 
50 miles long, and 30 broad, That of IJfihol, where Turk, 
the fon of Jnfet, is faid to have fettled, is very near the ' 
ea|tern border of Turkejl^n, if not within it. 
frikeifal IVhen Turkejlan wji in its flouri/hing ftate, under its own 
(fti^i. fovereigns, and even till the irruption of Jenghiz Khan, it 
abounded with flrcing and populous cities, However, thefe, 
or mofttif them, probaWy, were not built by the 7ar<j, who 
lived mofily in the fields, but by the old inhabitants, of the 
country, or the Ara^s, from ^hom they took rhem. Thefe 
were fituatc chicfiy on the rivers In the fouthera parts ; efpc? 
cially on the great river Sir ; which was its natural common 
boundary on the fide of MawaraTftahr, or Great BukhHria, 
The chief of thefe were Jenghikant, Jund, Tdfi, Sahrhn, Sflj 
fan*i, Uzkmd, Otrar, Tarp^, Esfijab, ofiamkat, Toniat, 
Bttl^J^gun, Senkat, TAjbkant, ShakrMya, &C. 
. Jtt^ Four of the aboveTmenriooed pties were, at different pCr 

^H^h riodf, the captals of Turkefian ; namely, Tenghikant, or Aa- 
^yat al Jidldt^, in the time of al Betyendi the geographer. 
SalaJSgttn, or KamiSHk, enjoyed that honour kam (017 tq 
1177, andWr^r was the metropolis in 1206; whence 5e^i^ 
Mohammed Karazm Shah took it from Karakitay Xurkbaa, 
king of Turkejdn. 

Maht of the ah9vc-mcntioned dties, ftUl exift, notirithi 
Handing the dcftrutfnon made of thpm by the M^oh, under 
Jenghtz Khan .- but we are better acquainted xvith the ftatc of 
them at that time, than at prdent ; being.fiirnifhed witi very 
few mpdern accounts rclatliig to this part pf AJla. 

% Sek the maps of De l'Isle, Strahlenbiko, D*Ai;vit.LE, 
and the author of the new cotleA. voy. and trar. vol. iv. p. 

m- ' "■ ■ .• ■ . 

„...,. Coiwlc 

C. I.~ H^riptim qf TurlufUR. gi 

YBNGHIkantlJl), oi yll Kartyat al JadidA^, as AdfoitYenff. 
called it, both mines iigniiyiag tHe nrw city qv fortrcfi, waskant, 
fitoate, accordiag to the Atab geographers, near the riyer 
«/ Sh^ (F), Vhkh falls into the lake af Karafm. This we 
eike to be the Aral Nor, or Uki of EagUs, in that country. 
It was tea days journey Cof the Karait>ins'\ from Karafm^ 
twenty from F^-ai {or OtrirJ, and twwty-fivc from Bok- 
hara *. Jtmd or Jand was a little city, not far from thence. Jand, w 
It is near the mouth f£ the Sih&nt and has produced feversil Jand. 
bnious men. Mirioad relates, thut it was from this and 
fomc other cities thereabout that the Scythian ambalTadors 
went to meet Alexander, and reproached him for his ambi- 
tioo and rapine. On the approadi of the Megoh under Tujhi, 
Ion of Jenghiz Khen, in 1219, SoltM Mohammed Kcrazm 
Sbdi, to yrhom it was then fubjeA, lent 5000 men to garl- 
ioa it. However, Kutluk Khan, the governor, fled ; but the 
inhahitants. depending on the {Ircngih of the walls, and its 
towers, which was very great, they flood on thdr defence, 
and might have held out a long liege, if it had not been 
iiuprifed by ftratagem, without bloodlhed. On this.account 
their livM were fpared ; but they loft all their efFefts '.. 

TASSI, Sabran, and Sagan^k or Sign&k, are often men- Yaffi, Sa. 
tioDcd ia Shanu addin's iife of Timur Bck. The laft was a bran. Sa- 
lary and flrong city at the time of Jenghiz Khan'i invaiion. gai.ak. . 
Soltin Mohammed Cent 20,000 men to defend it. It \yas the 
firft place ihcMogols befiegcd ; who, in thdr approach, feat 
an envoy to fiimmon the inhabitants tip furrcnder, with a 
prtmife of good treatment : but they, ii^ead of Uftening u> 
his propo&l, tore him in [Heces; which fo exafperated Tvfhi , 
Khan, who commanded at the fis^, that he never cealed af- 
Jaulting the pitace till be had takep it ; and then, to revenge 
the murder, cxaScA 10,000 of them to be pal to the fword. 
The terror of this executitxi made Uzkend, or Vrkend, fur- 

OTRAR, caUcd by tht Arais Farib, was, according K>Otrir, er 
j&uffeda, fituate on the river Al Sh^ (G), pi the neighbouco^ai^b. 

* AsvYrEDA defcr, Chowar. p. ;6. ' ' Abv'lf. «kt 

fapr. 57. De la Croix hift. Jenghiz Khan, p. 172, i'77, Jcfo^. 
* Abu'lcmazi Khan, p. 113. De la Croix, p. 174, 

(E) This word iaM, wluch neat it) month, in the lake of 
£g;iii£« town or dty, ii written Karaxm. Some mapsj whitfh 
alfo iMufwA. kent; and Ibme- imafcc that river {%ll intpthe 
tune««)dawlthaf/. as the pro- Gafpia^ Tea, place it between 
naodation varies ham tine to tfiat Tea and chflakc. 
Qjiie, orin difieve at places. . ■_-.. |<S} The fijm.twithche£f7^u0, 
(F) SiMn, tit Sir, probably flcfffc. ,-■ j 

F 4 <; hx^ 

7* DefiripHm of TuAeMn. 6.t ! 

Iwod of Ba^fjgHn ' i bnt Sharif oJdiH lenovet k two pi- 
r>fangs, or Peyton leagoes, tirom the north btok (rf the £i- i 
hun or Sir, We undeHhad, from the frme anthor, ihu a 
league to the eaft of it is the ri**r Jrj, vrith a bri(%e o«a 
it ; Ukewife, that it is Ax Karaioin fto^ from Ta/hkumt, mmA 
fcventy-lix para&ngs from Samarkand ". D* la Cnix pbca 
0/nir in the moft weftera extremity of Turie/i&i ; and brands 
its territories on the eaft with that <^ Al Siah at Ta^UoHt. ' 
It was a dty of great trade between the Tvrh and AhUm- 
nttdans w)wn the MogoU invaded the domiiuMU of Stbm 
Jts/amiu As this was a place of great importance, the StJtiit left 
gcp. 60,000 men with Gayer Kkan, the governor, to defend it; 
who, on the march of Oktay and Jagatay, two of Jen^a 
Kbin't ions, 'tndi 200,000 men, to attack it, Quit himiidf 
. up in the town, and v^roufly fecured it for five months : 
but, as the place could not hold out much IcMigv. oat of 
his generals advifed him to capitnlatc in dme. The goveroor, 
being confcious that he had been the fole occalion of the war, 
rcjcAcd the prqpofal. Hereupon the genera] retired, in the 
night, with hi) 10,000 men, into the camp of the Megab; 
who, detefling his treachery, flew them all, and entered the 
dty by the gate which they had marched out of. 
Gn»tr' 6JTBR Khan, finding the town taken, retired with 
w*r'i 20,000 men into the cafUe ; which, being too little fcr fo 
hlfyt^. ereat a number, he endeavoured to free himlelf by oontimMl 
(allies. This extremely incommoded the enemy for fene 
lime : but the princes, redoubling thdr dfbrts, todc it at 
laft, fword in hand, and cut all ^ garifon to (MOcs. TIk 
governor, pcrcpving all was lofl, retired into bi8 ^wtment, 
with two men ; who bang at length killed, and arrows &3- 
ing, Gayer defended himfelf for fome time with great fhiiia, 
which his wife fapplied him with. At laft he was taken, and 
fltut up in a dole [»ifoD, loaded with chains, where be wu 
ioon after put to death by Jenglxx Khin'% orders", 
Tlmftr ' D^HERBELQT fays OtrJr was taken by SoU&t Mcham- 
dinhtre- wd at fuch time ai it v/ts the capital of Turktftm \ and that 
tliis ^ion drew CBi his back the M^oli, who retook it in 
tzip 1* ; but he miftaket the canfe cf the war. De la Crwix 
fays, the caftle was rafed ; but that the dty walls were re- 
built ', Ttm^Bek or Tamerlan died b thb dty, on hit way 

* Aiti'LV. obi fupr. p. 64. ■. Shakif Addii'i lif* of 

TimftrBeit.sp. 38a, 300. 195, 397. " HiA. Jenrii. p. 

t4S, )58- '"■ Hift. Jengh. uhi fopr. Aao'lohaki Khah, 

p. Ill, St fe<). ' D'Hiaa.bibl. otlent. art.ptFV, p. 697. 

1 Hilt. Jeng)k. p. 1701 * fcq. 

a towards 

, C. 2. Dtfifiptiw 9/ TurkefUbi. 73 

towards Kitay or Cbiiut ; vUch he intended to conqufl- : but 
at pre(cat it is a place of no great note. 

TAkAZ (H) was a city where the Turks and Mobammedant Tatjz. 
met to trade. It produced uusy learned men. It was near 
to Eifijah and Jtkd, and four pstrafangs frog(i Sha^. Thele 
two ktter were cities of the 7mki '. Taraz daads oa the 
ma j4rj, about 70 miles to the oorth-eaA of Otrart 

ESFIJAB was reckoned a large dty ; though not fo big Eifijib. 
by two parts in three as JienMt, It had a caftle formerly -, 
but it was not ftaoding in the dme of Abulfeda, Both the 
cizy and fuburbs were Inclofed: the former with 3 double 
vadl; the latter with a fingle wall, three panUangs in corn- 
pals. The inhabitant? were accommodated with delightful 
gardens in the adjacent plain, which is well watered : and 
from them to the nearell mountains is a fpace of three para- 
&ngs '. E^jai ftands upon the north bank of the Sb; or 
near it 

BALASAGUN (I), accordiiw to Abulfeda, was adtyBaliTs. 
bcfood the river Sihun, la the bcu'dov of the Turk'i doiiii-g&n. 
nioot. In me place he nukes it to be near Ka/hgar ; and 
near Farib, or Otrar, in another ' ; which is a Ion of con> 
tiadiAion ; thofe two places lying at a great diibnce afunder. 
By the pofitioii given it in his tables (K) it was about fcveoty- 
five Icj^oes north-eaftward of the latter. Ab^lghdzi Khanr 
oUierves, that it was called by the Mogals Kbami£ig, or goeJ 
tnoa. It was the capital of Turkman for a long time ; but 
at pcfient (eems not to be in bmg ". 

. BEhiKAT is a great place of trade, belot^ng to /f/Benkit. 
Sbit/h, oz Ta/bkunt, bdiig a league in length. The fortr^s 
n without the city ; but the lame wall feryes both. lO di- 
Stn& or liberties are inclofed with a wall, as are its gardens 
and out-building). It is well fupfdied with running waters*. 

AL SHASH was fooneriy a munificent city, fubjcft to Al 5hUttt 
Samarkand, near the Sihun ; from whence the water flowed «■ Taflj- 
to everrhoare. It is four Aagea from Khegend, and five from *""•*• 
Farginaot Aiidakaml'. It a at prdcnt qdlcd Ta/bkunt^t 

* Aan-P. nbifnpr. p. 69, 71. ' Abulfbda defer. Cho- 
wat. p. 68. ' Abvlf. ubi fopr. p. 64, 74. ■ Abo'luh. 
hit T«rk», p. 44, 47J. " Abulp. ubi fupr. p. 66. 

' Abulb. UDi tttgi. ^ J3, 6;, 66, 71. ^ HiO. TiniQr Bek. 

(H) Perhaps the Tame called (I) *Ti> r<«ietimei writttn 
Tfirs* is the (ieosr. Nubieuiis : Yele/dgin, as in dhalgbixi 
tb^ KM and acbciDj often writ- . A:;tAu*s liiftory. 
leff nearly alike. (iC) Lat. 47 degrees. 


j4 DeferiptioH fif Turkeftan^ B. I. 

bat much redaccd from its former TplcniloT, having been bftea 
deftroyed and rebuilt; yet is the ■winter refidcnce of the 
KhSn oi(titKiiff/lts, who poflefles the eaft part of 7i(r*gtf Ai '. 
Tufix took this place from Sohan Mohammi^d in i2i<); but 
not without moch eAiifion oi blood ", and afterward put a 
great number of the inhttbitants to the fword S 
■ Fcna- FSNAKUNTiX.) was a ftrongdfy, on the eafternbtnk 

kuhc, of the Sir, in the time of Jmghiz Khin. That prince fent. 
wviShah- 50,000 men aRaJnft it, under two generals : and though SoU 
zukhiya. tan Mohammed had detached thither 1,0,000 men, yet it was 
taken, after a ficge of three days. All the garifon were put to 
the fword, and the inhabitants carried into llavery,''. It was 
fo ruined on this occafion, that there remained no vcfligia 
of It till 1392, when Timur Beg ordered it to be rebuilt, 
gnd peopled : and, as that conqueror gave it to his fon Mirza 
Shahrokh, it was from him called ShahrvkhSyn (M), So wc 
•re informed by the author of Trniwr's life '. At prefcnt it is « 
mifcrable place, of about 200 cabins, dependent on T^Jb- 
kunt ; from whence it lies about fixtccn Ic^ues to the caft ', 
or rather perhaps to the fonth. 
Tonltlt, TVNKATy or Tonk&t, is a city and mart of the province 
tr Ton- of Shk. Before the tune of Jmghiz. Khan it was indoled 
kjt. with a wall, in which were many gates. It ftood on a river ; 

from whence water flowed into die town, and through its 
territories. It had a cafHc for its defence, and was adorned 
■mth the palace of a prmce. While it was in the hands of the 
Afohi and Ptrfians it had a wall, extending from tlw; moun- 
tain Shih&Ug to the end of the vdlcy bf M SHJb, T>uilt to 
hinder the irruptions of the Turks. This city was the nur- 
■fery. of many learned men •, and called Dar at ihn ; that is, 
the palace if the fiiences ; on account of riie academy of arts 
atid fdences, which was farmol there. Ir was a place fe 
fitted for pleafure, that it became a faying, that Cod never 

• Aiti'lc, p. 569. * De la Croit hift. Jengh.p. 177. 

* Abu^c. p.ii+. * DEL«CRorx hift. Jengfi. p<.i7*< 

Abu'lg. hift. Turks, p. 114. • Hift. Tim&r Bek, p. 373. 

' Aaw'Lo.- p. 569. * AmrT,F. ubi fiipr. p. 67, 71. ' 

(L) \jAhrlghS»iKI>ati-wAt' rifle, in I^s laA map vfPrr^, 

ten Famakant, and hy Dt la makes it the fame with Skat- 

Creix, hift. yaigh. p. 17a, Pe- rfibiya, StrahU»berg, in hit 

naitt. rofp of Tqrtatj, gives thethrc^ 

(M) Dt la Craix, in hli hift. to qdc place. Arahfiih, va hn 

fX Jengkix. Khan, p. 171, COO- hiftory of Tinar, I. i. J i«, 

foMaAsFntaitt, as he writes the K-^»!K%tA SbkhretMa^A quite '3^ 

limine, si'elckTnk&t ; and ai Ot ncwcitf* 


ftitdlr d flwre ddictous dwelling than Tonkit K Jenghh Khan, 
bdd a general diet here in tlie year 1224 ; which was fo ou- 
merous, that its plain, though feven leagues in length, was 
Jcarce able to contain ttie number of people who were aOem- 
liled on that occaiion '. 

To the cities before defcribed 'tis necefDvy to add that oiGtj 
Turkeftan, which we omitted to mention among the towns of Turk- 
fliis country ; becaufe vrt find no antient place <rf that namccfta"! 
to the oriental anthors ( though poflibly it then exifled under 
ktott other denomination, b^g mentioned often by Jbitl- 
gbdxi Khan, in tlie earlicft times bf hia iiiAonr. It ftands 01 
a river that comes from tbe north-eaft, and nils into the S^ 
a little below tlie town (N) : thOngfa built of brick, is yet a 
very pitifol [dace, and remarkable for nothing but an agree- 
able fitoadon : howcrcr, in this condition it enjoys the ha' 
Donr of bdng the capital of Turtefl&i, and is the rcfidence 
of the Khan of the Mank^ls, who poOelTes ih^ weAern part 
rf this country *. 

» Dt LE Croix liift. Jtngh. p. 182, & ff%. • Ibid, p, 

J56. *. Abu'loh. p. $6$. 

(N) The maps of Z}« /^ and &rd^/W/r/ plan it about tj 
Bws diftant. 


7h€ bifiary of tht Scljflkians of Ii^n, or Pcrfia, 

at largr ; and of KermSfi. 

S E C T. L 

Tie. authority on wbicb the Seljfik. iifiory is grounded. 

BESIDES the empire* which the Turis eftabliJhcd inSel)ftki«n 
Tartary, thdr nadve country, they fonnded four" great <(f»«^'«; 
monarchies in the fouth of JJia. Th^ tliree firft were 
pofleHed by the princes of the fame tamily, call^ £«!jru(. 
and Turki, of the lame tribe or tribes. The fourth, by 
moccs c^ the ^mily of 0;Mf^, or0zWn(A), with their re 
ipedire followers. Of thefe we propofe to give the hiftory 
io ordo'; and are fnffidently furoHhed with materials fen* fet- 
tbig the Othfm af&irs in a rery good light. We could wiflu 
ias "Ant resdo's lake, that we were but lialf as well provided 

(A) Otbm£m ii the Ar^ VM- fiaa, which it moftly ftillow«l 
aittciattQD; OxMia, ,the fir* bytbcTjtrij, 



yS Geniral Hijitry of the Seljftks* B. t. 

to mat of the Selj^ dynaltics. The migfortnBe is, that, al- 
though many Perftan and Arab authors have p^ned their 
hiAory at Urge, but few copies in the original language have 
as yet appeared io'this part of Eur^ ; and none of them been 
tranlUted into any European toi^c. 
• OHenial Tis true that two or three oriental hillorians have been 
bifieritmi. rendered into Latin, vhich fpeak of the Seljuk affiiirs ; as 
Ahii'l-fdraj (B), Ebn AmU, called Al Maktn (C), and the Leh- 
tarikh (D) of Attar Tahia ; but althongh thefe furnilh us with 


(B) ThtvorVof Gr^aryAiuI. ter part, ftiled Tariib AlMof- 
fart^, near XheEupbrMei, it in- /imiK, or tit hifiary af iht M»f- 
tilled, a cMKtitBiieus bijiery tf Umt, was publilhed by £««- 
ifaafiiti, or rucceffioDi. It i( niv (but from a very faulrp 
wmten by way of annali, and copy], both in folio and ofiavo, 
takea in the tranfafUous of the 101615. Tbefoimer hai join- 
moll remarkable kingdooiE, ed with it a Latin tranflationi 
from the beginninz of the world which is alfo publilhed feparate- 
to the end of the thineench cen- ly in quarto, under the title of 
fury. He is remarkable for HifiorU Saracaica. He was 

■ ' ig a good accoont of the for his learning called ^/5A/)iM 

1/ aftairs under Jenghjs: al Kdu a! Maiim that ii, /i« 

Kliaa, and his ruccef&>ri, to , irimi dcSer, Jolidjy leanuJ. 

that time. He likewife has in- Hence liis traoflacor ftiles him 

fcrted tnanjr remarkable parti- Al Maktn : but all othferi quota 

culan relating to the Siij&k dy- him by the name of Ebn AmiJ, 

naftiesi efpecially that of JJbjr, or the fon of jimiJ, who was 

or Nateiia, which he had an, fecretary for 4; years to the 

opportunity of knowing, ai council of war under the Soltlin 

having been a phyfici^n of Mm- efEtfpt, of the family of Jjib, 

Imtia, a city of that country or J^; and, on his father'* 

near the Eufhratn. Hit hi- death, fucceded him in that 

ftory, in Arabic, with a Latin cmployment(a). 

nanJlaiioD, was publilhed by (D) The Libfankb, or Lah 

Dr. EJ-ward Pectdi, that great Al Tav:arik, is wrilt-.n in Per- 

mailer in the oriental leatning, ^n by the Jt*ir YahiaEba jib- 

as well at languages. d'nUatif of Kav.iiin, in the year 

(C) Gnrgi, thefon of AhuU- IJ41 (3). This ii a very brief 
ymfer al Amid, compiled a hi- /hiftory of the h'ahBmmtdan mo- 
ftory out of feveral authon, Mrchies and thole preceding 
panicularly Abi Jafar Ai fa- MtbamnuJ. It was tranflated 
idri, and Kzmal tddin Armmm. into La^a by M. Gtlmim, k 
The firft a verjf copious an- Frmcbmant but part of the co- 
thor ( I ). It begins at the crea- py, at the beginning and end. 
tion, and reaches down to the isloltj the remainder was pub. 
year of Chrift 1117. The lai- lilhed b> Mr. Dt Tbmtaet, in 


C. ft- ^nd itt MtbcrUy. 77 

tlie origin of thofe monarchies, and a. fuccelTion of tbelr 
kings, with many faAi, and thdr dates, Qot to be met uith 
in our weftcrn writers ; yet they arc all too general to ^ve 
fudi a light into the hiAory of them, as might be fufficiev 
10 (atis^ the curious. Ttie two lirfl authors likewife, being 
digeded in the form of annals, the Seljuk hiAory is given 
mixed with that of other Aates, and not in one continued 
leries, as it is in tlie Lebl<ir1kh .- but then this latter, befides 
its great concifcnefs, treats'only of the (trA Seljuk monarchy, 
and jfl Makia of no more than the fix firA princes of that line. 

These dcfoftt indeed Rie,lbmcwhat u^lied by D'Ifer- 
heht ; who has made an extraA of the hiAory of the rcfpec- 
tive Idngs of each dyijaAy from Mtrkond, often mentioned 
befcfre, and other Perjian hiAi^lans. But Texeira, who has 
given an abAraft of MIrkond, to iai aa relates to the hiAory 
of PerJSa, fays very little of the Seljuki, except TogrM Bek, 
or of their afi^s, and that very imperfeAly, as well as in- 
confufioo. Perhaps he grew tired towards tiie end of his 
vorlt, or was afraid of Iwelling it too much ; for we pre- 
fame his author Mirkond has handled matters in a mcve tx.- 
*A and particular manner. 

As for the Creek or Byzantine hlAorians (both thofe who?"^ ^f/^ 
wrote by way of annals, or fuch as penned the lives of parti- er» inn- 
colar emperors), they give fuch imperfeft, confufed, and er- ten 
rooeons accounts of all tranfaftions which happened withou,t 
the boands of the' XeiRan empire, that fcarce any thing true, 
or of moment, is to be expefted &om them. This may ap- 
pear from the hiAories of the Jrabs, the Khalifahs, and other 
Perfian monarchies, as well as that of the Srljukti cranpile^' 
out of them by Curio, Lonkerus, Bizarus, Leunclavius, and 
other anthors. Thefe our Knowles made ufc of ia his volu- 
minous work; which,' coniequently, muft be like the oii^- very ii- 
nals, a coofafed imperfeft nia(s, full of chafms and intrica-jMiw; 
ctes ; nor to be depended on, eithef as' to the' &fts, dates of 
aAions, or even names of places and perfons' : in which they ■ 
dilagrce fo much, that it would be utterly impoJlible for any 
mna to reconcile them '(E), or make any good ufe of thdr 

fals colleOion of voyages and one of the copiei, which were 

travelf. It is obfervable, that mad« ufe of b/ (bofe two gcn- 

thecxtraA) given from the Z»^- tlemen, neither of whom caa 

tarikh by Ml. D'HirMoi, who be fuppofcd capable of cjc 

oftcD maket ufe of it, fomC' pouoauip their author fo ill. 

times differ widely, andevcn (E) The reader may find a 

cencradiA the imt of Qiimin: remarkable inftanCe of ibts ia 

but the fault nuft need* be in the lesxoed and judicious Ltm- 

L ._. ,=X,oo;(lc 

yS General ISpry bf At Setj6ks, p. t. 

tuieriabt Miidiouf the aHiftance of the oriental authors tp 
direft his ftcps. , 

OoR readers -will eafily percdve (his, by only (lightly com- 
paring the account, which we Ihall ^ve him, of the $elj0i 
dynauies, with that furnifhed by au^ of the above-mentioned 
authors : for although Leunclaviui hath gone far beyond the 
reft, with r^ard to the hiftory of the Othman Turks, as be- 
ing tajcen in part from the Turkijb iuQonajiB ; yet what litt^ 
he hath collefled io relation to tiic Sffjuii is almoft whoUf 
^ drawn from Eunpeaa authors, having had no oriental writem 
to help him oub 
pi»fuff. However, n is not to be thought, by what has been 
{aid, that the Byzantine and other \veQern hillorians arc <tf 
no u(e in writing the hiftory of the Turk/ : on the c6ntrsrj[» 
as the latter Greek emperors had war? with the $*§uit as 
^eU as the Othmdns, fo diofe wars, related foinetimss ifl 
detail, ibmetimes very fuperRcialJy, miJie a part pf thaf* 
hiftpryj and hcQce it is that we fomctimes meet witK tranf- 
tftions not to lie found !n the oriental authors. Which fhews, 
that to write the hiAory of a nation with any completpnefs* 
h is abfolutely necfeflary to confult the hiftories of thofc na- 
tions with whom it hath had hoftilities, or other conceroc. 
TnrkiOt Besides, althfugh in relating the affairs of the Tifrii, vr^ 
^trieni, ought in reafon to ^ve preference to Turkijh authors, u 
, - every nation muft be needs be beft acquainted ■with thei;* 
own tranfaftions, yet we are not to qtpeA ablblnte pec 
4^oh and Qxaf^nefs from them : for they Ibmetimes dlffi:^ 
1b the account they give of the ori^n of t;tieir monarchies, as 
,w^ as in the anions and reigns of thdr princes, with refpeft 
.to their beginning and length : but this is no more than whfX 
iuppeas to the hiftorians of all other nations ; for otten tbp 
' rile of the Hates being attended with various diai^a, before 
they come to be fettled, and their founders oblcure pr incoa* 
fiderable perions, it Is therefore difiicult fcmetimes to fix the 
Xtmarit orwui of either. Befides, the memory of many trynlaiAioiu 
amsbm- and eVentt is loft or obfeuced in the confurion introduced 
in countries 1^ wars and rcvotutioas j efpectally, if th^ be 

c/«wiw, who, examining into ihe^mmim (i), of the firlt 

the original of the Seljuki, as ^ing$ of thurace, tDfuronrof 

delivered by feveral aathora, all the falfe account given by Ct^ 

difagrecing among themtelves; drauit, and other Grtei wri- 

wag fo prcplexed Jn his jiid|- tets (z], as we fhall have oce»- 

nieot, at to rqe£t the true till fion to Qkw harcafteri. 
givca by Ajtmi, or Hoftan, the 

A'\F'r T'Z'^t* t*f- ''"■ i*- "'• ^'- ^^ 'SS** <») **' i-«A 

c^ aiqr long .coDtiiiuiince. However, as fome hiftorians He 
more exaftas well as particular than others, and it being 
our nusfortune, as yet, to have only extrafbs from the orieo- 
tals, and thofe Bot from any hiftorian who has written ex- 
prcfly on the ful^eft, it is therefore iprefumed, that the reader, 
where-evcr he injeet? with any fuch. imperfcftioris in the fol- 
lowii^ hiilory, will rather impute ihcm to thefe laft than to 
the firfl-mcDtioned caufes, ' 

This we judge to be doing no more than what is juftice, BxtraBi 
ei-en 10 the alitbois from whence the cxlrafts before us. artAi^'i™- 
made, in order to prevent our reader's taking up any haiVy 
{B-t^dioes againfl the oriental writers in genera!, from the 
dcfe^ which he may difcovcr in the few fcanty materials 
out of which we. are obliged to rompofc the hiftory of the 
Se^h, for want of more copious memoirs. And indeed 
diere is the more reafon for this aptJogy in thdr favour, 
becaufe the extra^s at queftion differ in certain particulars, 
and, among the reft, in thofe relating to the origin of the5f/- 
juij, and die eftabliihment of their monarchies. 

.SEC T, II. 

TU erigin ej tbt SeljOkians, and their entrance ttlti 

VELJUK, or Sa§uk, the founder of the Se^ui dynaffy of Seljfilc Ih 
^ Iran, or Perjia at large, according to the Lebtdrikh, Je/ctutf 
derived his origin from Jfrafiab, often befwe mentioned », 
and ^tte the thirty-fourth defcewlaot from that princ^ i|i a 
dire£l male line. 

■ But Mtrkondy in his account of the gctTealogy of TsTigi/z 
Khan, lays, that Stljiik was of Mogul race, and ddcended 
bCKB- Btfiin Sa^l, {od.o{ JlaitkA-wa^. 

Ms. Guigues, in his mcmmr concerning the origin <^ tfae 
Huns aiul TurJUf extra^cd from the Chinefe hillorians, feenu 
to think, that the SeljuJu -were derived from a ftock dtlTereni 
fr<Mn both the fonner. He relates, that the children of 
Twtrwrn Ilh^t . or Tumena Khan ; who, , defceadcd from Bif 
zenjir, the fon of j^lankdwa, imitatit^ the example of their 
father, formed an em{nre, which extended frtim the Ct^att 
lea to Korea .- that tftis em|xre, -being too large to ooDtiauo 
long intire, ac length became divided into two ; - tht «aftom 
and the weftern; cadi of irfhich had its own Khan : that 

•Seep. 3, & fcij. - * See before. CHebbelst, {i. 

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ * . the 

So General Hifiory of the Sclj6ks, B. I. 

the empire of the weftern Turks, which extended as &r as 
the river Sih&n, or Sir, was often fonnWable to the kings of 
Perfia ; particularly HormazJ, fon of Ko/nl Aniijhirvim, wth 
vhom they had confiderable wars : that, iit proccfs of time, 
other Turks, of the hord of JVhey-ke, deftroyed the empire 
of the weftein Turks, and founded a new empire of their 
Q^n : aad 'tis from thefe IVhey-ke, that, in the opnton of Mr. 
- Cuiguts, the four Seljuk dynaftics, wliich reigned in the 
fouthern /Ifid, were defcended. 

According to this bypotbefis, the Seljuk tribe could not 
be defended from ei^ei Jfraftab Khm, or yllank&wa. But 
as this is only a conjefture ot Mr. Cuiguei, and he has pro- 
duced no arguments to fupport it, we Ihall leave it, and re- 
tnrn to the account given oy MIrkond. This author informs 
us more particularly as to the femily of Se§^,_ that he was 
the foQ of Dekak, chief officer of Big^, prince of thofe Turki/h 
tribes which inhabited the plain ot KhozAr (A), or KiftcbAk, 
to the north of the Caj}ian fea. Dekak was fo renowned, among 
thofe of hi* n' cion, for his extraordinary Mifdom and valour, 
that they gave him the fumame of Tazii^g, which fignifies 
aftrong Ima, and hard to manage. After lUs death, the king 
took care to educate Seljuk, who was very young ; and, not 
doubting but the fon of fuch a father would make a verj 
brave man, furnsuned him Baffajbi; that is. Chief, or Cap- 
tain. As he advanced In years, the Soltan heaped ^vours on 
him ; but, forgetting his duty to fo good a prince, he one 
day prefumed to enter the fecret apartment of the palace, and 
would needs fee his women and cluldren. 
aniftr- BIGU, bdng informed. of this Infolence, was rcfolved to 
(km. punilh.him feverelyfbr it. But Seljuk, getting fome know- 
Irae of his defign, thought it beft to avoid his anger, t^ 
efeiping in time. Accordingly, having gathered all hb friends 
and people, who were attadied to his family, he retired, \rith 
his eSe«s ; and (croffing the Sih&n, or &r), drew towards 
Samarkand (B). BeHI Khm, governor of that city (C), not 
retilhing fucli neighbours, refolved to oblige them to remove 
tt ft diftance : but SeljiSt, having augmented his forces, got 
the better of him in feveral engagements. In one eJpeciaUy 

(A) On this occafibo i>'£rn- .37;, and of ChriA 93$, ac> 

ieitt obfervct, that thefe Kip- cording to the Z.(jterti£| which 

th£k Tmrit are Kbtrttrians, fay>, the motive of their cxp<- 

whMu tbe Greek and Laeim hi- ditton was to feek pafiore. 

fioriani, wtui fpeak of the wan (C) 111 not faid for whom j 

of the emperor HeratUm and hut at thtt time Maviarffhiar 

fCheJrtes, call Ararians. feemt to have beta und«r Ule 

(B} This Ka» in <ixWcjrah Khfcn of fwir/iji. 


Ci. till they fitthd in ^n^: Sl 

he obtained a confiderable advantage, by means of an aip- 
bnlcade; which was To well conduct, that he acqnked a 
great reputation throughput die country. This fucoels laid 
the firft fotudatioo of his grcatnds, and emboldened him to 
prefent himlelf before BojSdra } where he was very well re- 
ceived <:. . 

MIRKO ND mentions nothing of the death of Seljuki^i^ft 
-whkh we learn from rwp other authors, Ein j4mid and El^ ]^"^*f'- 
Shobnah (D); who differ fomewhat in thdr account of him™' 
both irom that hifbrian, and from one another. Ebn Amid re- 
lates, that Dakak, Seljuk's father, being a wife as well as fbut 
man, was al^vays coafulted by the king of the Turks, and'car- 
ried with him in his wars : that he was die firfl of his fami- 
ly who embraced Mahajnmedijm : that his fon Selj&k, bdng 
ti age, when he died, the lung made him general of all his ' 
tor%xs : but that, afterwards, apprehending danger from his 
crafty difpofition, herefolvedtoldllhlm; which coming to tl^e 
knowlege of Seljuk, he fled to HarUn Saliab Oddaibk, king 
(^ Ghahia, and deHred aid of him, to go and conquer the 
conntry of the infidel Turki : that Harm furnilhed him with 
a nnmerous army, to execute his deiign ; but that, in a' battle 
with thofe inEdek, Seljuk was {lain, when h^was 107 years 

According to Ebn Hhohnah, Seljuk's father was mmedStttkt 
Dakak, ot Dokmak, which. In Turkijb, Signifies a hammer ; «i«"' 
bat at prefent b pronounced Takmak. Seljuk was chief ©f ^°*''''*' 
one (A the principal families of Turkefidn ; and, as he was 
always followed by a great number of relations, and others,' 
who were in his intercd, the king grew jealous of the great 
authority which, be had acquired, iind obliged him to depart 
his dominions. 

SELJUK upon this retired inro the countries of the 
Mohamsnedans, where he etnbraced thdr religion.' His firft 
fcttlcmeat was at a pbce called Joud, which depended on the 
city of Bokhara, in Maivar^lnahr. From whence he con- 
tinually made incuriions upon the ioildel part of the Turks ; 

' D'He»»ii.ot Bibl. orient, p. joa« art. Selgiuki. 
' Ebm Amid Hi&. Saracen, p. 331. 

(D) The farname of Afa^'- the aothor of feveral worti; 

iidJJM Jbul lualiJ Mohammed, among the reft, of a very exaft 

He waj s great doAor, of the hiftOry from the creation to the 

fe&ofHmafab, and high chan- year 806 j that is, of Chrill 

«dloroTthev^r*i*;oir/rfl*. He 140J. lyHrrbtht, pag. 791, 

died in the year of the Harah Art. Sthohnab, 
%%\, of Chrift 1473. He ii 

Mod. Hut. Vofc. IV. G wheiil 

L i,.< t.Cooglf 

«2 General Hifiory of tU Scljfiks, B. L 

■whom he harrafleil during the wiwlc conrfe of his life : m 
the length whereof Ebn Shonah agrees vdth Ebn Aiwd ; bat 
mentions nothing about his death. 
Hit fans. T"E Per/tan hiftoriaas unanimoully agree, that Seljik (E) 
had four fons ; but differ a little as to thor names ; which, 
according lo the Lebtarikh, were Miia'el, JfragI, Muffa, md 
Ttmos : but Mlrioad calls the laA Bigu, and not Timoi, Eb» 
Shohnah gives him only three fons; whom he names j^ 
Arjlan, M'tkael, and Muffa (F). While Ebn Jimd feeros u 

' aUow him only one ; that is, Miia'el ; from whom dtc 
founders of the Seljtii monarchy arc unanimoully adcDow* 

■ leged to have been dcfcended ". The fons of SeyuJt became 
very powerful in friends, and rich in lands as well as floc^f, 
efpecially Mikael; than whom, great numbers of Twh ac- 

' kpowleged no other fuperlor : and, when Soltan M^nnii 
Ebfi Sabcktekin palled the J'Mn, with forces, to the aiElbancc 
of IVarar KMn (G), king of Ma-ojara'thahr, MOaJfl weot to 
falute that prince ; who, admiring hb courage, and the grvat 
fubmiHion which his family paid him, intreated him to re- 
main about his perfon, and, at his return, to accept of the 
government of Khorafan, in order to defend it agaioft dw 
invafion of enemies. On Mikaets declining the Sextan's 
offer, Mahniid, enraged; fent him in chains to prifon, and, 
returning to Khor,afan, fliU kept him in durance. However, 
the foldiers and family of Mikael followed the Soltan, ' and 
fetded in the pl^n of Khorafm. This b j^ltakari's acconni 

* D'Herbelot, ubi fupr. p. Soi. ' Lebtarikh. 

(E) It is Seljii. who is to mius had a Ton, called Jlf*i/«- 

be uitderAood by Hayibm'i Sa- let ; and that MUiitx brodier 

J«ek {i), and not Tongrelifix, had two Ton), KMiluMvfii (Km- 

or 7a£ral Bti, as Ltuiiclaiiiai tn! Mip), and JbiauUihi of 

' writes (z); for Hsytbim makes whom more hereafter. 
Sedik the father of DagriJTa (G) Other hifloHaiu, as hath 

(which (lands for Dosri Sbab, been bct'ore fet forth, fpeak of 

oiDegrilSbah); who isevidenC- Mabmiju undenaking thif cjc- 

\y Togtvl Beg. pedition on hii own account 

(F) Ctdrcnui makes Mikeil a.%a:mS. Kara KhSn of Turiegd, 
" iher of Taaeralipix (as he or of Karatitay. If fo, fTarKr 
TogroLBti); Habrair-iui- Khan muft be a miflake !«■ 

Alrm, Jjpam-Sallariis (fo he I'ara Khan; and bringing _ 

calls Alp A'-f&n) ; and a third t'l him, a miftranaation Cbr 

fon, whom be docs not nam;:, b; tnging forces againfl him : 

He adds, that this lalt left a which is not unlikety to be tbc 

fnn, called AJan (or Haffan), cafe, confidcdog how faulty' m. ■ 

funumed the Deaf: tfaat^^-n- copy Erfcniui made ufcof. 

(i) HaJti, di Tartarii, up. it. p. JJ7. iJii. G'ja. 151a, • (a) gfiM 

J««M luti, 1,1. f.-ji. tdii. Wubil, IS9I. * ' s^ 

C< 2. till tb^ fettled in Perfia. 83 

of the numncr in which the SeljiStians firft entered Perfia •. 
But other authors reprtfent the occafion very differently, 

MIRKOND relates, that .W/^ae/ dcceafcd very young; 
and Eba Shohnah fays exprelly, that he died in Ma-warSlnahr, 
in the war which he waged wth the infidels ; and that, for 
this reafon, he is dignified in the genealogy of the Se^ukians 
with the title of Shedid, or Shaaid; that is, martyr. Ac- 
cording to the Lebtarikh, and MirionJ, Mikael left two fon«, Htin of- 
MohoftiTtied and Da-wd, who were afterwards called -Tofro/SeljAlc. 
Beg and Jaffar Beg (H) : but Ebn Shohnah adds to thefe a 
third, whom he places before the other two, as if the eldeft, 
called Tehegu : but poflibly this is Begu, whom he has omitted ' . 
among the fons of Seljui, and reckoned to Mikael. How- 
ever that be, we are told by Mirkond, that Seljilk tbok great 
care to educate his two grandfoos ; ' and, by his will, left them 
fole heirs to all his eitefts and growing flate. The young 
princes, having arrived at the age fit to bear arms, were 
^naflcrs of fo much addrefs and conduct, as well as valour, 
that in a fliort fpace tliey greatly enlarged their fmall territo- 
ries, by the defeat of feveral princes of Ma-wara'hahr ; who 
became their vaflals. The news of thcic viftorics coming to 
the ears of MahmM (firft Soltan of die Caznah family, who 
reigned in Khorafan), he fent 10 defire them to find fbme 
trufty perTon to him, in order to treat about an af&ir of im- 

ISRAEL, the uncle of the young princes, offered to re-HHel'# 
pair to the Soltan ; who received him with great civility and'"''"''" 
honour : but one day, being delirous to know what number of""** 
troops he was able to furnifb him with, in cafe of need ; 
IJriul replied, that if the SoltSn would ftiirot one of the two 
arrows, which he hdd in his hand, into thdr camp, 40,000 
horfe would immediately fet out, for his fervice : that if he 
fbot the other into the Ordu of Bilkhan (I), iie might cora- 
mand 50.000 ; and the Soltan afking, how many could be 
had, if there was very prefling occafion, Ifmel told him, that 
ifhewonld fend his bow into TurkeJIan, 200,000 Ti/rAj would 
iflbe forth to his afTiHance. This difcourfc fo alarmed Mahmud, 
that, to prevent danger, he feized ^u'eV, and fccured him in * 
Caftle; where he died. This caAle is named Ka!e>ijar{K),andJ*ati>. 
by the author of the Nighiariftan ; who fayS, he was confined 
there fcven years. Tfae feme writer fpeaks of the Scljukians with 

« Ebh Amid, p. 332. 

(H) Ahuifaraj calls him (Jl The author of the M^W- 
Thefe rather were ariflan calls this place Btljan. 
finaiKei. (K) A caitlc in AlAiir^d'n. 

Jap-iBeg- "f hefe rather were ariflan calls this place Btljan. 
thJtf fitAsaiKei. (K) A caitlc in AlAiir^d'n. 


, L.oo'ylc 

S4 ■ . CmralHiJteryoftbeStXiiks, BIL 

grett contempt ; and fays, they were deTcended from the w 
tkat Turkmans. As a proof of this, he alleges the reproaches 
which fllaJSd, third Soltan of the Gazni race, and Moham' 
mcd, SbltSti of the Karazmatu, made them, on account oi 
the iMTecels of thdr ori^nal *^. However, the SeljuJu looked 
upon that imputation as a great dilhonour to them, and 
treated it with the litmoft contempt. 
fit 8th Historians difTer about the time when the Seljukiant 
}filciaiu firft pafled the Jihim, to enter into Perfia. Some fay, it was 
in the reign of Mahmud, the 6rft Soltin of the Gazni race, 
and by his permllGon ; others, in that of his fon Maffud. Of 
the - firft fentiment arc ' AbM-faraj, the Lebtarikh, and Al 

Thb Lebtartkh relates, that, on their having demanded 
leave to crofs the river, Jrjldn Jazeb, governor of the city 
Tus (L), in Khort^n, was rfopinion, that their requeA IlioiJd 
not be granted, left thefe four families of the children qf 
Seljiik, which were already pretty numerous, fhould draw 
others to them ; but that Mahmtid, who confided too much 
in his own power, rejeftcd the governor's counfel j and, not 
oidy granted their demand, but alfo permitteS them to fettle 
in the ndghbourhood of Nejfa and Bawerd (M). This co- 
lony increased fo much in a Ihort time, by the continual paf- 
fage erf Turks, who joined them (as the governor Jazeb had 
forefcen), that the inhabitants of Khorafan began' to be in 
fear of them, ^nd refoived to get rid oF thofe new guefts, 
whom they looked on as dangerous neighbours (N). 
* MiRKOHD ap. D'Heib.'p. 800. Art. Selgiuki. 

(L) It is alfo callftd Mafl>hBd, fents thun quite ' other»ife. 

or. The flaei tf tbt Martyr d. There we are toM, that '[e^al 

from the tomb of Imam Rixa, Bet and Ja^ar Bti, had fome- 

who was mnrdered there ; and thing fo royal io their afpe^, 

is a great place of pilgrimage. that the people of Khtrii/Sm 

(M) Tiie lirft is called alfo were extremely fond of them, 

■Jhiiuird, and the tatter l^efa, and had recouWe to them, 10 

or Liiilt Damafcus^ about 1 10 decide their differences : that 

miles from the tiver Jiifa^ or this was the caufeof Maimiifi 

Jmu, and from each other, hatred to them : that the Sel- 

They are often mentioned in jah "having beaten an army 

Jhu'lgbaxi /Chun's liiAory of the fent againft them, Mahnud pe- 

^urks, by the names of Iburda pared to be revenged ; but the 

andA'ii/^i and, whenhewrote, troubles in India calling him 

belonged to- the kingdom of thither, he left the condufl of 

KaroKiH. thfc war to AJhi, governor of 

(N) This account b taken Kbarefdn ; who was alfo de- 

from D'Heritbt'i extra A, p. feated. 
t»e;i but Ce/mia't copy rcprc- 

C. 1. till they fettled in Va^xA. S5 

EBN AMID agrees, in the mdn, iirith tht Ltbtariib.^* ti* 
He tells us, that M^hmud before he died repented mnch (rfJikftn. 
having fuAered the Seljukiatu to remain in his dominions ; 
fearing they might feize them after his death'. 

ABU'L-FJRAJ goes further ftill on this head. He • 
writes, that in the year 420, while Togro! Beg, with his bro- A D. 
thers Dawd and Biga, were ftill in Mawara'lnahr, the Ciiz 1019- 
Turkt{0), aader Ar/lAt (P), {on of Se^ui, nvzged Kherafin ! 
that, however, Tamin Oddavila MahnHd drove them out of 
diat province; bat that the enemy, canjing with them about ' 
aooo tents, went to Isfahan. Togrol Beg, with Ms brothers 
DawJ and Biga, the fons of Mikael [ Ql, were then in Ma- 
•ttjard'lnahr. Some of the Gtz, afor being expelled Kiora- 
JiSn, flupcd their way into the province of Aderbijan, wberr 
they tocA the city of Mardga, burnt the temple, and made 
a great {laughter of the people ; among whom were many 
Kurds (R). After this fome went to Ray, others to Hama- 
dda-iod Maufel, which they alfo took **. 

Some tuftorians have written, that Soltlin MafmtaJ grretfndir S*i- 
tbe Se^uhani liberty to crofs the yihUn, in order to fdzc the'"" Maf^ 
raft riches which they had amafled, by the plunder' of thc^*^ 
bcft cities in Mawara'lnahr. 

BoT, in oppofition to all dus, Mirkond aJTirms, that the 
Se^uk Turks, who had already made a great noife in Perfia, 
pafled the Jihm, .or Amii, not in the reign of Mahmud; but 
of his fon MaffSd, in the year 424, under the condnA of A. D. 
Togrol Beg and Ji^ar Beg; who, fettling themfelves about '<*32' 
the cities before-mentioned, foon after began to make incur- 
fions into the neighbouring provinces '. 


fheir tranfaSims in Pcrfia, and founding of tbeir frfi 

menartby tbtre, 

ABOUT the time that the S^'^'itt Tur^tx entered Perfia, theStau^ 
provinces of Khorafan, Sableflan, Caznah, Perfian Irak, Pc*"- 
Tabrefian, Jorjm, and part of India, were under Majfuti, 

I Ebk Ahu< p. 3)3. ^ Ahu'l-fakaj fiift. dynaft, p. |zz. 
' D'H£»». CppT^'i & Soi, art. SelgiiUi and Madbud. 

(O) The GoK lurks are pro- "fQJ Son of Seljui, fon of 
perJy Turkmans. They gave Takai. 
tJw name to Gaxdri'd. (R) Of the Jiadh Bmlyah 

(P) This muft be the Jlp tribe. Another copy has Jl 
Jbfimn tii Eh SMwib. . Harayjah. 

G 3 thlr*! 

General Hijiory of the Scljflks, B. I. 

third Soltan of the Gazni race. The reft of Perjia (A) was 
in the hands of Jhu'lganjar, by others called Kalljar, one 
of the princes of the family of Buyah, or Bowyah ; who had 
ragned in Pan (or Proper PerJia), and Kerman, both the 
Perfian and Arabian Iriks, MazaniUrdn, and Jorjan, Dtyar- 
iekr {or part of MefoPotamiaJ, and in Bagh^ .- to the ju- 
rlfdi^ion of which city, the dotninions of the Khal'fah, once 
fo very extenfive, were now almoft wholly conHned. 

As to the provinces of MatuaraTnahr and Khorafan, it Is 
ftMnewhat dubious what power they belonged to. From fome 
circumftarvces in the hiftory of the Gazni Soltans, they (hoald 
be in the pofTefllon of Majfud, third Soltan of that race » : by 
dther circumftances, Ma-ward'inahr, or at leaft a good portion 
of it, fccms to have been in fubjeftion partly to the Khan of 
Turkefian, and partly to fevcr^ prince? of its own*". Ebn 
Amid, as hath been related, makes it fabjeft to its own mo- 
narch; Poflibly all thofc different princes might have had a 
Ihare ia it ; and the coafufion which 'the country mull have 
been in, from fo many contending jwwers, doubdefs favourecl 
gready the quiet entrance of the Seljuki into that provin« : 
but it is not probable they had conquered the whole before 
they entered Perfia, as Mtrkond, in his genealc^ of Jettghtx 
Khan, aflerta ; not only becaufe he elfewhere brings proof to 
the contrary, as hath "been (hewn, but becaufe fuch a fuppo- 
-Ution is quite inconfiftent with the fubmiifion which the 
fame author tells us they offered to Majfiid, on their arrival in 

^ According to this hiftorlan, as foon as they had fat 
down about N^a and 'Bavjcrd, they fent an cxprefs to that 
. Soltan (who alcended the thrpne in 421,) to demand a place 
Hejrah ^f fettlement ; offering to fwear obedience and fideliw to 
^^\^ him. But Mafid received the ambaffador very ill ; and, 
loto aniotig other difobliging things, faid, that he never heard g^ 
the Scljuk_/<im(/t', although he -waj him/elf a Turk by de/cet^, 
and therefore ought to be -well acquainted -with all the Ulu/iriout 
houfti of that nation. When the Seljukians were informed 
wth what contempt the Soltan had treated both their am- 
baffador and family, they prepared for war = ; and, according 
to M.rkond, as related by Texeira, whilft Maffud was fub- 
■ daing the provinces of Jorjan and Taireffa^ja the year 

■ Texeik! hifl. Per. p. 292. ^ See before, p. ;6,&feq. 

c D'Herb. p.Soi, art. Sclgitjk. 

^{A)^As P^^rt.OTPfaperPe'-Ji^, blJSn, mth Arabian Ir£K of 
Ktrmaa, Khu^efian, itidAMvr- which SagbJad wta the capital. 

C. 1. till they fettled in Perlia. T; 

426, made Tome commotions in Khorajan ; but fat {till upon 
fais return (B). 

Although thdr aJiairs were not fettled, yet the Soltan Defeat' 
would go into India, againft the advice of. his generals. * In Soltan 
his abfence they made incurlions thronghout the country, MaUBd: 
from Khsrajan to Pars {or Proper Perfia), with fo much fuC- 
cefs that they obliged Alia oddaiulat Ebn Kaiuya and MiiJ3- 
lah to quit thdr governments of Rey aijd Ijpahan, which the 
Seljttkx leized, with other pans of Perfia. ^ This was about 
428 : by which time /Mij^'w/ returned from his Indian expe- 
' dition to Gaznah; and, two years after, fet out again for Hqr«]i 
Jorjin. In his way, bdng informed, that Niir Takk'm; go- 428. 
vernor of Balkh, opprefled them, he "moved towards him, ^- ^* 
though in a hard froft; but, when advanced about half '°3P* 
way, turned back agalnft Daivd Seljuk, who was marching 
with confiderable forces to affift Ndr Taikin ; and, though 
this latter fell on his rear, and took moft of his baggage, yet 
he held on his way till he met David ; by whom being over- 
thrown, he fled to Gaznah ; where he put to death many of 
the Turki who ferved under him (C) ; becaufe they had mif- 
behaved in the battle **. 

TEXEIRJ kerns to have omitted th? moft remarkable ?«'« 
drcumftance, relating tp the eflaUiftunent of the Seljuk mo- Tfifti and 
narchy. Ebn Amjd is more particular. This author writes, NiJhab4r; 
that MaJJM, fumamed Ab&fayd (foon after Mahmiid's death), 
lent an army againA the SeljUk Turks ; who were defeated, 
and Ibme of them taken prifoncrs. Not long after this, Mikael 
ebn Seljuk dying (DJ, his foldiers put themfelves under the 
conunaad of his fon Mohammed Abutdiib, furnamed TogriU 
Beg ; who, attacking Mafuda army, routed it, and puriued 
them to Tus : which he beiieged, and took. This is the firft 
dty which fell into the hands of the Setjukians ; who aHem- 
bled there, and fortified it. After this they fubdued Ni/h4- 

Meanwhile Maffid fled into India, where he ftaid aCiopw 
longtime: fo that A%)rii/tfn being deferted by him, the A/-*^*"*'*- 

fan. • 

' Tbjsik. p. 29a, & &q. CHekb. p. $6z, art. Mollbud. 

(B) In ^eEHgll^ f^Textira, (D) From what has been faid 

Acy are always written &aSn- before about Miiaefs death, it 

£'is,wSaUii^uit,'\n&e3iio£Sa!- flioald feem that he is named 

juHi, or rather Saljikiani j and here (and perltaps in the former 

JaUrBtt, inJlead of JaffarStk. place) by Ebn AmU, or the au- . 

(C) Great part of hi9 forces, thors he copied from, inliead 

and almoft ail his chief officcri, of yratl, 
wcic Tarks. 

G 4 jAkt 


88 GtneralHifitry of the Selj{lks» B. I. 

Hqrab j£h made ofe of the opportni^ty, and cooquered it. Jitaf' 

439; fiid, npoD advice of tfau, returned from ^£ii ; but the 

A^D: Silj&kians, advandng to meet him, put him to flight (E) : 

*°3*' upon .which the Khallfah KayUa BetmriUah recontmcnded- 

to them the defence of th^ country of the Mojlems (F). 

MaffAd, inccnfcd hereat, marched agunft them ; but tht^ 

made lUm turn his back a fecond tunc. And thus their em-: 

ptre was eAabUjhed in' the year of the Hejrab 430. of Chrii^ 


Mw^ BBN AMID omits to mention cither when NiJMhAr 

/mnkd. was takeni or that Togril Bek afoended the throne there ; 

both which happened by the general confent of hincviaQs ', 

io the year 429, from whence they date -the bcgmoing of his 

reign, and die St§Ak mooardiy. 

According to AUrkond (G), as delivered by D'Herieht, 
as loon as Tagrol Beg Was acknowl^ed for king in the city 
A- D. of jii^yhaMr, in the year 429, he fent h'ls brother Jafar 
*°37- Bgk to fubdue the city and county of Htr&t, or Hcri, in the 
fame prorioce of Khcrafm i which conqoeft bdog foon per- 
formed, he placed one of his uncles thoe, to govern it. Ii^ 
the mean time he matched himfelf to Meru (H), and, having 
Tktir taken it, he made it his royal feat. After this he put Khora'. 
ffjai fiat. Jan under new regulations ; and, by that means, fupprefied 
the diforders which had reigned there for a long time. 

The fame year, which was 429, Soltan MajJM Cazm 
allembled all his forces to drive the St^&kiam out of his' 
dominions : but the two broth^, having alio collefled 
tbdr troops, after an exceedmg bloody trattle, gained fo com- 
plete a vi^ory, that MaUSd found he h;^ up njrther bniineft 

• Ebh Awip, p. w, St feq. ' Ai'vl-taraj fift. ij- 

nafi. p. 325. Lebtaruch, p.42i and in D'Hias. p. 800. 

(E) According to Aii'l-farej ip hii pl«e : . and the rather, 
Ma0d, matcbiqg from Gmtaia lince KiaJamir, being only m 
ttHtJih, drove thtSe$£ii oat abridgment of Miriex J, cannot 
t>( Khtrajan', tke year utCT they be fappofed to differ from him. 
haAtiittaNifidbir{\). (H) There are two dtici of 

(F) That it, believcn, or tUt name in Khontfix.; t»ne 
MobammttbHi. I JO miles north -call of Eirit^ 

(G) iS'/ffrif/o/ indeed quotes the other 140 north of it to^ 
KtmJamir; bat at He conraandt wards tbe river Jiliin ot Jmi. 
thetwoauthbntogether,aih3th Thitlafl, called Jt^rn or Jl£tr£ 
been obferved before (2), we Sb^flXt i) the place mentioned 

. iBidie DO fcrapl* to put JkCit-ifgnat in (he text. 

{i) Ml fir, (■**&• (i)/'^.4.«*'P- 

• ■ ^ - ..L.OOQIC " 

C. 2. tili ihff fettUd in FciGa. 89 

HiTiHG related wfaat the orieDtal hiftoriuu ddlTer cfm' ErromtaMM 
ccroiog dw foandx6cm of the Sti^iik mooarchr, kt uft fee •>"««"■ 
what the Grteh bflve faid opon the fame fubjef^. Two 
of them, Ctdremu and Nicepbonu Bryennus are more parti- 
cBlar than the reft, and fpeaJc nearly alike. In the year. 1 030, 
whileV»fai,^mirt(I) {ikia oi Imbrail^K.), pnaix oi Pn/ia, Me, 
£11, the KhorafiniaRi, and Oritani), was engaged on oM 
fide with (he Indians, and oa the other with the Bai^kmani, 
be fent an embalTy to the prince of Turky (L), for 3000 
anxiliaiies. The Turk, charmed with the pfcfents made oa 
that occali<»i, readily difpatcbcd the men, under the conduct 
of Tagrsiipix MukaUi (M), iaa of MikaScl. . And the rather; 
as t>e flattered lumfelf, that, at tbdr retmn, when the ene- 
inles (^ the Saracens were defeated, they might eafily fdze 
the two caftles which guarded the bri(^e over the Araxfs (N), 
and open a paHage for his Ttiria isAo'PerJia, which- he pro- 
pofed to conquer. ■ ' 

WiTB thefe fuccours Mukhtmet marched agalnfl Piffa/i'Pf thti^ 
rius (O), prince of the Baby lonijb Arabs, and eafdy routed'''^''"'' 
Jiim ; the Jrt^s liot bang able to withfland the force of the 
Tvrkijb bows. The expedition boi^ finished, the Turks de- 
£red leave to return home ; and that the guard of the faid 
Sridge mk;ht be committed to them : but Mukhtmut infifled 
on their foUowii^ him into IruUa ; and, on their rcfulal^ 
tfareatcaed to compel them (P). The Turks, through fear, 
wldidicw inH> the ddart di Karvotatei ( QJ { from whence 
they made incnrii<»ts on the Saracens aniPerfiaiu, Here- 
npcm Mukbwnet fimt agunft them an army of 20,000 men, 
■iukr-ten of his beft commanders ; who pitched their camp 
at the entraoce of the detart. TagroSpix, being informed of 
this, made two great marches, and, coming upon them in the 
|>^t, defeated them: on wtudioccafion he got.abundaocs 
flfamts, bor&s, and riches ; then* UTuing ont of the delart; 

(I) This muft be Mabumd, him Pi/arti. Thii i* Safafiri, 

dw iA Soltln ti the Gmxmi prince oihii JraU^ or BtAtS, 

Mfe. (mifnained by Kita-wlt* and o- 

(K) &z«fr«(/ fonie copies. tbcnJ^j^/or^c^Tni), whom not 

(L) W!f3iangTitriifiaM. MatmSJ Gatui, hat Ttgrel Stk, 

(M) Nicifteruf Brjn mtkei had to do wich, and that not 

ttmhtdii a oiftina peribn hom till the i^b year of his rein. 

^MmBjix. or Ttgr»lB*k. ' ' (P) There wat foroe difpute 

(N) This is not the Araxtt, of this kind between them and 

nowjf'rnn,ia..4rHni>a,Bitbehif- Ma0d, fon and facceflbr of 

feiiani hitherto have imag^ed I M^bmid. 

fMt the JibimoiJ^. ' ( CL) Or Kerabenitii, uK. 

iO) Nicefbtmi Brjtn <a^\^ ttfbnv* Brytm. 

^o 7^ Seljaks of Iran. B. I. 

and encafflpii% M the open country, his army, by the accef- 
lion -of difa^^ed. people, Haves, robbers, and the like, in- 
creafed at length tp 50/xio nMn. 
Wtht MUKHUMkTy impatii^ the late difgrace to the mif- 

Greek conduA of his generals, ordered them to be deprived of 
•KtUtri. their fight ; and threatened to expofe, in womens cloaths, 
the foldiers who fled (R). After this, raifing an army 
of Saracens, Perfians, Kaviri, and Araht, 50,000 ftrraig, 
and having with him 100 elephants, bearing towers, he 
marched to JJpaihan (S) ; where TagroHpix haftened to 
meet him. The conflifl, for a time, was bl6ody and doubt- 
ful ; but, ^vhite Mukhumet rode about to animate his troops, 
he fell from his horfe, and broke his neck (T). Whereupon 
his army, fubmitting to Tagrolipix, procldmed him king of 
Perjla. The new monarch immediately fent to open the paf- 
fage over the Araxis; and, giving free penniJlion to all 
7urkt to enter Perfia, vaft numbers laid hold of the oppor- 
tunity ; and thus became lords of the country, giving the 
tide. of Soltin, which fignifies emperor, or king of kings (U), 
to Tagrolipix ; who divided the provinces, and, bellowing 
all .offices in the ma^llracy and government amgng his Turks, 
reduced the natives 'to a very milerabie condition. 
JKiMKrii The reader, from the foregoing fpecimen, may fee what 
M ihtm. little accuracy he is to expe£t from the Byzantine hiflorians, 
with r^[ard to the aflairs of other nations ; and what little 
they have further written concerning the tranfa^ions of this 
' S(Jtan, and one or two of his fncceflbrs, excq>ting fuch as 
the Romans themfelves had a (hare in, is no lefs confufed and 
erroneous. Let us, no^v.refume the tuAory of the Se§uks 
from tbe eaftern writers. 


^be rei^n of Togrol Bek.' 

t>ymajly 'T'HE defendants of Se^ak are, in Arabic, called Seljuki' 

tfhksi. -*■ yiin, or Selajekah, and, in Pcrjtan, Se!jukiyan\ which 

is made Engli/bhy the addition only of an /, at the end of 

it. The fingular of both is Si:lj6hi ; which, with the particle 

(R) Somethmgof this nature ^ (T] Mahmid neither fought 

is relatedof Afa/5^,'whgput [o battle whb 7e^ral Bek, nor 
death feveral of his 7urk!J!.' offi- died a violent dcuh. 
cers and Ibldiers, for not doing (U) It is equivalent only to 
tlidrdut}' againlLihe Stljiiks. the title of king; and was firft 
{S) M-taban, 0rSja,.ari, ca- aKamed hy Ma^u^iGaxiii. See 
jita\ ofptr^a. tiiM aitidt ia D'HirieUt. 

L „.. ..L.OOQIC 

C.i. firfi Seltin, Togroi Bik. gt 

M, or the, before it, fignifies any pcribn of the faniily or 

race of Stlj&k (A). , 

The orient authors divide the Se^Akians into three dy- 
nafties or races of princes, reigning in the fonth o£ j4J!a, and 
which were contemporary, not fucceflivc ; namely, thofe of 
IrAt, or Perjia at large ; ihofe of Kermdn, a. province of 
Perjui ; and thofe of R&m, or ^fia minor ; of which we pro- 
po(e to treat in order. And, firft, oi ths Sdjukiani oi Iran. 

The author of the Nighiarifim gives to the dynafty of//>^a>n*< 
Iran fourteen princes ; fixes its commencement at the year of fin. 
the Hejrah 429, of Chrill 1037 ; and terminates its dnratjon, 
which he makes \6i years, in the year 593, of ChriA 11^6. 
This is conformable to l^lriond (B), and ^e Lehtarikh ; 
only the latter puts the end of this dynafty in 590 ; but Katib, 
or Kyatib Zadeh, fumamed Haji Khalfah, in his work, inti- . 
tnled, Tahu'mt alTavarlk, fays, that this fucceflion conCfted 
of fifteen Soltins ; who b^an to reign in 532, and ended in 
590 ; ^ving them an exigence of no more than 1 58 years '. 
Ein Amid again places the commencement of the Seij£k mo- 
narchy in 430 of the Hejrah ; and, in a matter of fome 
□acertainty^'tis hard to fay which computation is moft ex- 
aft : however, as we are obliged to make ufe of one, we- 
choofe to be r^ukted by that of Mirkond, and the Nighi- 

TOGRQL Bf*, or Sfg', firft Soltan of this dynafty, is the 1 . So/fw, 
perfon whom Cedrmus, and the other Byzantine writers, call'^'^K"'' 
Tagrolipix, or Tangrolipix, by a comiption of the name, no"*'^ 
lefe extraordinary than common with the Creeks, who have, 
in all ;^e3, fo disfigured moft of the words which they bor- 
rowed from other languages, that 'tis fcarce poffible to tell 
what to make of them. His Mohammedan name was Abu 
Taleb Mohammed; and his fumame, or title, given him by 
the Khalifah, R<An Oddtn (C) ; the pillar of the faith and 
religion *". 


■ D'Hekb. p. Soo, art. SelgiQk. ^ D'Hiki. p. 1027, 

irt. Thogrni Beg. 

(A) We fomedmes, after oar {B) D^Merielothii&»dajiiirt 

«iithora, afe the word Ji Stl- but we have already obferred, 

jiii, but render it the Se^mkian, p. 4- note G. that he confoundi 

never the StljSi; but in the the father and Too together. We 

plural fay, the StljiHi, and Stl- always make the change fband 

jUaKKi, indifferent]}', u onr Ian- in the text, 

guage admits of dtber. The (C] This laft word may be 

word may be alfo written ei- written Adttin, compounded of 

tber St§ui or Sa^ii. d, the, «nd «?«, fmth, or rtti' 

92 Sie StAjfiHa of Irin. B. X. 

Aftati AlthoO'Gh the St§ikj had gotten pofleflton of ■Imoft all 
MaAM, Kborafin, yet MaJJud, a brave prince, refolved to do his ut- 
, Hcjrah moft to recover it. - Accordiogiy, m the year 431, having 
431- nifed a conHderable army, he marched againfl Togrol Bek, 
■A. D. ind put him to flight ; killing a gootf number of his men, 
'"i?- and lakiog others prifoncrs, wdi their arms. Next year 
Togrol B»k returned to Ni/bpbAr ; from whence MaffM fled 
to Cazntt : uid, after this, the Selj&kians became maAers 
of all Khora/dn % on which occalion an incredible multitude 
of people were llain. Thus writes Ebn ^>md'. 
timjaert BuT the Lebtartkh relates, that he returned thither after 
PerAao fighting a battle with xhe^Stljuks, ia the plain of ZantUkon, 
Iiak. pear Mar4, wherein he was defeated. 'Tis added, that 
thefe fuccelles were followed by the patent of inveftiture (D) 
fcnt to the two brothers, Togrol Bek and Jaffar Bek, by the 
Ehalifah Kaylm * ; and by the teduflioo cf the provinces of 
Hcjrah JorjSn and TaireJlAn, in the year 433 «, which Togro/ Bek 
4}|- undertook, and then made himfelf mafter of all the Perjian 
A- >>• Irak ' : for, in 434, Ebr^tm Neal Al Seljiki (E), took 
'041. ffamaJdit. He was followed by Togrol Bek, who iuibdued 
Jify (F), Then, dividing the provinces between them, Jaf- 
far Beg had for his fliare Khorafin, and Tagrol Beg the Per- 
jian Irak, with the other provinces which he fubdued ; la- 
iag h'ls feat at (G) HatnaMn ^. 

MjfSSUD, after his retreat to Gaznt, feems to have' 
ralfcd frefh forces ; the command of which he gave to his Ion 
■Alaedud, whom he Cent towards BAlkh, to defend that frontier *". 
Then earring his bUnd brother Mohammed with him, he 
Maflld marched again into the In^s ; where he continued till the 
ma-itrti, winter follo^ag, and made great prc^cfs : but bring 
obliged to advance towards the city of BMkh, to defend him- 
IHf againft the Se/jiiiiant, who every day increafed in power, 
as he was about to pafs the river ^tW, which is the ladas, 
Tufef Ein Pujlekiln, one (^ his generals, dcpofed, and after- 

• P. jjj. * Let>tar:kb, p. 43. • Abolp. p. «6. 

' D'Hehb. p. 1017. > Lcbtarikli. D'Heaa. p. 1017/ 

art. SelgiOk. ■■ D'Herb. p. 562, art. MaudU. ■ 

^on: the / bdng liquidated in- him ia thetimeof Jtfd^</, 198,^ 

to the ^. . he muft have loft it again be> ^ 

(D) Or patent of Soltan, as fore he could take it the leoond 
in D'HtrMvt. time. 

(E) Thatij, thtSe/juiiM. (G) Faultily.inCoAwVscopy, 

(F) Al it Was- fubdued by Gaiaddn, 


:._. ,=,i.,otwic 

C. 2. Ftrfi SolUtit Togrd Bek. ^j 

vards murdered Mm in the lame year 433 (H) ; when he 
had reigned thirteen years with great magnificence, and the 
love of all the learned men of his age, of whom he was very 

MAEDUD his Ton, who was then at Balkh, fiicccededKarazm 
him in the kingdoms of Ma-aiard'lnahr, Khorafan, and In-fubdutJ. 
£a, fo ^ as had been conquered : but the SeljCik Turks, 
who dwelt in thofe provinces, refufing to acknowlege him, 
he (cut an army agai nil them in 43;, which being met byHej. 43;,' 
Olb Arjtan, fon of Jaffar Bek, with a conliderable force, was A. D. 
cverthrown. On the other fide, great numbers of Tvrki '*i3* 
brewing out of TurkeflSn into the territories of Cavmaftr and 
AJin(i>jUr,toplnnder,wererouted by^^^vi/'s garifons '. By 
this time the power of the St§&kiant was To wdl eflablifhcd, 
10 that large province, that, after the Soltan's death, they 
found it no difficult matter to join to their other conquefts 
the [wovince-ot Bilkh, with all the country of Karazm *. 

The fame year a detachment of ifijoGiz (I) horfe, under Turkmia 
four commanders, Kukiat, AbM /lit Ebn Dahkan, Haji Ifrael, inmajwu. 
and Abu Manfur, made an irruption into the country of 
Amid (K), and MiynfarUn (L), then poflcflcd by prince 
Abunafr Ebn Marwhi. From thence they went to Nafihin, 
wiiere they cut down the trees ; and having ftayed for fomc 
time, proceeded to Mvfii, whofc lord, Kar\ii&i Ebn Moktadir, 
iwoght his peace of ihem with money. But after deftroy- 
tng the other cities of Diyarbekr and A§azirah (M), they re- 
turned to Mufd, and took it, killing, enHaving, and plun- 
dering the inhabitants. When they had been here for (bme 
time, the Arabs aflembled on all fides ; and befieging them, 
at loigth drove them out of the city. They afterwards de- 
feated them in feveral battles, and tdlled inany : the reft Bed 

' Texeira, p. 294, & feq. ." D'Heki. ubi fupr, 

;H) T^xorohas 43i,orio39 they were fubdued hyth«W- 

of Cirifi, bat faoldly. jufiitiii, under whom the Turks 

(!) Jty G«K Turii are proper- and Turkmdm united and Tcrvad, 

I7 to be underSood Turkmans, at their nataral princet. 

Thefc, with the rerij, fwarmed (K) The fame with Dijar- 

iD Ftrjia, having been emproy- btkr. 

cd u foldicra, not on?y by the (LJ A city, two days joamejr 

'Gazni Soltani, who were tbem- to the north of Diyarhtkr city : 

felve* origically Sarkt, but by it is the ancient Martyref oUi. 

all the princca of the £ur^ fa- ^M) That is, Mtftfatamiot 

oiily, who reigned in Tabrtfian, or rather the part foqth of the 

Prrfiaa Irak, Pars, or proper ^XQv'vKS^i Diyarbekr. 
ftrjia, and at BagUai, btfors 


94 ?^ Seljaks «/' Iran. B. I. 

to Mayaferktn ; aod making what pluoder th^ could, re- . 

tired into Aderbijan ''. 

Jffairsef The fame year 435, Jalal Addawlat, king of Baghdad, 

Pcriia. dyi^ without children, after feventeen years rdgn, his 

nephew Abu Kaianjar (N), fon of Soiiin AdJawlat, fuc- 

ceeded him in the poft of Amir al omerah, that is, gene- 

raMimo of the troops of the Khalifat : and Jinding Togrol 

Bek gtov/ powerful \nPerJia, made an alliance with him'ia 

A. D. 439, by marrying his fon to the Soltan's niece, the daughter 

<047' of Datud al Saljukl : but the following year died, having 

ragned four ; and was fucceeded by the lecond of his four 

foQS, Khofraiu Fer&z, who happened to be at Shirdz, and 

Hq. 441 . there afliimed the name of Malek Rahfm. fllaedUd Gazni rc- 

A. D- foJving to recover Khorafan, if poflible, out of the hands of 

l*H9' the Seljuks, began his march againft them with a powerful 

army ; but dying by the way <£ the cholick, his great prepa* 

rations came to nothing '. ' 

Ifpaban In the year 442, ^0^0/ 5^*, marching to Ifpahdn, took it 

/^f«. by force ; and, four years after (44^), entering Mherbijdn 

^4' i,**"'^''^ '^s troops, reduced it under his obedience ". 

■"■ "■ MALEK RakSm, king of Baghdad, fucceeded his father 

1050. yfiu'lGanjar {f^t Kaianjar ) 10440, 1048, as hath been (aid. 

But being attacked by Abu Manjur Fuldd Sotm, his eldeA 

brother, and deferred by his Turkljh troops, he retired to 

Ahvjaz (in Khuzefidn), and thence to Wafet (on the Dijiat or 

"^'kr''!) i where the war was continued, with various fucccfs, 

Hej. 447. till 447 ; when being informed that Togrol Bek, at the iniU- 

A. D. gatioQ of Abu Maiifur, had poffelled himfelf of Shirdz, and 

*^SS' moft of Pdrs, he raifed all the forces he could,'and recovered 

it ! then returned to Wajet. 

Otherpla- ABU Man/Sr having, by the defeat and death of his 

*«/(ftHiV. brother Abufayd, fccured himfelf in the throne of Pan (O), 

died in a caftle, where he was imprifoncd by Waztr Fazel 

Haffan, or Huya, who aflumed the title of king. Makk Ma- 

verd, a Seljuk commander, who was then in the pronnce of 

Kermdn, being informed of, this, marched agalhll Fazel Jft^a, 

and he fled to another calld Olb Arjlan (P), whole lands be 

" Eds Amid. p. 333. ' D'Herb. p. 240, art. Cairn Beam- 
ritlah. Texeik. p. 296. 298. Abulf. p. 2z6. " Abulp. 

p. 226. 

,(N) \iLTi)c^ra,Ahulganjari (P) This donbilcfs was 0/4 
ltiAbulfaraj,Kalijar. or Alf Arflan, Tugral Bei't T»- 

(0) Or proper /^rr/Fa, called phew and rucceflor. 
Fan by xiieArahs, of which Shi' 
rax it the capital, 


L I,.,.. t.L.OtV^iC 

.C. 2. Firfi StJtdn, TogTolBik. 95 

fanned ; asd growing very rich by that means, revolted from 
him : but foon after was taken, with a fon of his called Ne-^ 
xAm ai Molk, and imprifoned in the fortrcfe of Strabar, Where 
diey cUed. This was in the year 448. , 

AB U ali Kay Khofravi, who had fuccceded his fether Ab*'l 
Gar^ar, voluntarily fubmitted to OU) Arjlon, who gave him 
Niihanjan and jiktiUt (Q_J to live on, treating him with much 
hooour (R). 

About this time Damd the Se^uk, called alfo Jaffar Bek^ 
brother ofTo^ro/^^i, who commanded in ATAoro/Sn, made war 
^^Kfa Ferokzm Ebn Majf&d, eighth Soltan of thsGazni race 
(S) ; but the Soltan defeated him ; and then marching into 
Khorafdn, overthrew the king of Turkeftan'i (T) gei^ral, who 
came to meet him. At laA OSb Arjlan, advancing againft hiiD, 
rooted his forces. FerokzM, having rdghed fix years, died, ^ 

tnd left the crown of Khorafan and Mavjara'Ittahr (U) to his 
' brother Ibrahim Ebn Majfad, who concluded a peace with the 
Turks, and then marched into In^a, to make farther con- 
quefts '. 

The diAra^ions which had loiu; fubfifled at Ba^hdad,'&%{^^ 
occafioned by the Turkijh militia, flill continued to aSHflrt^f^i 
that city ; when great feuds arofe between Ra'is al tfuja, 
Wazir or Vizier to the KhaliM ICayim Beamrillah, and a 
Turk called Riijlan JbuU Harith Mutaffer, fumamcd Bafafi- 
ri (W). This Bafajlri was or^Jnally a llave to Bahao'tidaw- 


■ TBX.p. 198, fcfcq. 

(Q_) Two cide« in the pro- too mach hafle in that author 

nnce of Piin, to the north-weft making his extra£U frotaMh-' 

of SJHra%. ksnd. 

(R) This prince lived forty (U) Tho' he feems to have 

years after his brother, dying had very litde fliare of either 

in 487 ; and in him ended the province, excepting the country 

family of Biy^b in Par^. Ttx. of GoKtiah, and the pans ealt- 

p. 301. ward of it. 

^S) Hefucceedcd hi: brother (W) So named from die city 

JbJal Rapid, or AbJal Rahim. Bafa, or Pa/a, in PAn, or pro- 

who was murflered in 44;, or per/'^r^ii.theantientPA/itjin-j/iti 

1053, by Togrel m Taixtl Bii. Bnd not from Bafafir, as Jbu'l- 

■ one of his favourites. /araj writa, p. zii of which 

(T) In Texrira he is called name we meet with no city., 

geoerai of Sa/injiiab, king of In the Lebtaritb of Golmin he 

Turkefian, by whom mud be un- is called prinee of the Dila- 

icfRood Togref Bii, and OiiAr- mtti; probably a miflake f»r 

J!aii fa d to be his Ibn; which an Amir or commander of the 

inaccuracies may be owing to Z'/Zhiim'/^ troops i meaning thofe 


^6 . The Seljuks c/ Irid.' a L 

lot, king of Ir^ and BaghdAd; bttt, by d^^rees, roTe to be 
one of the pmcipal commanders of Midtk Rohm, then kii^ 
of Baghdad, fidag obliged, on accoiiQt of this quarrel, to 
quit Baghdad, he ptit himfelf under the protection of MMo- 
ftanfir, Khalifah of Egypt % who fuppljing him with troops, 
i^m>ifithi]xt became very powerful in Irakyirdii, and st lei^th got 
Mhmfah. poneilion of the country, which he ravaged as ^r as the im- 
perial city ; fo that he grew a terror both to the Art^i and 
Perjiani. He was already prayed for in the points of that 
province : and as the Khallrah had been deprived of all au- 
thority by the •Suyah or Dikm princes, in whole haods he ^ 
was, fo, by this rebellion of Bafafiri, nothing remuned to 
MaUk, who fucceeded Jbu Kalanjar, but the naked title of 
king of Baghdad '. 
Togrol AnTHORs place thefe events in the year 447 ; bnt they 
Bek in- feem to have had a beg^ning fome years earlier (X), How- 
"vittd. gvei- that be, it is certain that the Ehalifah, being informed 
tk A*''" that Bafafiri deligncd the fame year to feiie oa the imperial 
, ' ■. caftlc, wrote to Togrol Btk, who was then in the diftri^of 
Rey, intreating him to come to his afTiftatice. 

BJSJSI/lIv^s at lVafel(Y), whence fome of his fol- 
dlers deferting. came to Baghdad; and, having plundered, 
burnt his palace. 

TOGROL SEX arrived at that capital in the month t^ 
Ramadhdn, bringing with him dghteeo elephants ; at what 
^mc Bafafiri, who was at Rahaia,, on iha Euphrates, wrote 
to Mofianftrbillah, lord c^ Egypt (Z), had prayers put op In 
his oame, and furnilhed him with money. 

« Tex. p. 299. D'Herb. p. 140, art. Calm Bcmr. -Ebm 
Amid. p. 336. Abvlf. p. zz(>. 

of the £H;a£ kings of Baghdad, . (X) Jhulfar^ remark!, p. 
called Dilamitti ; as being ori- 226. that Bafafiri took jtgiar, 
ginally from Dilifi, DrfUm, or Jmbar, acit/'of /n9i,an tbe 
Daflum, ot Dtjlemon, a city in £ii/^r«rri,iD theye&rofthe/Ji^- 
theprovtnceof Giryi^ii.or A^f- ' rab 441, or of CiiriJI 1049: 
ion, iA Per/a [i). Befides, there whence we prefame, that the 
was a^Hjini^ race af kings laTa- 'origin of theie troublei may be 
Irtfidn and Jerjan, called Diaie- dated at le»ft (b high. 
Mo^. Diyltmiyah, or D^iandiii. ( Y) A city on the Tigrii, See 
O/rori'iufayi, thati)fAiMisacity before, p. 94. 
of the province of 'Rijht in Gbi- (Z) He wai the Khalifah of 
Zii.-'tisDotinlusmapofG/v/ii'ir, £gypt, whofe power extended 
. infertedp. 388. butwefindthe over that coantiy,^ffitf, and the 
mountain iJey/un on the eall fide coaft of Barbarj. 
of tlie n^alfperi&fixKtfiliaian, 

(ij 7MnM b^, f. 131, 34j. Qluriia tm, K«[t, Firf. f. 19I. 


C. 1. . . Firfi Sol/dn, Togrol Bejc,. 97 

As foon as Togrol Bei arrived at Bnghd&i, he fcized MaUk 
Rab'tm, for whom prayers were no longei- faid (A); Thus end- 
ed the dominion, of the Bvyiani, which had coottijued 127 ' 
years ; and that of the Seljiiks began in the fame ctiy, where 
Tti^ro/ir^i took up his lodgings m the imperial caftle. Next 
year the Khallfah married Kadtja, the fiikx of Togrol Bek, Hej. 448 
who gave her a portion of 100,009 crqwns in gold : and To- ^- ^* 
^rol Bek, having ftayed between three and four months at '^S"* 
Baghdad, marched from thence towards Mufol, carrying with 
him battering rams, and other engines of war (B). He weOt 
' alfo and beficged Tairlt, at what time the cities of Kufa, 
tVafet, and yfynottamri, falling off from their alle^nca, 
caufed prayers to be made in the name of Mojlanftr Biilah, 

In 449 the Khalifah Kaylm Beamrilhh honoured Togrol Btk Buyian 
■with the imperial v?ft, and crowned him king of Baghdad, dyvafy 
He Ukewile adorned htm with the collar and bracelets, a^^MpreJtdi 
pointed him ruler over his court, and money to be cOiued in 
Jus name •*. 

Thus the- SoltSnat-of jJu^AoK^ or port of Amir al ome>- 
rah of the Khali&hs, palled from the boufe of ^^.Buyahs to 
dial of the Seljuki ■• .■ and thus his power was thorougUyicfta* 
blifhed : nor was there any perion left, in both thd Iraki and 
Khgrafan, who gave him the leaft oppofition. 

Th e year following Togrol Bek marched to Mujtil, and from RfuoU ^ 
thence to Nafib'm, with a defign to fubdue thofe places. There Ibrahim. 
Went with him his brother Ibrai^m, whom Bafitfiri, by his^^J* 4S0- 
emi/Iarics, ftiired up to revolt ; givii^ him hopes of obtain- ^' 
ing the kingdom, and pronifing aOiftance. Ihrahim, M^a '°5 * 
this, taking an oath of fidelity to the foldiers, departs with 
a great army to ^^, and rebelled'. 

KONDAMIR, or Mlrkond, as repotted by D^Htfbelot, 
repiefents this affair two very different ways. In c«ie place 
hefeys that /irii&tfH.furnamed Win', To^rs/Sifi's brother, fcized 
the city of Hamadm ; and while the Sdtah was on his march 

* Ehi Amid. p. 336, & fcq. 1 D'Hirb. p. 1027, art. 

Tbogral. ' £iN Auip, p.337, & leq. , 

{A) Tagrtl Bri, or Big, was which -we find was taken the" 

prayedforiD thepdpit* inltead fame year by Ao/o/iri ^ bat that, 

of him. Abiiifaraj, p. 236. onTd^ rj/£«i's a pptoach.heabiiv-^ 

(B) Our author does not tell dened ic. Miri<mJ,if.D'Her- 

giwbat hisdeligDwasi buipro- btht, p. 240, in. Caim Bi^m- 

bably itWzato befiegethatciiy,. riliah. 

Mod. Hist. V01..IV. H . to. 

gi mbeSci^kx cfixAn: B.r; 

to inm liin thence, Safitjiri, takii^ the opportniuty, made 

MmfiBlf naAcr of Baghdad *. 

Togrol iM ancftticr pUoe the lame wthor relates, thu Sfra^m, the 

Bdt'jt hr». Soltia's niaMnutl undc, revolted, and nnexpeftedly adranoed 

*wf. «glinft him'from the ^rahian Irak, where he vras ^cwemoc, 

tnth ID' Army, u fu as Hamadm (C), in Per/tan Irak, 'Orhcre 

figrei Sffg tiica rcJided '. 

Tna Per/tan hiftomn alfo dates this tranfafHon, if it be 
tbe &»« with the iorsatt, ^ee years later in this place tfaaa 
k) the other (D). Whether this dafaeoce be owhig to the 
AfkgrMDtcnt anong authors, from whom Kosdamir cojuod, 
or to the nwl^ence of D'Ntrieht, in extrafting from himt 
ia whether fiiey be tw© djftinti events, dilferiiig with re- 
fpcfb to perTons, time, and aftion, we jnuft leave the reader 
lo judge. On rndiiig a Inli^uent note, relating to &rahbn's 
tt^n"* Bj4SASIRI^Wx& Baghdad on the Sfli 6[ Dim'&ajjtA, 
trutitf, ;widt the name c^ riie Sgyftlian Khultfah (E) idcribed on hie 
ilandards ; and -on the 13th prayers wat put up in tfaeca- 
fhedral dinrch in his Dumc. Then cvdering a bridge to be 
fcid scnifs the Ti^Hr, he palled over to the baftem fide of 
the city, called RuJ&fah (F), u4iere the {ame cerennny vat 
psriWmed. Aiter this, leizlng Ebn Mafitn, the Khalj£^'i 
Wazlr or Vizier, he ordered him to be drcKd in a vooll«i 
gown, with a tngh red bonnet, and a leathern collar about 
liis iiKlc ; and, in this tnaDner, to be led through the ftreels 
of Baghdad, tied opon a caairi, with a tnon Isihiog him aU 
the imy bct^nd : then being iwicA up in a frdh buU's hide, 
with tite horns phced pKr his head, bt was hut% Dp ob 
books, and be»t«n till he (ficd. 
7ht Kha- As for the Khallfah, he went to the camp, vherc a ten* 
U/ab I'm- 4as fet np for inm on. the eaft iule of the ctty. Mean tiine 
frifinid, die mob poUaged the nnperi^ palace of thit^ to ui i»-< 
nenfe value. On Friday, the 4 th of Dhu^lhajjah, there -vti 
leither fermon nor |»-ayers in the temple of the KhaU£^; 
while, in all other churches, the harangue was made in the 

\ Konhamik ap. D'Herb. p. 240, WK. Caim. ' Ibid, 

p. 1OZ7, art. 'I hpgf Dibek. 

wnABlbala7iaofthtGr(tts;er- lamfm, Mefianfir BiHak, Amrr- 

roneoitfly thoaght to be Tauris JhrumtnU. 
by molV authors. (g) Becaufe the ftreets weiW 

. . (D) That is, in the year of paved with (lones. GeL b«. 

the Hejrak 454, and of Chriji xaJl/regM, p. izz. 


C *: ?»!# ieifditt togroi Bek; ^9 

■imiKrf jWs*i«(;r iiAii, lord of iE'^//'. Thos the fo7erdg(l* 
ty of ibeKhalifah was fuppreflcd for that day, 

Aftbr this, Kaytm BeamriU^ -was conveyed "to HtuUthet ' 
(G) ; and beii^ put m fetteps, vras Wt in cuftody with the 
IpfWAor of the town: 

Thb yelr follo^isg, Btfafiri fendir^ for thcgreit chan-Hej. 451. 
edlor ^hu Ahdallak Ebn Damiydn, with the preachers and A. D. 
^incet of the family <AHaJbem, required from them fecurhy, 1059. 
And u oeth of Bdelity to Mo^anfir Bitlah, lord of Egypt. 

The fame year, 451, TogrolBtk marched agidnft his brt>- 
Acr Ikrahim, defeated, and having taken him prifoirer, had IBraMm 
JtiiB ftrai^kd with a bow-ftring (H). ~ He iikcwife put \iodi/iMitdt 
deub « great |iD(n[»r of Turimaas, who had jdned with 

HftTtNe dtos re-eftablifhcd his po^ver, he marched toBagi' 
rfbta^uoft iU/^n', and («nt the£haiifat) his compliments, with 
$000 downs in gold, and 6,000 fuiis of cloaths for his wife. 
JU b» drew near the dty, on the 1 iih <A Dhu'lkMih, Malf 
#wr, lord f>f Ha£tha, came to meet hi:ii, bringing Alftj'fta 
MaamiiitA (I) vHh him. / 

(G) Tbeie arc two Ba£thas, ed j and being taken, wai put 

one 01 the f^^^^vt*/; the other to death (3]. The liiftoria* 

kerc mcQCioned fluids on the adds, that, afterihis fignal vie- 

cafl fide of the fVj'A:'/ or ligrh, tory.(a8 he calls ii), logreiBeA 

near the gjreat Zah, fomcccn {eai A!^ Arjlaa back iq Khera- 

parafangl, 'Or Perfiaa lc:LguM, Jbk, and made himfelf a fecotid 

^ toarSnglifir mi\ai e?.c\i, be- journe/ V) . EaghiidJ ; at what 

ImrAfi^; from whence it has time he delivered the Khalifah 

tite name of HaJl/ka *l M/'/ol. from the perfecucion of BafaS- 

\t WW, for X time, the Teat of ri, and replaced him on the 

tkeUulIiMu. AhSlfnia,'M\ai throne a fecond time (4). Thif 

delaiption of i^ al if i-ai. fhcw& th^ the hillory, in both 

(H) Kandantir differs, from places before-mentioned, relatit - 

tumfelf, as in the beginning, to the fame perfon and tranfac- 

fo iniheevcntof tiiiiafTair (1). tion, tho' ditferently told, and 

Is one place be faj-B, Ta^ro/ differently dated. 

Bade np matters with \\n bro- (1) According to Mirland, it 

Aer JbrohimNial, and then re- foon as T'o^ro/B^jf entered 5ofi- , 

tnowd to BmghJa J, from whence dad, he went to the ptifon, and 

Safari was Red (£]. In the fet the Khalifah at liberty, 

Other place be tells us, that he Mlriand. ubi fiipr. But this 

wu anifted fofeafonably'by his fccnu to be amiilake; for he 

nephew A/f Jrjlin, with the was then at Haditha, in cu- 

fones ofKiiere/d„. that his un- ftody. 
dejKrii^;i9iwu calily vanquilh- 

(Jj Sttktfin, f. 79. {i).DHrlifBt. f, 141. "". CaTn Stffi-J'.'jt. 

U i As. ., 

loo ■ ne Seljfiks of IraiC B. I." 

«WBagh- As foon as he arrived at Baghdad, Ms foldlers fell to pU- 
did fiU laging it (K), cfpecially that part called Karkha ; and having 
iugcd. coUefted a great quantity of tents, chariots, and other move- 
ables, fent them all to the Kballfah, with. his Wazir Abdoi- 
mMek At Kanderi, and JJfad Abubekr. Then a tent being 
fet up, the Khalifah entered it; and, after two days reft, 
on the 25th of the fame month, went into Baghdad, from 
whence he had been aWent a whole year, accompanied by To- 
grol Sek, who held the bridle of his mule till he had palled 
through the ftone gate ". . ' 

n* Kha- MIRKOND relates, that he condofled the Khalifah to 
lifnh re- the imperial palace on foot, fometimes holding the Airrup, 
Jlered. fometimes the bridle, of his roulei; and that, to gratify this 
rcfpcfl of "fogrol, he gave him the title of Rckn oddin, in thefp 
words ; Erkeb ya Rokn oddin : mount on horfeback, you -who 
^,. are the mofl firm pillar, or fupport, of the religion. After 

* '^>^ this, the Soltan told the Khalifah, that li Malek oiRahtm had 

nothand in the late tumult, he might fafely come ro him. 
Malek, trufting to Togrol Bek'a promife, waited on him ; biK 
being feized and imprifoned, in him ended the dynafty of 
■ oi xhc Buyahs, which had continued 127 years*. 
Bafariri Some time before this, B(i/rt/(«'wasgoncto/f<i/t/; and having 
_^ain. gathered a.large quantity of corn, fent it on board fome barks: 
but when he heard what had happened at Baghdad, he ad*- 
vanced Vo Nonutiiiya {h). The Soltan fent againft him part 
of his army, under the command of Hemarmakm, and other 
generals ; following himfelf, with the reft of his forces, in 
the end of Dhu'lkMah (M). Baffin being killed hi the bat- 
tle, his head was brought t6 Togrol Bek, who ordered it to be 
carried on a pike through the ftreets of Baghdad, Then 
proceeding to Wafct, he (et matters to rights there, and re- 
Hej. 41; 2. turned to5iip'i6i&ii/ia the year 452 ; where the Khalifah made 
^- ^- him rich preients, and received him with. great honour. Af- 
'°^' ter this, he went to Jabal (N), leaving his Wazu- Jbdolmiiek 

' D'Herb. p. 240, & fe^. 

(K) fl/jrJoni Tays, this was (L) A city between fl'-'iyi/ and the Soltan "s order, be- Baghdad. D'Htrbiloi. p. 674, 

caure the people rofcagajnft the (M) The lail month but one 

7arki ! who grew very infolent, of llie Mihavmeian year, 

foon after they h;id entered the (N) So the ArabUk : the Prr- 

city. Mirkend. ubi fupr. p. fan word is Kihepan ; that it, 

240. 0>e maantmH nunlry, the famfe 
m^FirJsanh-dk, ulcaftapan. 

- ■;...- . ... .L.ooQic 

C. 2? Ftrji Solidit, Togrol Bek. loi 

al KanJerl as his lieutenant ; and* having fettled that coun- 
try in p^ce, returned to Baghdad the lame year *, 

The above-mentioned battle was fought between /*V^/ Hfi iffilU 
and Kufah, according to the Lebtarihh ' .- but Mirkond le^KcsfeixtJ. 
that Bafafiri having been purfued by Togrul Bek as far as the 
lart of thofe two cities, and l>eing accompanied with no great 
force, fome of his foldiers found an opportunity to. kill him, 
and carried his head to the Soltan =. , They likewife feized 
all the eilcfls which he, and Nuro'ddhvlat Dobays {O), who ac- 
OHnpanicd Bafafiri in his retreat, were carrying oiF: but Do- 
iayt tandt tusdcape; and fubmitting toTogrol Bek rian year, 
was honoarably received by him *. 

Having related matters thus far from the hiflorians of theTMSreeb 
eaft, it is tune to look weil ward, and fee what is to be mtiaccaMt, 
with farther, concerning the Selj^ian Turks, in the Creek au- 
thors ; whofe want of that exa^efs found in the orientals, in 
marking the dates of aflions, makes it dilHcult to range then 
in chronological order, or deliver them from the confufion 
in which they feem placed. We arc told by Cedrenus, and 
Mcephorut Bryennius, that, after Tagrolipix found himfelf 
iccure in the throne of Perfia,' he b^an to make war on the 
neighbouring princes ; and marching ^inft Pijfafirius bc- 
rorc-mentioned, after defeating him in feveral battles, flew 
him, and brought the country of the Babylonians {Pj in fub- 

He then fent his nephew Kutlu Mofes (QJ againft Ajrw^'-Kaila 
fix (R), king of the Arahtani ■■ but being overthrown, he Mofes 

"Ebm Amid. p. 340- r P. 42. " D'HEHB.'p. 140, 

art. Cai'm Bemr. * Abu'lfakaj. p. 3z6. 

(O} He was an Arab prince, (P) That i>, Arabian Irak. 
of the tribe of A£ad, and lord (Q_) Called alio Ksthi Mu- 

OS HiUab, a city on theEufbra- fes by the Grith ; a corruption 

tea fuppofed, with good rea- of Kutiu Mi/b, fit Kstolimfi. 
fon, to be built in or near (tjOne would be apt to take ' 

the place where BeiyUii Rood, tliifuk Karmaih, prince of the 

In 415, A. D. lOJJ, Bafajiri fcaariei/rom him called ifara- 

marchcd from Begbdid to affiA n^ft, or Karamttha ; or elfe for 

hii brother Abu £cajam Thahit, fome prince of chat feft, which 

who wai at war with him Da- begin at Kutha, in Irak Arabi, 

iayi lived eighty yeaia, and ifwe had notknownthatit was 

enjoyed his principality fifty- fupprefled in the tenth century. , 

Jeven. He died in 474, and See D'Herb. an. Carmath. 
was famoDS for his virtue, and 

(1) Aifflfiraj, f. i»J, »]7, fif SS*. 

H 3 took , 

■ I ■.. I Cookie 

102 tht Seijaks of ifio: B. I. 

took flielwr in Media (S), and flopped at Baas, or Baafira* 
kan. From thence he f?nt to Stephen, the Roman governor, 
to defire a paflage (T) ; and being denied, ronted his troops, 
and took him prifoner. Thep marching to Bnjcium, oA the 
borders of Pcrfia, fold \^m there for a (Javc. When he re- 
tatrccA toTagroHpix, after excufing his ill fuccefs agajoll the 
j}rah4, he advifed him to invade Media, which he (aid was 
iahabiicd by women (U) : but that prince," highly oflcnded 
at his d^eat, would not heark^ to him ; but railing new 
forces, went againft t\i&jirabs in fierfon, and Vfu UkcwU^ 
put to the worft. 
Fliis/na At his return he marehed againft KlitluMufes, who, fcar- 
Tagfolf- jng the Soltan's difpleafure, had fled with his followers f aod 
J** i taking refuge in' Pafar, a city of the Khcrafmiam (W), rCr 
volted from him ; while he, with part of liis army, befieged 
Tafar, which, being ftrong, held out long. Hfi lent ano^ec 
part, confifting of 20,000 men, under the command oi Ajfan 
(X), furoamfd the deaf, his brother's fon, to fubdue^/flfti; 
where he committed dreadful ravages : but being, in the 
end, drawn into an anibulh by the Raman generals, he wa^ 
cMt off, with his whole army. 
pilihumi TJCROLIPIX, no way difcouraged at this mbfor- 
A'pc- tunc, fent a new army into Media, near 100,000 ftror.g, com- 
manded by Mraham Jim (V), his half-brother; who laid 
wade the country without oppofition, the Remans (hutting 
themfelvcB up in their ftrong holds ; -and iheo bid fiege tq 
^rlza (Z), a place, on account of its great trade, eluemed 
the moft wealthy in thofe parts; but not being able to ma- 
fler it, they reduced it to afhes, 6f the inhabitants, 1 50,000 
and upwards are faid to have periflied, eiihw by the fwgrd^ 
or in the flames. 

(S) It Ihoald rather be jlr- tbeyearwhenchiaafTaJrhappei^ 

lynt'iT, t» v:\ikh Baajpraiai- or ed does not diftinflly appear, 

rfl^araian belongs. The pro- ' (Ol Alluding to tiiewe^knef* 

vince lies betwixt the lake of and effeminacy of the .^/boim. 

IF'aBandlheriver.^rrfl/. Other (W) Thefe are the inhabits 

circumftances fhew, it ought to anu of ^Va^n, to the north of 

be Arminia, or Perfam^cnia, Ferfia, and too far out of the 

which might have been joincil usy. 

XoAUdia. or Alhtrbijan, whicli (X) Ferhapt TJeJfan.. 

the Turki fonquered in lojo, (Y) This muft be ISralia 

■9 before related. ■* f^ial 

(T) Thefc Turh are faid tq (Z) Jrtx* or ArKt, near f^- 

(irve been flrft known to the caiifiofetis in 4r«">''''t tJ>e pre- 

<;.<t/ij ip thctimeof theerape- fent jlrxcw a/ Rum, or Jra- 

Tpr Ccrjlattliae Menomaebui, who 
pegau his reign i^ to^if hue 

C. 2: TirJI- StttSn, T«gn)] Bek.' loj 

ABRAHAM, after this, hearing that the XeTRnrij-, ander Roman 
the OMDinand of thorites, governor of S/tm, had talcan thcf wwo/ 
fidd, he oarched agatoft them. The two n-mies euga^^j''^- 
\ntfa great furf, the viAory coolioDcd long doubtful, bu< 
at length iHcUaed (o the iEwMru ; although their general was 
taken pritbocr, vbich hbdered then ts ptufue the %u>g 

Hekevpon the emperor dUpat(A«d embaJladacs, wil^ 
rich- prcTents, and a large 'fum, to redeem Uparitts, and. 
coBcIade an alStnce 1vi£ T^toUpix, who gencrouQy rc- 
tamed them, \rith the money, to Uparitej, and fet him ac 
fibo-ty whfaont ranfem ; only requiring him, M hie departure, 
■o more K) bear arms againft the Ttcrttt. 

Not long after, the Soltai fent a Shirff{h), a per&n t^fhtmpirt 
great mtkoiity, with the churader of ambtiiladar, to C e^ Mh- in-vaJtd. 
tinopk ; who, havieg arrOgantiy exhorted the ca^peror u fuh- 
ant to his maftcr, and acknowkge himfelf his tributary, v/at, 
by JUKumacimi, diJimiJed with feorn, and dtiveii out <^ tb* 

TAGROLIPIX, offinded at the reception a£ bit «ii- 
bal^dor, while the emperor was engaged in a wu with th» 
Patamacx (B), a Scythian nation, enimd Ilm-'M ; and hiv- 
ing Ind the country tralie, as far as Ktymm, returned bo» 
ifance kito Meditt, and laid flege to Manizikl»ttt (C), a plack 
dreaded by a nomerons gar&n, and fortified with a triple 
wall, and deep ditches. HoWcrcr, aa it was fituated in a 
plain and open country, he hoped to be mailer of it in a 
fluMt line : bat, after he had contfioued before it thirty <fa«s, 
was obliged 10 retire, pretux^ngfomeurgiait aifvrs had cal- 
led hi« home. 

Not long after, difcord ariling between the Soltaa and Abraham 
Ah-aham Alim, or Halim, whom Jic fought to deftroy, Abra AIhh 
bam Bed (D) to hisnejdMW Kuthi Mufes, and joined in th^'W"- 
rebeilioa. TheSoltin,nwctiDg them not far from Pii/&r (f J, 
defeaod them in battle; aud Ah-aham being taken, was put . . 

(A) A Serifb, m CtJrmm: The fam« author, jn another 

Siwri/ fignifie« boWi, and dc- place, calli it Maisikifr. Ct- 

aoCet being of l^hammeXt drenus names it HaurckierghA. 
kindred. (D) This wat in the ^ear 

(Bj The tmrafiott of the fat- 1058, which fulls in the reign 

tomato was in (or about) (be of Cajjjfr.ntiie Durai. . 
yeariojo. (E) This muft be UamaJaft; . 

(C) A/iiWcj'WiVr/a, according or near it; ami the aftion in 

VtCitrcpalata, n in BaaJ^rakafi, 1059, as relared before out of 

Of jDOrc properly Faf^uraian. theoricotal biftorians. 

H 4 to 

lO^ 7^ Seljilks of Irln." B. I." 

to death. Kuth Mufa, with his couCn Malei, foD cS Abra- 
ham, followed by 6000 men> fled to the borders of the Ro- 
' man empire ; from whence he fcnt for proteftion to the an- 
. ^eroT Monomachus, a litde before his death, which happea- 
ed in 1054 (F). - But while he waited for an anfwer, he ■ 
narched into Perfarmenia, as far as the city Karfe (G), which 
he took, thoitgh notthe cdlle. But hearii^ that Tagrolipix 
was advenclag towards him, he fled to the Arabs, who were 
the Soltan's enemies. 
Iberia The SoltantDmitig into /^rin,. laid iMrafte, fparing nei- 

raniaiei. ther fex nor age. But upon the approach of Michael Acoht- 
thutj who was fent againA him at the head of a cooflderable 
army, he retired to Tauris (H), leaving 30,000 men behlnjr" ' 
him under ' Sam&kh,_ to infeft the frontiers of the empire j 
-' ■ "which they did with great fuccefs, the borders bring left 
unguarded, through the avarice of Monomachus, who about 
this time died. The Turks prepared to invade the emfnre 
6n his death,- but were prevented by the care of Theodora 
. his fucceflbr. But bdng encouraged by the cemiirnefs of Cori' 
ftantine Ducat,' who alcended the throne in 1059 (I),' they 
extended' their conquefts on all fides ". 
JaflarBek " Thds far the jjizsn^jn^-hiftorians. Let oa now return 
Jits. to the oriental authors. According to them, in 453, Ji^ar 

■ Hej. i^SVBeg, Togrots brother, died in Kkoraf&n, and left for his fuc- 
•^■^- ceflor his fon Alp Arftan (K), who was afterward heir alfo to 
'* '■ his uncle, who died wthout children'. 

" Cedsenu), Nycsph. Bkybhh. CuRorALAT. Leunclat. 
hilt. Mufuto). p. 7;. alib univ. bifi. vol. xvii. p., iti, &g. 
* P'Herii. p. 1027. Lebtar. p. 42. 

(F) Oihers fay in 10J7 ; foroe (H) This circamllance flicwi 
In 1049 ; fo uncertain is ihc laC- that he was then maftcr of Ad- 
terGnei chronologj-. Bui if htrbijait, or Media, which hav- 
A^af/;iMn£jfent to this emperor ing been fubdued in the year of 

' afterthe death of /iruA/w, either the Hcjrab 446, or ot Chrifi 
Monomechuj muft have been 1054, as before related, doubt- 
alive in 1059, or the ariental lefi ihe invafion of th« Reman 
authors date that event tO" ear- McMa, or rather Pir/armcnla^ 
\y. 'Tis ptobible the Qneii and ihe Cege of Maiiixjiyirt, 
have confounded things of dif- was about that time. 
ferent timei together, in this (I) Others fay 1057. 
jnftance, as (hey feeni to have (K) Written alfo Oib ArJIau, 
done in many others. According to- the Lebtartkh, p. 

(G) Perhaps tHe fame now 41. he ^cceeded by the ap- 
called Kan, between the cities poiacmcnt of his unde Tip^t ' 

• Ar»triiin ^ni Erriv^s. gti. 



C. 2^ Brfi SoUdwy Togrol Bdc 105 

Ths lame year Togrol Bek demanded the danghter-of JfiiyftR Togrol** . 
Seamrillah in marriage : buE xi\e Khalihii giving him a de- uwrit^t, 
vial, it occafioned mafiy meJlages and threatening!, on the 
part of Sokan; why next year, 1^62, forbad the IChalifah's 
ofiicers to meddle with the publick ^oncy (L). Hereupon 
they advifed him to let the Solt^n have the princefs ; which 
be at length confented to, though Tore againft his will (M). 
On this compliance, Togrol Bet, being gready rejoiced, revoked 
the order he had given for fevung the Khalifab's trcafuret, and 
licnt him very rich jwefcats. 

Ix 455 the £hdifah's daughter was conducted to the ScA' anJdtait. 
tan, w1k> received her with great dcmonftrations of joy, and Hcj. 455. 
bellowed gifts on all.thofe who accompanied her:, but fix A.t>, 
months after, in the fame year, Togrol Bek disi it Jt^y, or Sey, "^i" 
the capital of Ir'^i * (N). 

The author of the Nighiartfiin is fomewhat more parti- 
cnlar than Ebn Amid, with r^ard to the marriage of the Kha- 
li^'s daughter, whom he calls Setdai (O). He tells us, that 
when Jmid al Mali Konderi, TogroPs Wazir or Vizier, had, 
by his addrefs, obtained the princefs for his maAer, he' con- 
ducted her to Tauris, where the Soltan then was ; that it ^ 
was in this city where the marriage was concliided, and the 
(ontra£t (jgued : but that the nuptiah and confummation of 
the marriage were to be performed at Rey, then the capital Oetafim*/ 
of Ptrjian Ir4k, and royal feat oi Togrol: that this prince//. 
repaired thither, to prepare things with proper' magnificence : 
bnt that the feafon being exceflive hot, he left the dty,' to 
l^Ote the air of Rudb&r, a moft delicious place, where he had 
« very bcautifiil palace ; and that here, in a few days, he 
upas carried olT by a bloody fltix * : fo that, as KhondamJr 

^ Ebh Amid, p, 340, te fe^. * D'Herb. p. ioz8, axf, 


(L] His Wazir counrelted daughter in return, though an 

him. by degreet, to retrench honour too great for a Turk to 

the Khalifah'* revenneg ; which expcA ( 1 ]. 
obliged bim to confent, accord- (N) Called alfo dl Jahal by 

lag to the highiarijiin, ap. D' the AriAs; and by the ?irfiatt, 

jSrb. p. lozB. Kubtflan; both fignifying the 

(M) According to Kamdamir, mnnlain country. 
in EtHirhtht. K^'im was fe (O) Stideb is the feminine of 

highlyobliged to7ii;rd/firi(,for Srid, oiSffd, and the common 

re-eAaUifhrog him the fecund term for the wife or daughter of ' 

time, that be judged he could zSiid or lord. 
mtn do lefa than give him his 

It) D'Btrt. p. 10*7, trl.TliC[nlitli, 

, eblervet, 

L l,z<..;l^L.OOglC 

^v The Sdi&ks ^ tiin: Kt 

obfiime, -vAtea his wffe arrived tt JBlrf, (he foutil hin dead; 

knd fb returnod «s flie ooie ^ 

AoTHOUs geiKrtHy agree, tkat tluB grat pf4f)«e dkd M 
A?V, i« the year of the Rtjrah 45 J (P), aild at the age of, 
iimaty : but the Lebtartkh makes his ragn tncnty-ibE jcanl, 
vhich is One more than Ebn Attdd gives to it *. 
mirhM- 70CR0L BEK was a good-nacnred. viSt, and polrdcfe 
r»atr. prince ; exceedingly feuvd and courted I7 the prorincM 
lords, who c^en wrote to him '. Acctvdu^ A> the LeitO' 
rtkh, he was the bed of princes : he MA the ptaytn, wtA 
bis whole iaituiy, five tnies a day ; and failed every week on 
the fifth am! fcoond days. Whenever he was difpofed 10 
ere^ a palace, be tMV baik a temple '. As he had no chU* 
dren, he was fucceedul i^ his nephew Alp ArJUn. 


tbs Ri^ cf Alp Arfl^. 

THIS prince was thcfon of Datvd, or Ji^ar Beg {A\ Saa 
of Michael, fon of Se§£ili ; and, by fucceediog hU oa- 
Ai a' ^'® Togroi Bek, thus united in his pafon the two kiogdoiRS 
^P Ar- c^KhcraJan (R) and Irak, with their dependencies : ib that, 
"■ in the year jyf the 7/5VaA4SSt when he began his reign, be 
"^ 455' was foJe monarch of all the countries lying between the ri- 
t^,'- veti Jibun (C) ot Arrri, and the Dljlut or Tigrisi that is, of 
all Irin or Perfta, m its greatell extent ; in the conqncft of 
%hich he had a confiderable /hare. 

TOG SOL BEK left him in full power at Baghdad, where 
the Khalifah Kayim I'n'ed in dependence on th? Se^akiam, till 
dfC fecood year of Mahk Sh&h, when he died '. 

The name which this Soltan took, after he hadembcaced 
^" *'"'"> mohammedifm, was Mohammed, or ^i« Shejah Mahatnmtdi 

' D'Htna. p. 1027. ^ LiBTARntR, p 4>- ^ Eaa 

Amid, p, j4t. ' Ibid. p. 343. ^ Libtak; p. 42. 

■ ICoKD.'ap. D'Herb, p. 141. 

<f} The Lei/arUh of Go/mM D'Herh. p. 101, art. jf j» ^4^ 

bas 45J, andtb»C<ifZ>'fffri/&# /<£». 

4^4; the i8th of RamaJhim, (B) According to Jgnr/«ifi , 

«rhicb i* the firS month of the be governed tbue at 7#{n/*s 

Uvtuamatdm year. beuicaafit'f eneral, for ten yrara 

(A) jlii'ifivaj rallt bha before be afcended die thrane. 

Dniili ^\ David) Jigribtg- D'Htrb.^.XO^ait. JIfJrfimM. 

' D'lurhthi (peaks of authors (C) Tbe ■ocicat Om> «f dw 
! Jfffer Grttki. 

two diUcrer.; toi.; of h'iihetl. 


C. «: Seemd Sattdn, Alp ArDin. ^of. 

hr U vmMete -aOtd ;^Mi; and tioi of Jl/^ ArJU* ^), 
which figaifies id Tiiriijb, tbt aurdgxtti Am, il a farniaiF. 
Tb< Kbalifah Xaytm BedmrHUh, on woount of hie own potro- 
aad fiberi^ ae '««11 cs that of his predecoflbr, gare him the 
tttlc of AzzdMn, or .dUMuJiSii (E), whktl figniBea, fA^ 
froteaor tfthf rtli^OK. 

At the bc^timiDg of hb f«^ he ptit M d«&th Kandari, tai W^* 
iWnamed AwSitU MdUt (F), Winir to TogrMBtk, for abufesw". 
ooffltnitted by hJm io bis office, darhig his linde't fife ; and 
nifed to that emploTmeot JVii/yiUbfi id Mtik ((?}, who vaj the 
ajTCateft man of hit dme, and adminlftered the aflklrs of the 
UBgdofR, ki the ragn of this prince and hh focceflo', tiitb 
tfae greatcft tntegrity and appn^iaiioii ^. 

AccoKDiNO to the Vaffaiya (B), at th« begiamag t£ hf) Kotol- 
ivign, ^;^ >^i^^ made war upon xitdbnijh, Ton of ^o^, hh milhiw- 
ccnfin-gennad, who rebelled Kgzinft htm in the province <^^^'- 
I>a)mgia (I). But this revolt -was foon quafhed, by an nn- 
tsfe&eA acddent : for Katohn^ adrancing at the head of 
his voops, ■which ■were tcrf fine ones, to gift the Sohan jqj[^^ ^, 
faMtlci ]]is herfe of a fiidden fell under him, and, throwing a/iJ/, 
hS» rider, broke his neck ; ^^foa vbich hi* army fHbsiattcd, 

^ KoHD. ubi fnpr. p. iga, art. Alp Aiflln. LetTi^ F-i'* 
. M>'UeaB. p. mi. 

(D) Alf, which Is alfo piO' in Khorajm, accordiag to th* 

nouDceii Ulp and Oluf, Ath and LcbtarUh. 

Oi*,fignifit3, in the language of (G) The Ftrfmni fay iiaxAm 

thtfTarkmaMi^l/rtrvt anJ-vatrant ^l Mali ; pronouncing the Jrai' 

eatimtaJtr. Hence it ij often hie dh (ivhich has the force of 

found in the names of eminent the Evglifi tb, in the words thiii 

Tmii m fark^ni, aa AlfTtk- ^*f«. Wc) liket; alfoA^fwiBi- 

iM, KajAlf. The Gwij call "[H) Written by nixda i^ ■ 

tkis princtt Af^ajalttn, and Jf- Aftfl, the famoasWarir (orVi- 

fam/eliatiut; but generally ^- ucr] c( AJf Affian, mentioned 

an ; j)ofliUv conupiing the Effort: in the text ; in which h« 

Turiifi word /ii Ban, or Ai gi/cs princes precepts antl «- 

iBA, whifh fi^nifies the -wfew anaplm for governing well. £>* 

if»y ; a name gii'en poffibly for UtrbiUt. p. 655. 

a reafiM fflciicioned in a fatnre (I) Or Davuei'^an: it is tli« 

■BCe, Dr. Uy^c obftrves, that eapimi of the province of K'tmet 

Alf Arjlen anfwers to the /*<# (the /ToCTi^nr of /*rt/o«ji), which 

fia^ ArJJkir. M«g- m.P*rf- From thence may take the name 

p. 197. of Daa;^aN. It lies bet^-een 

C£) Ehn Aw&i has Adadai- TairtJJan and the nonh-eall 

jlltmht. fitt'iii PfrfSan .Irak, called A'a- 

(F) At IH/a, Nijg, or My&r, btjidn. 

J ' ' ' Tina 

L „. .X.ooQic 

tot . rhe Seljfiks of Ir3n; B. I; 

This was the cad of Kotbmtjb, or Kotoht^Jb, according 

to the oriental writers ; but the Greek hiilorians reprefent the 

iifltie of bis rebellion quite otherwife : they tell us, that this 

Eince, whom they call Kutlu Mo/es, ot Mvfes, having re- 
lied in the tloje of Tangrolipix, was defcatwl by him, and 
fled into Jrabia ', where he remained till j4xan (or Alp Ar' 
Jldn), came to the crown : tlwt then, returrang from thence, 
at ihehexdofcoofiderable forces, andadvandogto^f (K), he 
Uid claim to the fovereignty : but that, white the two armies 
were on the pnnt of engaging, the Ehalif of Babykm of a 
fudden appeared, and, interpofing his authority, which he 
mil retaineid in fpirituals, liroucht rhcm to this agreement, 
tliat the Soltan ftiould .hold Perjta, and that Kutlu Mtifes, and 
hit children, who Were Eve in number, /hould poflefs all the 
P V. countries which they fhould take from "ia^ Roman em[»re ; 
"' and that he (hould aflift them with troops for that purpofe : 
taljt. ^*' ^f^"" *'*''' '^ father and his five fons entered the Ho' 
man empire with their forces ; and thai Kutlu Mo/es a^ually 
commanded a ^wdy of turki, which came to the aflillance 
of Botaniaies, when he ufurped the empire' : wh^pas, ac- 
cording to the oriental hiilOTlans, who could hardly be mif- 
taken in a tranfa£tion that concerned one.of their own princes, 
and happened amof^' themfelves, fCoiol^^fi muft have been 
dead ,ei^t or ten years before. ^ 

This fitews with what caution the Creek writers oug^t 
td be read, who were ignorant both of the name and per- 
Ibn of rile prince, who had pulhed his conquefls within a 
few days march of Conjiantinople itfelf ; and had, even by 
their own account, been for fome time perfonally prefent in 
their emperor's army. But to return to the eallern hifto- 
je^elUim The war with Kototmijh was no fooner Hniftied, than Ka- 
e/Ax&aB, ra Arfidn raifed new difturbances in Pars and Kermfin. The 
Soltan, to fupprefs this rebel, employed Tadhlovieh, one of 
his mofl valiant commanders, who defeated him, and was 
rewarded for his ferVlce with the government of Pars. 
^AM But this ambitious governor, as foon as he few the Sfol- 

Fadhlo- tjj^ „jj [jjg niarch to Khorafdn, refolved to make himfelf ab- 
'*^ ' folutc mailer of his province. In order to efieft this, he for- 
tified a cafUe, fltuated ii^a very advantageous place, where 

' See before, p. 104. ■ Sec Cedkenu's, and univ. hift. 

- voi.xvii. p. 134. 

(K) By Re i* here probably /ra*; and notff«,or£r«,tntha 
ta be uTxlerltood the city Rey or province of Shifwan, as Lena- 
Raj, then capital of Pirfian tlavius fuppofu. 



C. %'. Second SoUan^ Alp ArQin.' -169 

be fltut himTelf up, accompanied voth very good troops,' and 
a vaft deal of money, which he had amalTed by a thouland 
extortions in his government. NtzSm al Moli rec»ved or- 
ders from his prince to attack, this caOie, and bring him the ' , 
traitor aliVe or dead. AU who'had a knowlege of the place 
advifed Kgainft a fiege, becaufe they deemed it impregni^le j 
but the Wazir, refolving to gratify his mafter, invefted-thac 
ca{Ue with bis forces, and went hunfelf round it to take * 

During this tour, he did oot obferve fo much as one Ar«*^ . 
man of the befieged upon the ramparts; which indicatii^rydWA/^' 
the greateft coniidence of their fecurity, he was fo chagdo'd, - - 
that, but for Ihame, he would inftanily have raifed the iiege. 
However, he refolvcd to do his utmoft j and had already 
gotten together provifions and ftpres for a whcde year's 
blockade : wheh one morning, at break of day, he was fun- 
prized to hear them beat the chamade, and that the governor 
dedred to capitulate. 

The joy which this news gave him, made him grant themsa edt 
honourable conditions ;- the chief of which were, that thewM/. 
governor ffiould remain in the place, doing homage to the 
Soltan, and paying him a certaib tribute annually, belides 
the ufual prefents. When matters were fettled, the Wazir, 
who was m pain to know what could have obliged Fadhhv'teb 
to make fuch a fudden furrender, was informed by one of the 
belicged, that it was owing to the fprings and ciflems, which 
were very numerous In the place, drying up all at once. 
This the Mohamnudan author attributes as a miracle, wrought 
by providence, in regard to the jufUce of the Soltan's caufe, 
and his own piety. 

An attempt having been made todifpoflefs the Soltdn aiDtfarftf 
the j)rovince of Kertnun, he marched thither with his army ; NGban- 
and, being obliged to pats through the great ddart <£. A'K-dijin. 
handijan, which feparates that province from Khara/dn, and 
is deftitute of all things necelTary to fupport an army, his 
troops, who, had entered it with great reiuflance, percdv- 
ing their provifions to fail daily, began to murmur; and were 
on the point of revolting, when they came to an old ruined 
cadle, which feemed to be the retreat of owls and wild 
beafls : but, in viewing it, they found cam enough to fup- 
ply the whole army. Yet this plenty of Wdluals being d 
no ufe without drink, God, to complete the miracle (as our 
author will have it), fent fo heavy a rain, that every body had 
water enough to ferve his occafions \ 

f Vassaiai ap. D'HiRB. p. to], art. Alp Arflin. 

L i,.< t.L.OO'^iC 

Karazm la 457 A» 9o\tAo Aapcbed agftinA Khazan, triio htd re 
M^^i- Tolud ia the CMiatry ef Kkwfttrazm {or Karazm) ; and 

^ whom deapdd the Auighter, he gwtf the goremment of that 
^* jaoTioca to AftwW Shtik, his ■ekieft fori. In his mnrn frpai 
tlus Qspedttioo through Kfnrsfdn, he pEtid a viftt to the {& 
poldire of Jit Riz* (L), the eighth Imim, u4io wss buried 
«c 7K/ (theaee called M^had), vrficre there b continaaBy 
a gteat refort of people, who go thither out of devotion,' 
'JSiuAh Attek he had peribrraed Bib pi%rimage, ht tocA th« 
^ rb road of SadMit.'viieK he eocamped with hii army in a moft 
^«f». ^reeaiile place. From henee he difpsttched coursrs tfaFOOgfi 
^ the proriiKae of hts empire, to fummon the governors 
and ffeu loni» to a genial ai!embly of the eflates. Bein^ 
jiU net tagethcr, he dedu^ his fon MaUk 3h4h for his fac- 
o^or, and cmly heir to his dominions. This done, he' or- 
dered tus fen to Jit on 3 throne of gold, prepared for that 
purpofe, and made all the officers of the emjiire take ah 
oath of fiddlity to him (M). 

luuEDtATELr after this, he acquainted aU the chiefs 
and generals of his armies, that he defigned to attempt th* 
conqoefl of 7urltefim, the country whence he drew hia ori-' ' 
pnal ; and where, as he pretended,- his anccftors formerlir 
reigned (N). But this cKpedidon was not asdeitikeQ till 
&Teral years after s. 

Let us now turn otirfelves ■weftward,, and fee what the, 
Turks were doing on that iide. 
TAfTurk* Upok the death- of Co/f^rtw^jne Ducat, which happened itt' 
ittvadt the year 106;, the Turks, underAandtng that the Roman em- 
pire was governed by a woman, broke with great violence 
into Mefepotarnia, CUicia, urtd Ca^adecia, deftroying all with ■ 
fire and fword. The emprcfs was no way in a condition to 
c^pofe them, the greater part of the army having been dit 
t^ded in her hiilband's life-time ; and the troops which 
tht Rom- ^jjg j^jji Qg foQt bang undifciplined, and altogether unfif 
va empire. ^ ferrloe. Eudocia, diei-efore, to fecureatonce the empire 

« KoHD. ap. D*HEitB. art. Alp Arflin. 

(LJSothePr^owj thc^ra*/ to be done juff before hi? 
jpimottnceRMa, fcninding the death. 

Jb like tbe Ei-.gllfi th, id thit, (K) Mean'mg, we prefamei 
^haji, i^r. BA faai been obfervcd Jfrefieb, and hts fHcceffnT^f 
a few notes be/bre. from whom the ScMis dented 

[M) Eta Amd relatci this their pedigree, as has been be- 
fore related, p. 79. 


CLzl Secani Salt£9, Mp Arf^n: ill . 

iron foreigo, and herfelf from domeftic, enemies, maniad 
Jltm/imu D'vgena, who was thereupon prodaiiaed emperor. 
Ai he WM a mm of great aftivity, and experience to ww, 
be BO (boner (aw hinuelf ve(led with the foreFeiga power, 
than taking upon htm the commai^d oi the army, he paiQed 
Qver, iato ^4/ia ; vhere, qb tus arrival, he was ioiorBWdi tluc 
' the Turh, having (iirprized aqd ptBiKtercd the city of Ntt- 
o^rvM, were retiring with a rkh booty. The en^oror fol- ' 
kwing dKm, ju the head of a chorea body of light-ajmwl 
iro<^, came a^ with tbeia ithe third day, killed a ^^eu 
flumber of them, aBd recovered the fpcut. He theo ponueil 
hi« nanch to Haiti (O), wliich he retook, together with H»- 
jrajMu, where he built a Aroog caflle ''. 

The Qriennil htftortana place this i^rMf expcditkp in theRomani 
jew of the NeJFoh 462,. which asfwers to that of Cbrijid'fi^u 
^q6{>. They retaie, that he hefit^ the laft •dcj, which '■***• . 
they call Mam^ (P), fcr £xtani days, but do«qt kj that 
. - he topk it ; only that afterwards the M^ems, or buyers (to 
the JthbantmaJam coll theelelvas}, advanciDg with an army, 
he defeated then : but pronftme fnliog in his camp, by 
Itdtich mcBQi great num^irt of his (bldicri ferlihed, he re- 
turned to Canpaniinopit. 

. Ik bis way fa«3t he defeated a niuneroiis body «f Tnrkt, 
who attempted to cut off his retreat ; fd'ter which the Turkt 
ahaadonrd fereral cities on his approach. 

In 46J ^!p jMUm parched to Jtiihiit (Q_), ^ridi 40,000 -fr» i*M»i 
horie,, to meet the Rumaas, who had a vail army v but they/^'^" Ji- 
we definted, and their general, wlio was a nc^ilemaii, ht-Z^'f^- 
iag taken, the Soltvi ordered hi« nofc to be cut off '. "^ ■ ji^3* 

This, by the drcumAaaces of the hyiory, mufl hare been ,~-e^ 
PiUarttus, wlv) had been left 10 guard the banks of tfas 

" Ce&kehhs. Uaiv. hiA. vol. mii. p. 130. '. Ebh Amid. 

^ 343. * fefl- 

(X)) J/epf», the intiviit Brr- 43. Sdjttliens indei geogr. sf 
haa, according to Cedreiiui aod vie. SakJlni, art. Manbtsjam. ' 
otbrr*. {Q_) Called ajro*>a.>, and 

(P) The aneieot BtOMhyet, . Kaliat ; acityoa the north fida 
called afterward! IJitrapoUi. of the lake ok'lf'ai-, three days 
Iq th= prefeoc copies of Pliny journey to the north of SaSis, 
it w faid to be named Magog by or BitUs. I( was formerljr a 
(he Syrians, iaftead of il/iiflof ; vay famous plaoe, the feat rf 
which ii a corruption of Man- ma-ay priocci, and cajiita! 

itj, or Manir, and that of Ba/n- 
fc, or rather PcmAc, the P^r^rti 
word for wttn. See flyJe, in 
not. adPeriifol. itin-ncDil. p. 

Ji-meKia. Ct^riiiui and ITior- 

■ fhmi firjrcww Write JT/ow. It 
was- then m ciK hand* of die 

■ Tj.ris. 

L „.,.. t.L.OtVJ 


Supbratei (R). The Byzantine hilloriaiis fertlier relate, 
tiiat the Turks, after this viftory, advanced into Cilicia, and 
forprized Ikonium, the principal city of that province : but 
that hearing of the emperor's approach, ihey, after plunder- 
ing it, retired in halle. However, the JiTJteniani falling 
upon then! in the plains of'Tar/ut, put them to tKght, and 
Ibipped them of every thing. 
Tte emp€- In the fpring follomng, the emperor marched anew into 
rar Dio- JJia, at the head of a confiderable mny, which he had raifed 
■V^ and difciplined during the winter. But, contrary w the ad- 
\kt oi Nicefihorus Bryennius, who, commanding the left wing 
of his army, with others, Would have had him wait for the 
7urks in Capfiadoria, he'marched to Mazekerta (S) ; and, di- 
- Tiding his army into two parts, (ent one of them to Kleat 

(T), a fmall town belonging to the Turks .- between whont 
and the Romans fevcral fltirmifhes happened, in one of which, 
Bafilacius, one rf the empdror's chief officers, was kiUed ; fl 
juft reward for his wrong advice and falfe intelligence. At 
length Rmmnus, refolvmg to come to a general engagement, 
marched forwards with his arniy, in three bodies, of which 
he commanded the centre ''. But as an account has been 
already given of the battle from the Creek hiftorians ', we 
fliall here confine ouriclves to what the oriental authors have 
related on that occafion, 
mttacis thi Ebn j4mid informs us in general, that the Soltin having 
Tiirlu. ujgt tfjg ^OTfcwi emperor on the 26th of the month DhulkMa, 
463, in a place called Zakra, gave him battle on a Friday, 
and defeated his forces ;^ of which an incredible number were 
kiUed, and the emperor himlelf taken". But the beft ac- 
count we have as yet from the oriental authors, of this re- 
markable trattle, is that given by AM'^araj. In the year 
above-mentioned (fays this author), Romanus (U) Diogenes, 
the Roman emperor, marched with an army of 100,000 men 
to" MalAzkerd (X),, In the territory of Khalat. The Soitan, 
who was then at Kh&naf, in the province of Adherbijin, hcar- 

^NicifH.BaTBN.inConft.c. v. ^j. ' Univ. hift. vof^ 

xvii. p. 131, arfeq. ■» Eon Ahid. p. 343. 

(R) The lihlarW, obfervw, (T) KilUt, or Jklat. 

that jilf Jrjlan was the firlt (U) This audrar writes Ro- 

Turklp ^iAiaa vi'ho pafTed this maniii. Aimf/nanr, and the Otha 

river : but it does not appear oriental], Ormanus. 

when be did it, by either the (X) This leeins ta be Maxi- 

callern or weftern authors. iirta, near tUial, mentioned by 

(S) The fame vsith Malax- Nic. Brjtn. in the hift. of Ra- 

jcrd. , maiau, cap. j- 

3 ing 

4t. i." SerwJ Soli^t Alp AHl^tt; ti^ 

h^' of this, made haAe to meet hini, tliough aok io Bniw 
ngetber no more than 1 5,006 harfe (Y). When the armies 
herein fight, h6 feot to theempenSr to defire. peace; bnt 
Us aafwer was; that he would make noue -with him, unk& " 
he furrc'ndeitd up the city Ray (Z), or Rey. The So^tatit 
provoked at tlib, on Friday ^aUnooa pat up prflyers 10 God* 
with tears in his eyes, before his anny. Who -wept themfelves 
to fee th(nr ihouilrch Weep. 

Befoke he engaged, he gave thtife leart to reilari vihoTlitiff- . 
h^d a mitid; Then cafting away his bow and arrows, he'i''''^^* 
took his fipohd, arid ah iron fccptre, grafping his' horfe's**^' 
tail in his hand, as all his foidiers did after him. He drefled 
bimfelf iD white (A) ; and ftrewing on perfumes, if f am 
fain (B), iiiA he, this -will feme me fw a ■minding Jbeet . 

After a bloody battit the Greeks, were put to flight, and 5^ tfjie- 
amnlt^tndeof them killed ! their emperor was taken prifoner,"''/air*» 
ijy 3 flave named Shi^ (C) ; and bring difcovered by the 
imballador, Shiii, lighting off his horle, paid him reve- 
rence, and then brought him to ^Ip ArfUbi. The Soltdflt 
patting him three times with his hand, &id, Did not I fend 
to you vjitb propcfais «/" peace, and you viotiid net heaflm ft 

(Y) According to XiW««(> felf to darger in the battle j Buij 

lie had no more than iz.obo, leaving the whole condufl of it 

nd the Grttit jo6,ooo. Sut to Tarang, ah eunuch, one of 

we prefer the account of E!>h his generalt, gave his orders at 

^MiJ, whith gives room to be- a dillance. 
Jieve, that be had near 40,000 : {C) According to. MirhnJ 

becamfe, from the relation given and KenJamir, the emperor v/ai 

bf the batde by NUepheriu Bry- taken by Ja'vahtr, ore of the 

tnmitti, who commanded the Teft Eoliin's generals, who was fent 

wing of the Reman array, the to purfne the Rtmatis. On thit 

Tarijt feem to have been as nu- occafion hiftorians relate, that 

merous as the Stiman], who, be- the Solt&n, reviewing his troop* 

fbre the battle, were divided in- before the batde, had a mind 

to two parts ; and one of them 10 difmifs bne of his foldjersj 

fent to befiege Kiias or KaUl. becaufe he feemed to be very ill 

See Nicifb. Brjm. hift. oiQa^\ made : bat an officer prevented ' 

DueM.URcmanui DUgtnii; C3.^. it, by telling hU ina^cAy be wal 

5 l( 6. very brave ; arid' tnat poflibly 

(Z) In Pirfam Ifai, and then thiit very mar, whbin he dIU 

thecapital ofhisdomioions. ^ifed fu much, might' take thfe 

. (A) Perhaps from hence caU Grr^i emperor prifoncr. As the 

"loAMHSa, or tbt •tj.-hite priacc, ofnccr foreCcld, ff> it happened; 

Mcording to the Crnii hiftorl- and the horf.:man, inllead of 

tns, who write Axan. being cafhiertd, was advanced 

(B) Yet Srjetmiui fpeaki as tothchigheftpoft^inthearmyi 
- iftheSoltandidnotexpdfehim* 


,,4 J-iiScljaksfl/Iraa: B. I. 

HU f The emperor replied, Da not reproach ine, and de lufna 
you think ^t .- then afted the Soltan. ly/iat -would you have 
done to me, if I had fallen into your hands ? I fbould have 
i^aed fome infamous kind of punifbment on you, anfwered 
the emperor. And -what, laid the Soltaa, do you think I 
Jbail do ta you ? Either put me to death, reply'd Romanus, 
. carry me, through your dominions for a fpeSacle to evfry bo- 
dy, or eife fwbat is beyond my hopes J fpare me, on payment 
The Sal- of a ranfom, and appoint me your deputy. Tet this Lfi it the 
tin'igcnt'Viay, &id theSoltin, that lintend to dealhy you. Accord- 
r*fi^. ingly he fet him at liberty, on condition of paying a million 
of crowns in gold (D), and dJliniffing all the M^ammedan'^pii- 
'foners in his empire. 

When matters were thus a)nclu(led, the Soltan made 
the emperor fit in the throne with him : then had a tent 
fet up for him,, fending him 10,000 pieces of gold, for his 
fabliftcnce. He likewife fet free many Raman lords, prefent- 
ing them, as well as the emperor, with vefts, by way of ho- 
nour. At parting, he fent an army to efcort him to a plaw 
of fafety, and accompanied him on his way the fpace of a 
EmftrorS WHEN Romanus arrived at the caftle of Daiukiya (E), and 
hard fate. Was told that Michael had afcended the throne, he put on a 
religious habit, and difpatched a courier to let the new em- 
peror know what kind of peace he had m*de with the Sol- 
tan. Then coUefting crowns in gold, he fent them to 
the Soltan (F), folemnly protefting, that it was not in his 
power to do more. Ebn Amid adds, that, in his way back 
to Con/iantinople, the king of Armenia ordered him to be 
feized, and, having put out his ej'es (G), fent advice thereof 

(D) EhnAMU(a.yi,x,x<M,ooo, (F) Alfo a precioui ftone, 
belidM an annaal tribute of ■ worth 90,000 gold crowiu. tc- 
360,000, which the LtbtarUb cording to Ebn Amid. This it 
fwelli to ten millions. Ksnda- poffiWy DO Other than the rich 
mlr relates, that the emperor pearl called the Orphan, which 
was obliged, by the tfeaty. to was found ia the emperor's tent 
give his daughter in marriage after he was taken. 

fo the Solta(?s fon; and that {G| The way of putting out 

the condition wa» ponaually the ctcj, or blinding, with tha. 

performed. Gretis and /^atUt ; was not by 

(E) Nictph Erynnius czWi it pulling or cnrting out the eyes, 
•Dukia: itjvas m jirmema minor, as fome have ipiagined, but by 
probabfy towards the borders of drawing, or holding a red hot 
Cilida. '""' b«orc them. This method 

it Aill in nlr in Afia^ 

D, = ,l,z..tvC00gIf 

C. 2. Stcond SohiHi Alp Arilan. 1 15 

10 the Soltan ". But this is contrary to the accoont of the 
Creth, which has been aheady giveti in another place ^, 

After this great viftory. Alp Jrjldn, according to thtC»n^uefi^ 
Lektarikh, marched into Gurjeftan, or Georgia ; which having Georgia, 
conquered, he deprived the great lords-or their liberty, and 
obliged them to wear iron rings in their ears, as a mark of 
their Uavery (H) : to avoid which ignominy, many of them 
turned Mohammedans. However, the country was not fo 
thoroughly fubdued, but that there remained a great numbc^ 
of ftroDg holds in the mountmns, which required much time ' 
to reduce ; and as the Solt^ was called away by other af- 
fairs, he left hts fon MaUk Shah to continue the war. 

The mofb Bimous /lege undertaken by this prince, v)\o,Fam»tu 
to finilh the conqueft wliich his father began, had the foit'Jitge, 
renbs of mount Caucafuj to fubdue, was that of a place 
called, in the Perftan, Miriam NiJhiTi, that is, the phKe, or 
belting, of Mary ; on account of a monaftery and church 
dcdicaKd to the Virgin Mary, fituated in the middle of a 
laJce. MiUek Sbdh chofe for the attack the beft of his troops, 
whom he put into boats, with ladders and grappling irons 
k« Icalii^ the walls ; but juft when they were going to make 
the aflault, there arofe fo furious a' ftorm on the lake, and 0"aJfkI 
the flty was darkened to fuch a degree, that nothing could/"^*™^ 
be done. This ftorm was followed by fo violent an earth-'"'"^" 
qnake, that both thebefiegers and the befieged, the Tuni/ and '**^' 
the Chriftians, expefted to be fwallowed up together. How- 
ever, the latter fuffered moft by it ; for part of their walls 
fidlisg into the latte, when the elements were fettled agaita, 
the Turks, wthout any difficulty, forced the place, and ruin- 
ed the monaftery, which was rdbrted-to moft of any mCeor- 
gia, on account of devotion P. 

The aftaiis which called the Soltis away from Ceergia,Ti* Stltam 
as is before remarked, were his preparations for the conqueft/*«w 
of Ttwkeftttn : he fet out, at length, with that view, in the ' 
year 465 (I), at the head of aoo,ooo men, towards 3fawfl-Hej. 465. 
rSbiahr. When he came to the Jilnlti, or jAn£, he laid a A. D. 
bridge over that river, for the pafTage of his army, which 'o?'- 

■ Aio'lf. p. 217, ti feq. ■ Univ. hift. vol. xvii. p. 133. 

. t Vessaia, ap. D'Herb. p. 103. Art. Alp Arflan. 

(H) According to die £<i/«' (I) EbnAndJ (ayt he fet out' 

^ib, ioAead of the iron ring from Baghdad in the mOnth of 

which was the mark of flavery Safar, of the year 464. Hift. 

before, be ordered them CO wear Saracen, p. 34^. 
a horfe-Ihoc in their can. 

I % bmg 

1 16 3^ Seljfiki ef Wn. B. I. 

■being fo numerous, took up twenty days. Htre ftaying to 
Berzem tajte in cerflifn cafties, he firft attacked that of Berzem, or 
tafiU, Barzam (K), in v/\vchTuJ^ KotMia/, in'mtiepidKarazmian, 
commanded (L), This governor defended the place vigo- 
roufly for feveral days ; but being at laft taken by force, the 
Soltin ordered him to be brought into Si9 prefence, and 
gave him very injurious language, for daring tohold out 
fo long againll fuch an army as his, Tufrf, who rather e»- 
pefted that the Soltan would have praifed his valour, being 
provoked at fuch outrageous treatment, anfwered with ,a 
great deal of warmth, and at laft loft all refpeft., 'Where- 
upon Jip ArJIan ordered his hands and feet to be bound to 
four polls, that he might be put to a cruel death. 
hfiain, tOsEF, upon hearing his fentence pronounced, took out 
a knife, ^ich he had in one- of his boots ; and threatening 
the Soltiin, &id, -wicked man, is this the treatment which 
a perfon of my merit dejervei ? and advafidng at the lam* 
time to Ihrike at the king, the guards would have failen up- 
onj him : but that prince, who had not his equal erther mr 
flrength, or fhooting with the bow, hindered them from flop- 
ping him ; and let fly an arrow (M) at Taf^, which miffed 
hy ihtgt- him. Tufef, hereupon, full of fory, ran at the StJtan with 
wraar, all hjs force, and mortally wounded him (N) ; after wtuch 
he defended himfelf a long time ag^nft that prince's guards^ 
wounding feveral of them, till one of the pages (0) of the 
Soitan's chamber felled him with a club ^. Another author 
relates, that, as Tjj/^fprang forward, the Soltan rofe, in or- 
der to defcend from the throne ; but .that, his foot (lipping, 
he fell on his &ce : that then Tufff, leaping upon him, kept 
him down with his knee, and ftabbed him in the flank : that 
the Soltan rifit^, went into another tent ; and (we of the 
pages knocked the murderer on the head '. 
Hiirejttt- jILP Arjl&n lived for fome hours after this misfortune : 
lianthtrt- when, fincUng tiimfelf near his end, he laid to thofc about 

S Ebk Amid. p. 34^. AatiYpAit. p. aa8. Kohb. ap. D' 
Herb. p. 103, art. Alp Arllaa. ' Abv'i-Fabaj. hift. dy- 

naft. p. 21S. 

(K],jff«ra^. (O) The Uhtarikh fays he 

(L) £ia Amid fays, he had would have efcaped, if Gdsvo^ 

rebelled agaiiift the Solian. the pate had not knocked him 

(M) Both Ebn AnU and the on the head with a ftoae. Ahi'S- 

Lthiariih fay he fliot three ar- fareg fayi it W»i dona with a 

rows at him-. hammer. 

(N) In the fide, accordingto 
Ebn Amid, 

7 ■ . hia^ 

1. 1.' Second Soltdti, Alp Arflin.' 117 

him, /wiu eaU to tmnd two pUcet ^advice which formerly 
vere given tome by a ■mfi old man, my mafter : thejirft -aat. 
Never to defpife any peribn : the fecund, Ne\er to have too 
great an opinion of oac'sfelf: nevertheUfs I have offended 
againfi thefe two important rulet thefe two loft days of my 
i^e : for yejlerday beholding from an eminence the great num- 
itr fi/" my troops, I imagined that there was not any power 
« earth able to rejl/l me ; mr any man who dared to attack 
vie{?) : and to-day, forbidding my guards to fiop that man 
•aba was making at me with the knife in his hand, I believed 
I bad both Jirength and fhiU enough to defend myfelf. But I 
KTB perceive that no force nor addrefs can withjiand defiiny '. 

This prince reigned nine years (Ql fix months and twelve ^' »g*t 
diys, and lived forty-four years and three months ; for he 
was bom in 42 1, and died in 465 (R). He was burled at 
Mori (S), one of the four cities of Khorafdn, with this cpi- 
lijA : All you, who have beheld the grandeur of Alp Arfl^n 
ria/ed to the very heavens, come tp Maru, and you will fee 
Urn buried under the dujl, 

Hb was very brave and liberal; jult, patient, witt}', and""'''^*- 
finccre; conAant in prayer, and giving alms : he greatly fear- '■"*"■■ 
cd God, and was a Hrenuous advocate for Mohammedifm'-, 
fGs Ihape and mien lb very ei^ging'(T), that he gained the 
rcfpefl and aifefHon of all who approached him. He had 
TCry long whiflcers, and wore commonly a very high turban, 
made in form of a crown. His power was fo very great in - 
Afia, that there have been fecn at the foot of his throne, no 
fewer ihan 12,000 princes, or fons of princes, paying their 
coart to him ". ■ ■ " 

* KoMD.ap. D'Herb. abi fopra. * Ebn Auid. p. ]4;( 

'KoBD. nbi fupr. p. 104. 

' (?) thm Jmid, who reports aboDt the tenth of An^^o^'sr; 

ihi» paAage with fbme fmall va- the Lebtarikh, about the cud of 

ration, make* him alio fay ; that month. 

that he never undertook any- tS) Some write Mur-UM; 'tis 

tliiiia excepting this time, with- Maru Shahjan, mentioned in a 

(ui imploring uic divine aflia- former note. 

VKt. [T)XTheLeiiariil, p. 43. fwi,, 

(QJ The tebiariih, by finne that his afpeft and huge Itze . . 

■ftMLe.has two years. ftcuck people wilhfcar, 

(R) Ebn A*nd fayt> it was 

1 3 SECT. 

Ii8 rheSayOssofltia. B.I. 

S E C T. VI. 
The Reign of Maiek Shah. 

{jSolttn, Ti/fALEK Shdh fucceeded his father Alp Jrfldn, accord- 
falelt •* '* ii^ to his appointment before related, although he was 
Shih. not his eldeft fon. He was induced to declare him his fuc- 
ceflbr by the counfel of his Wazir Nezam al Mali. The 
nam« and furnames of this Soltin at length are Mocz-adMn 
Jbu'lfetab Mahk Shah. Inftead of Motz-add!n, fomc put Ja- 
IM-oddtn, or Jalal-oddaiuki * ; others, JalAIo'ddtn *. 

ALP Arjlin was no fooner dead, than he was acknow- 
leged lawful heir and fuccelTor of his father, at the head of 
"VamttgndtSx. armies which he had commanded (A). The Khaiifah 
ftV«. alfo fent him his confirmation of the title and power of Sol- 
t^ ; adding thereto even the quality of Andr al Mmtanin^ 
th&t is, commander of the faithful, which, till then, the Kha- 
U&hs had referved to th«infdves, without conferring it on 
any Mobamme<ian vnitc^ whatever. 

He was Ukewile proclaimed throughout his dominions by 
the name of JaUl-oddatulat luaodJin, that is, the glory of 
the fiate and religion. It was on account of this title JaM^ 
that the reformadon of the Perfian calendar, which was made 
in his reign, was called Tarikh Jalali, that is, the JalMeaa 
kakndar =, of which an account will be given hereafter. 
His mulu As foon as Marubil, fon of Da-uid, or Jaffaf Btk, heard 
r^tl, of Alp Arfl&n% death, he fet out from Ray, in order to ob- 
tain the crown ; but Malek Shah meeting him on the fourth 
day oSShabdn (B), near Hamadin, his forces were defeated, 
and himfelf taken prifoner "*, Kaderd, a fon of Jaffar Bek 
alfo, another of his uncles, railed Hill a more dangerous re- 
bellion Againft him. He was governor of the proviiKc of 
KertnAn (C), and advanced with a confiderable force even as 
far mKuij, or Curj. The Soltin fent the troops of Khora* 
fen, which had always been viftorions In his Other's rdgn^ 

■ So Ebh kt/in. hift. Saracqn- p. 345. * As the audior 

ofthe Lebtarikh. * KoHD.MiRK.NicHiAmtT. ap.D* 

Herb. p. 542, art. Maldc Schah. ' Ebh Auid. p. 345. 

(A) Al foon as he afoended that this adion feemi to haYO 

ttkC throne, he went to Mar^-a, happened the fame year, 

ar Mori, and there buried his (C) He was properly SoMi^ 

father. EiMAimd.hi&. S^ractn. afKerman; being the founder 

p HS- of the A^BidynaS)' reigning id 

^fi) The eighth month. So tfaucoontry: by fome £iirWn-/. 


C.2; nirdSoltdny MalekShah. 119 

to (>ppole him. The two armies, after harrafling each other 
for three days and nights,! came to a general et^^ement; 
wUch proved one of the mofl bloody that erer happened in 
PAfei. At length the viAcny fell to Ma/ek ShAh ; and Ka- Kaderd 
ia-d, beiag taken prifooer, was fcot under a ftrong guard to'*''"f * 
1 calUc in Khor^an. On diis fignal fuccefs, which eftablifhad^"'*'' 
the new Soltan's anthorlty, the troops grew fo infolent, that 
thdr principal commanders infixed on hanng their pay dou- 
bled, threatening otherwile to fet Kadcrd on the throne. 

MALEK Sh^, pcrcdving that the name of a compctTtorff" itfn- 
TO faffident to give occafion to his troops to revolt, had.^"'''- 
Kaitrd pcxfoned the fame night, in priibn. Next -morning, 
when the officers of the am^ came to know the Soltan's an- 
h«r, the Wazir, who probably had a hand in what was 
dooc, told them ; that he had not been able as yet to prefent 
thar petition to the Soltin, becaufe he found him over- 
whdnied with grief the night before, on the unexpeftcd 
deati of his uncle, who, driven to defpair, had taken poifon, ' 
wipch be carried in one of his rings. This anfwer uopped 
Ae months of the officers and the whole army all at once : 
fiir they talked no more of the augmentation of pay, when 
tbq' found the perfon was dead who only could have favoured 
thdr mutiny'. 

In 468, Ahis, the Karazman (D), one of Malek WaA's Absis/oA- 
gEoerals, marched toDamaJiui ; and, befieging it, conftrained*^'^^/^*- 
die inhabitants, by famine, to capitulate. He likewife reduced ^ ' 1? " 
noft port of Syria (E), and caufed the oration to be made, in ,1»,* 
the name of Ai Mokt^i, Khallfah of Bagdid (F) : although "^' 
aftCTvards that honour reverted to the Khalifahs of Egypt '. 
Ncct year he marched into Egypt ; which fo fr^ted j4l A. D. 
Moflimfir Bilk, the Kiiallfah; that he refolved to fly. But 1076. 

* KoKD. &c, ubifupr. ' Aaulf. p- 237. 

(D) fia^Mi^ calls him ^r, hiflory afterwards, which pats 
fanuBed J/Ai. that countiy in other hands. 

(E) According to Ktndatnir, Befides, we are told by the 
Mdri Shib fent his coofin Sa- fame author, that Maltk Sbik 
trp^iioaoi ^t«iaB^,iheycai, ^vedjiti minor taSeltjmdii; and 
hc&R, with an army to fnb- find, troro other quarters, that 
dKin^no; which he did, in the latter did not enter Sjri» 
a kit ame, at far as Atoiocb, till the year 477 of the H^rah. 
then % coolidcrable city (i). (F) He fucceeded M Kaytm 
fiat tkii is rendered improbable, Btmrillat, who died the yeac 
>4t only by tliis expedition of before; after a leign of forty- 
^Ua't Of Jluh, but olfo by the four years and haifT 

(ij DTBat. (■ 54*, '"- Miki Sbii. 

I 4 the 

IZ9 * fheSt:\\hVsofl^^ > B.I, 

the ddzeos of Al Kahern, (or Kayro) and Sa.v>M* advanciiM 

againft him, defeaced his trcxips, thongh much fupenor la 

number.' ^ his way back to Damafiai, he pot great i^oiaba:^ 

to the fword at Ramla (G) and Jerufaktit. 

TataOi MALEK Shah, fufpefting that ylktis had beqi flain in his 

j^/ /i<- Egyptian expedition, wrote to his brother Taj addawlat 3ji- 

ther. tajh (Hj,, in 470, to go and conquer Syria. When Taj ar- 

*S- ''* rived at DiyJrifkr, he found jt(is!s, lord of Damafius, vnis 

}°77' sYvif : who, hearing that the other was advancing agauift 

him, offered to pay an annual tribute. Maiek Sb^, accept: 

ing thereof, 'wrote to his brother to depart from JUatjbej (I); 

He did fo, and went from thence to Halep, then poOelTed by 

Sabak al Amia Ehn Mahmud Ehn Na/r Ebn Mardoi : but, ncn 

bring able (q take the place, returned by /^iirra/j (K) to Di; 

yarbekr ; which put Mojlem Ebn fCorais, lord of Na/iifii aai 

^injar, upon his guard *. 

Mawa< ij* 4 7 r , MaUk Shuh nodertook the conqudl of the coontry 

ri'lnahr I^ond the river Jih6n or jHtiu ; whofe Kh3n, c^ed Soltynmif 

^BitqutriJ. he took prifoncr, after defeating his army ; and fent him giiard- 

^cj* 47' ed to Jfjiahin, then the capital of his dominions. In this war, 

■*■ ^- Nezhn. d Mali (L) gave the watermen, who had ferried the 

T'^? Soltaa's forces over dje Jihun, for thdr trouble, an aHignmeat, 

ioflead of moaty, on the revenues of the city of jlntiokh. The 

men having made their complaint to Malei Shah, he alked the 

.Wazir, why lie had appointed a fund at fuch a diftancc Ua 

paying off thofe poor people J f It js not, replied that mini- 

Aer, to delay the payment, but tg ipake pofterity admire at 

the largeocfs and extent of the dominions which you poi^i, 

when they fliall hear of money received at Jnt'wkh for pay- 

joeat of S^Uqrs betongiaig to the Cajpian fea, and of water- 

( EsH Amid, p. 349. 

(G) Tha a^^tient RuMa in we make no doubt bat Tatajt, 

^anaan. ' Teteflj, Or ttiijb (for it may b« 

- (H) In the copiei of Erpeni- read thofc three wayi), i* the^" 

w and f^atier it is Nifiui in- true word. 
Head of Tata^ [ occafioned, {!}' N^med Hirropttii and 

doubtlcfs, by the "wrong point- Bamhyeebyt^itGrttki. 

^ng of die Icfters ; a thing ' (K) The anrieni Haran and 

very copiinon with the Jral Kmrr^ in Mtfopettmia. 

^opiftsi The three lertert, oF ' (L) Haif^m, or NtKom, at 

which the name fOQfifft, are the ftrfumi, hot tftdham, Ka- . 

pointed three different ways in ^b^, or Nerdam, ai the jtrait 

•jlhfflfar^(i). Bui, aitheGrcrit prbnOunce it. It fignifiet, vtm- 

tyritcrs call thi> pnttce 7utni, imnt »/tbtJlalt. 
(I ) P. ^« fif 376. 

■'■"■■ mes 

pwn ■<»ibq fSipi en the JA&n," TUs &Qcy {iIcaM JMf^t 
/jU£ fxceediagly ; dpadfiUy, vhga ^ bfff mat tlie W^j^f 
^d off t^e n9^s imsee^yely- 

Tu4T iarn^ year th^ S«ltin BiarrM Tf/fUn qr TV^M^Maleb 
^3u/jiK, daucbtvof Ttaffgs/ £^ (M), Ton oT^a^a ATi&^jSh^'i . 
who, ia 479, brought him a fon, called Sanjar (N), frtMO g'"*'**^!*- 
pttle city xii th^t ^anif >i^ Kbora/in, where hf w^ bi^n''. 

On the return of />ri^^)W £A» Maff^ C""»th Soltaii of 
the 6a§nfik r^fe) iktiii /niiia, where he had made cooT^Ct 
fab\^ (XKiqucfts, Male^ Shah made gi«at preparations to ioi 
V)d< Urn (O) : bpt was prevailed on by his ambaOsclqrs bji 
fkCQ, aod make aq alliance, by marrpng his dau^tcf tg 
fdt^Jfd, JifaHm's (bo; who ibccpcded. hjni (P) in 48; '. 

In 472, the army of Mefr, or £gypt, coming to bpfi^geAfw 
Dami^but, j^fsh fcnt for help tQ 74; odd^wtat ; on wjic^^^f - 
^pprmch ^^.Egyptiatit retired. Hereupt^ -(^f-fi wmtng tqHcj. 471. 
TiJit iiim, was fpjzed, and (lain, by his order, "then, taking ^' P* 
the cjty, b^ became in«ller of all his ncfiee and eSc^. '°79: 
After this, the inhabitants, whq had fled intQ Perjia, tf> ^oij 
the tyranny of ^tr, refif nicd, to enjoy tbn prQte^op (^ t^ 

The faiQe year, ^<(<u/ oddawkt E^n A^ftem SH Korah, Mairsaf- 
lord of Mujd, havKig <4^oed leave of VtffiZu Ji^fi, to fub- Halcp, ■ 
due H<de^ on condition of paying him 34Q,ooo gold crou-pa 
^aooally, marched agaioA that city ; ^, after beficgiqg it 
for iboie time, ic was, with the cattle, ddivered ap 19 hpij 
fN^ipg to SahtA al Aii^ 20,000 crownt eVery year. 

' KoHD- ta.. ap. D'Herb. p. ;43. 'TezErKA) hifl.. 

PerC, p. 302. i>'£[erb. p. 4S0, art. Ibraluqt Ben MaObud. 

(M) EhnJmd, p. 3(6. callt at he makes bin rein forty. 
him Tfrtih, king of the Turh, two yearsj thofc joined to 44;, 
or defccpdant ofAfrafiab. when AbM RafiiJ was flain. 

(N} [t ought to be Moiniii/; amount to but 487 of Um JY^. 

whom Ihe wanted to be herhuf- rah, or of Cirijl 1094. 
butd't fucceffor. For Sstj^r ( QJ M*^/a ttaji M^atffmb 

wai by aaotbcr venfer, m will makes S fonrth dyiully of &/•- 

mppea^ bCTeaiter. jiiioK, which bc^an this ytag 

(O] A« n{;ithcr of oar av- >" ^^t and other placet of • 

thors mcntioB the dote of this Syria, founded by Tai^ aboire- 

ttanfaftina, we choofe to refer mentioned. It lifted about ibrty 

it to put tim% W&cn W« iSjld . years, ending in theycv 511, 

MaleA Shak marching xiof^- . pn the death of Soltin Meham' 

mud- , ' and. It'Ntri. p. 801, art, 

(P) P'Hvhtlat, p. 480. put*. StitHiaM, 
lui devh ia ^z, or 1098 : but 


122 The ScJjfiks 0/ Idb. B. I. 

md Next year, SetSd oddawlat Ahitl-bajfdn JR Ebn Jflan/ad 

Shtyzir. took the caiUc of Shayz^ (R} from the Romans, with a 

^^i- 473' great army ; and it continaed in the pofleflion of his femily 

A-D- till it was taken by Mahmfid id jidel Nitr oMn Ebn Zika {^), 

"*"°' after an earthqnake, whkh had deftroyed the place. Se^d 

eddatuht, who was an excdlent prince, and eminent poet, 

dying '10475, '"-'sfon, Abi'l-merhaf al Nafr, fnnuuned^M^M 

oddaiiilat, fucceeded him, at ShayzSr. 

XdntlioM ^N 4 7 7 , M^ek ShSh fent his general Kaftakar (T) to Bagh- 

tf Ta< ddd, as his lieutenant there; at which time his Wazir's foa 

tafli. was in that city. The fame year, his brother Takajb (U) re* 

Hej. 477.belled againlV him; and, having taken Marwa, gave his 

^- "• army leave to plunder it for thiee days, while he and his 

"'"+■ afTociates lay with the women,- and drank wine in the great 

temple, in the month of Ramadhin (W). Malek Shth 

marching againft him, he retired into the calVle 01 Berjei ; 

which being taken, he was imprifoned ^fewhere. 

SoIeym£n The fame year, Sharf odJa-wlat Ebn Korays, lord of i/a- 

SUh itp and Mufol, marched to attack Antiokh, then in pollef- 

jCuV fion of SoleyminEbn Kotohnijb (X); who put his fbrces'to 

flight, and he died of his wounds. Silt&x Taj oddaralatf 

Hei. 4^8. hearing of his death, marched towards HaJep the next year, 

A. D. accompanied by Ortok, the Turkmin, who had fubdued 

1085. Nohuin (Y) and Habela. Both thefe agreeing to invade So- 

/eymin, prince <rf Antiokh, tiicy fought fcveral battles with 

him, under the walls of Hultp ; in the laft of whidi Soley- 

. m&a was flain, and his forces routed. By this means Ha- 

lep (Z) fell into the hands of Taj oddawlat, who became 

mafter of all Syria ^. ' ■ ' 

The Creek hiftorlans fay, that the Great Soltiu, bdng 
Informed of the fuccefs rf Ttitut (A) (as they call Taj od- 
danuUt), and fearing he ftiould grow too , powerful, to 
Arengthen bimfelf, (eta to [q-opofe an alliance of tnarriage 

* Ebn Amid, p. 350, &{eq. 

(R) This place, which is fita- the fame name : Taj tddaviiat 

ated on the river AJji, or proa- being called ^jAj alfo. 
/rr,iilhe fame called by the wri- (W) Which is their Ltnl. 
tersoftheholy warC<<;/ari«. (X) Both the MS S. of £r;^- 

(S) Rather Zengii. «/«/ aod ratier have PltUmy. 

(T) In TahVr's copy JkJIa- (Y) ft./wa* ii a city in the 

k*r, or Exiakar, as he writes it. northern hotinoi Arobia»Irdi, 

(U) It is Ni/iis in the copiet near that of Ptr&m Irii. 
of Erffniut aivl Falier, doubt- (Z] It Ihould feem rather 

Icfs, by a miftakc in writing or AittiM, or both cities, 
pointing the letters. For he (A) Ritberf*/^, accwding 

«Otltd not have two hrodiers of to Al/u'lfaraj. 

■ betwwa 

C.2. fhixd Soltdny Malek Shah.' ' 123. 

between a fon <^ his and a daugtiter of the emperor ^x- 
i/l: the Iriccds of which fltall be related, in the hiflory 
of the St^ikt oi Rim, or A/ia minor. 

In 483, the Bathaniyah (B), that is, Bathanians, ai Ba- Rife ^ tit 
tm^s, began to fubduc caiUes in Per/tan IriA and Dikm. affsfim. 
TTie firfl they toct was in this laft province, and called Rv4h&r. Hej. 483. 
It bdor^ed to Kamak, a fubjeft to Malek Shih j and was de- *■ I*- 
livered to Haffan Eba Majbak, for 1 200 crowns, by the go- '*90- 
Tcntor, who tanwd Batanijl, This Haffan was a native di 
Marwa, and had been Secretary to Abddrezak, at Haram. 
Afterwards going to EgyPt, he met with a Batanijl, -vha 
bron^t him over to their perfuafion ; and, \sj confent of the 
people, made him grand mafler, and head of the fefV. He 
bad many followers ; and, growing contlderable, MaUkShih 
fent him a threatening meflage, requiring his obedience. 

The ambalTndor being brought before him, he fent for7J«>i*- 
K company of his people, and commanded one of them, ztrtfiiU^. 
young man, to kill himfelf; which he did, mthpnt hcdta- 
tion. He ordered another to throw himfelf headlong front, 
the top of the caftle ; which he performed that inflant, and 
broke his neck. After this, he told the envoy, that he had 
no other anfwer to fend the Solt^n, than that he had 70,000 
men at his command, who obeyed him in the manner which 
he had fccn. The Soltin was furprized when thcfe things 
were reported to him ; and, having other affairs on his hands, 
let the Batamfis alone. They afterwards took feveral other 
calUes^ aod, among the reft, that of Al Mut (C) ; which was 
thdr ftroi^eft hold, and royal feat >". 

These bravoes quickly grew famous for their daring mnr- 
ders ; one of which was perpetrated foon after, on tl^ per- 
foa of Nezim al Mali, Waztr to Malek Shih, one of the 
greateft perfonages among the Mohammedans, who had beea 
dcpoCcd a little while before. 

The occafion of this Wazir's difgrace is fomewhat i\f-I>iJgrMt 
icrcDtly related by authors ; though all agree, that it was if the 

' Ann. CoMH. Alix. 1. vi. c. 8. " Ebk. Amid, p. 353. 

(B)'niefe are the followers of to deftroy. They are knOwn 

Haffan Saiah, who foosded die in oar hiftoriei chiefiy by the 

dynafiy called Thi Ifmaeliani name of aflaiSn*. Forafiinfaer . 

^ Perna, in the year and place accoaut of tfaem, and their fe- 

meationed in the text. The veral dynalbei, fee D'Utrbiiet, 

Bathammu wiere abfolntely de- art. Bathania, Ifmatliani, and 

voted to the ferrice of their Haffan Sabab. 
prince; by wlKfe order they (C) Or Ji Mevit i which 

either Hew thcmfclvet, or any fieoifin deatb, 
p^a whom they had « siind 


L l,_< l;,L.OO'^IC 

ft^ ' fht Se\}6lkt ef kin.; . S. T. 

Paring 4» fome imprudent or tttjguardcd expceiliooj of his, ia 
uifwer to the Soltaa's tnel&gc to bim, conceming the infcjcsc 
behaviour of one or ini;»^ cf his foot ; tA whom we are tidd 
hs ii^ twebe. Xon/iajnlr writes, that it was brought ^x>ut 
bf th? Sollaija ; who, mceafed agaiaft him, for oppofiag her 
ddiga of cetiog her young^ (on (D) declared Malei ShUft 
fucceOor, accufed him 61 id>folutdy difpoliiig of all placet 
ia the go»enisi0Ot, and dividing them amoi^ Ms Ibos. 
^ezaiD The Soltaa, ofiende^ that he ^uld aA in fuch manner 
^MoUc. wthout confujtiog ttim, fent to tdl liim, that if ht did not 
fiber his ctwfuf}, he vwU oi/igt him to rtjiga the cap and 
ink'Jl^nd; which were the marJie of his dignity and power. 
iiiz&m, nettled *t this ogenace, anfwered, that the eap which- 
bt ware, srtd thepoji he pojfeffed, verefo -utfiied to the crevm and 
throne ty the eternal decree ^ ProviJaice, that ihefe )■«»■ 
timias ci)uld mtfiihfjfi viitheut each ether. This anfwer, iho' 
bold, wili admit cf a good meaning : bnt it' was altered by 
|he meHeDger, ^ho was in the $oltana's intcreA, in' fucfa a 
jpwaa, tbit /Halek ShSh, cxafperated to the laft degree, de- 
friyed the Wazir of hia employment that inftaM, azid gare it 
|o Tof al Melk Katm, chief of thp Soltana's counleUors ; with 
f commifllon to examine into the aufinanagemcnts of his pre- 
Titeaaji Accokdihc to Ahmed Ebn Mohammed, aiuhm' of the 
tfit. . Mghiari/IM, the'caufe of the Wazir's difgrace was hisftw 
Mnjiad al Molk, who had been made fccretary of ftate, 
turning out Jdib, the Hrft cierk ip the office, as excdlenl 
writer, though put in by the Soltin's order; and anfwerii^, 
yihof^ Malet Sh^h fent to htve him reflored. that he''Md 
/uicrn taver to employ that man \ and heUeved the SobSx tuauld 
not have him be guilty of perjury. The Soltaa- replied, in 
anger, if iAp^iaA has fwem not to emplcy A.<^h, Ihavemada. 
no fuch oath : much left have I ffiorn to coMiituelAowaAin 
his en^hyttttnt : and at the fame time ordered Jdlb to be 
made fccretary in his room. Mowtad, after that, bamng 
commenced a riolent profccution agalnft one of Malei Shii'a 
chief officers, that prince fent the Wazlr word, that he could 
no longer bear the iii/blence of hit font ; oAd that, vnleft a 
flop was put to it, he Jhould bs obliged to take the gavern- 
meni of the. Jlate aui (^ his hands. It was on this occafioa 

■ Koim. «p. D'Herb* f. 543, vt-*^ek Sch^H. 

(D) JConJawir calls him Sot- fet Dp, On the death of her IibT- 
J-tr t but It mail be a miftake banq. 
io\ Mahmid, whomthsSoMoa 


• U.,:,l,z..ti.G00gIf 

C.l. nirJ Selldn, Makk ^h. t2j 

6at Ntzam At Meik made thaaifwa- before related, \FWch 
brought <Mi his fudden remove ". 

ABV'L-FARAJ writes, that the Wazlr's difgrace was 
tii6 cos&quencc of a very infolent anfwer (E) which he fent 
;d)c Soltiu -, who relented the ill treatment given by his 
grandfon (fon of the governor of Manna) to one of his 
priodpal Ikves P. 

Whatever the caufe was, Nezim alMolk, after his ^^•UeUBlTet' 
BiOFe, followed die court, which juft at that time fet oMXfinated. 
for BaghdM ; and, being gotten as far as Naha^ind, 3 boy 
of the Batinift ied, approaching him nuder pretence of beg- 
gjii^, cr otherwifc, Ibkbbed him with a knife, by the pro^ 
cnrement of Taj Ein Mvlk Kami (F), who fuccceded him in 
the Wazlrfliip ; (^ which wound he died foon after, in the 
year 485 j aged 93 years {G). His corps was carried badC A. D. 
to JfiAhin, where it was bnried'with pomp. lotji. 

MIRKQND writes, that Nezam al Moik (H), when but HU ibtc 
twelve years old,- knew all the Kor&n ; and, when very young, ra3er. 
xcqaired fo great a knowlege of the civil law, according to 
the principle: of Shafey (I), that he gained the admirati(Hi of 
every body. As he was very learned, he no fooner got into 
antbority than he took men of letters under his patronage ; 
fixindiiig honfes and colleges for them in the cities of Bagh' 
did, Bajtah, Herat, and Ifpihan. But the moft grand mo- 
nument left by him is the ramous college of Baghdad, called, 
after Mm, Mtdraffat annezamiyat ; which hath produced 
Ibme o£ the moil learned men of their time. 

As an inltance to what a high pitch of dignity, authority, Hmnurt 
andcAeem, NezentaJ MoHy/asnfen, the lame author relates ;A^'''^'^ 
that when MaUk Shah went to Baghdad, to be crowned 
by tlia Ehall&h AI Sidhi, to render the ceremony more fo- 
loui, he fuoimoned all the dolors of the law, and other 
kamed men, wittun the Mohammedan dominions, to be pre- 
fent at it. Bang aflembled, he cx-dered them to go on foot 

• D'Hekb. p-6j4, art. NazbamArMdk. P Abu'lf. 

p. 237. 

(B) To the pnrpofe of that after he had ferved tlic Soltans 

already recited, but more bold, thirty years. 

(F) According to the Lth- (H) Ntxam el Molk, as the 

tirlit, it was done by the com- Ptrfiamj and Nazdm al Me/i, 

Idaad of fiaffan Sabah, who a»the Arabs pronounce it, fig. 

wat priDCe of the afTaffins, as ni^ti thi crvamnt af ihijlalt. 
hath MCD obferved in a former (I) One of the doflors, or 

note. heads of the principal feAi 

(tf) Abul/araj f«ys, p. 77, among the MehammcdMni. 


nfi fhe Seljdks of IrSn. B. I. 

from Ms palace in the weftem part of the dty, to pay thdr 
h f^ compliments in a bcxly to the Khalifah, whofe imperial palacs 
khaiifab. w^ in the eaftan part. Al RMIn, being informed, that this 
learned troop was coming to falute him, with Nezibn al Molk 
at their head, Cent his officers to meet them; and ordered, 
that the Waztr alone Should advance on horfe-back. When 
they appeared tiefore the Khaltfah, he commanded a feat to be 
placed for the Wazlr, and made him fit down, while all tfa« 
other doAors ftood, on his right and left -. but what ftill mart 
furprized them was, that he honoured NtzBm urith a veil (K), 
and conferred on him the title of learned, jufi, and direShr 
of the dominioRt of Ridhl, KhaJtfah of the Moflenu ; for, 
dll then, thofe Ipiritual monarchs never gave any title or 
dignity, which belonged to thendelves, to any of their mi< 
IBt libi- The liberality which this great man exerdfed, vafUy in- 
raiitj. hanced his other rare qualities : for, in the Hrft [nvsgrefa 
which MiUk ShM made through his domioi(»ts, lie dihri- 
buted among the poor, out of his own cofier^ no Ids than 
a8o,ooo crowns'". 
BUaripn. As to the original of Nodham or Nezhn el Molk', whole 
name was Ht^an, 'tis laid, be was the fon f£ a pcalant, near 
TAJb (or MaJbhM), who learned the Arabik, and was fecre- 
tary to Bajer, lord of B&lkh -■ but that priacc ufing him Ul, 
he fled to Jagri Beg (L) Da-uid al Ma-wa j who made him 
preceptor to his fon Olb Arjldn. His way was, when any 
great men, either in church or ftate, came to vifit lum, to 
rife, and then fit down again -, but, a certain poor man of 
learning coming one day, he rofe to meet him, and placed 
him in his feat. Bdng afterwards alked, why he in*de that 
difference? he anlSi'cred, that the great folks, of both Imds, 
•Oihen they come, pmife him for exceliencies -winch did not be- 
long to him ; and this feeds, his vanity and pride : •whereas the 
other perfon puts him in mind of his faults, and vihatever be 
did amifs ; which made htm humble, and refleSl on many fail- 
ings he vias fuhjeB to. His hard fate was lamented by many 
of the poets of that time. 
' Maiek ■ After the aflaffination of NezAm at Molk, Malek Shih 
Shah'j proceeded to Baghdad ; where being arrived, he went a huni- 
dtaih. ing on t},e \\-CaA of Sha-wat; and, eating fome of the flefh 
of the game, returned fick. A vein ^>cmg opened, but little 
, blood came out ; which incrcafed his iUnds to a burning 

<i MiKK. ap. D'Hcib. p. 543, & feq. art. Malek Sli&h. 

(K) CaUed Kifiait. {L) Or, at other*, Jaffer B^^ 


C. 2. *nnrdSoUdK, Male£ Shah. ! 127 

fever ; fo that be died about the middle of the lame month ', 
DO more than eighteen days after NezSm al Molk, opprefled 
with vexations '. He lived thirty-feven years and five months ; 
of which he reigned twenty, and fome months over '. 

The Creek hiftorians relate, that this Soltan, whom yctGreek «- 
ihey do not name, was aHaffinated. They tell qs, that 7utut ct^ifaiji^ 
(or Taj oMt-wlat Tatajb), his brother, having /lain Jmir 
ScUytnM (as above related), and his {bn-in-iaw, refolved to 
Day the Soltan alfo, before he fliould ftrengthen himfelf by 
an alliance with the Roman emperor ; that, for this purpofe, 
he hired twelve Kaffiani, being cert^n allaflms, fo called by 
itie Perjiani *, who, going to the palace, found that prince 
in liqnor, and, pretending they had fomcthing to lay to him 
&(Mn his brother, as foon as the guards were withdrawn, 
flabbed him with their poniards : that they were all put to 
cmd deaths ; which, on fuch occafioos, this kind of people 
glory in ". 'Tis eafy to fee, that the murder of the Wazlr is 
here applied to the S6tt»n. PolGbly there was fuch a rumour 
at firil ; and that prince's death happening fo near the time <^ 
iiis minifter's, might favour the millake. 

However that be, Hamdaliah Meji&fi has committed ^BlmiJtrrf 
greater blunder than this. He tells a formal ftory here, thatMcAQfi. 
the Solian, in his lecond progrels round his dominions, idl- 
ing into an ambufcadc of Greeks, was carried to the emperor, 
who had advanced to the borders with a powerful army r 
that, not being known to thofe who took liim, NezAm al 
Mq&, on notice thereof, immediately feigned an cmbalTy to 
the emperor ; who, at his departure, made him a prelent of 
the prifoners, as he expc^ecT! that, afterwards, the two 
armies coming to a batde, the emperor was taken prifoner j . 
but prefently reftored to his liberty, without ranfom ; lalUy, 
that, dying foon after, Molek Sh^ fubdued part of his do- 
minions, and gave the go^'crnment thereof to his coufm Soley- 
min, fon of Kotohd/b *. 'Tis pl^n, that the emperor here 
intended was Romanus Diogenes .• for we read or no other 
Greek emperor who was taken by the Seijik Soltans ; and, 
confequendy, the authOT has confounded Malek ShM with 
his predeceflbr Alp ArJ\^. / 

Soltan Malek SHh, as to his perfon, was very hand-MiIck 
fome, both in ftiape and features, befides being exceeding ShfihV 
genteel in his behaviour ". To give his due character ; he'**^****!- 

' Abu'lf. p. zjS, & fcq. * D'Herb. p, $44, ubi fnp. 

■ fiiH Amid, p. 3;4. " Ann. Coukbh. in Alex. 1. vi. 

«. II. * Haud. Mestufi. Tarikh Guvzibeh. tp. 

D'Hetb. p. 54J. » D'Hiai. p. 544. 

3 was 

tit f^e Sdj&ks i>/ Iriiiir fi.l 

was an excellent prince, wife, liberal, coorageetus t tidd fine 
{Kirts : \va^ remarkable for his lincerity and f'Ktj. He re- 
ducea the taxes, and put a Aop to other vexatitms ; repaknl 
bridges, high roads, and canals ; erefled ihe temple of B^i- 
dM, called the Ma^ed of the Stltibt ; alfo the Hani/eon al- 
lege (M), near the chapd of the prelate AbS Hanifah, in tlK 
quarter of the city called ReJAfa, and endowed it noUy. He 
iikewife built markets and towns, ^e made great conqudb; 
^udng nnder his power all th« conntry from tfie borden 
of Turkejiin to the Holy Land, and Tamman (N). He madf 
the roads fecure, and every thing plenty in all places. He 
. -was a terror to bad men, and a aipport to the innoccDt, the 
widow, and the poor ; who had always juftice ioiJi them in 
his courts ''. 
Travth This SoMn tdok greflt delight in travelling ; and "ot k- 
and^l- ported, that he made^the tour of his dominions, though (b 
grimagt. ^cry extenftve, as hath been related, no fewer' than ted 
times *. Hamdo'/lah Mefi^, before cited, relates, that M4Jek 
Hei. 4&\.^h&h made the pilgrimage to Mekka in 48] (O), vith an in- 
h.J). credible expence : for, belides aboliChing the ufnal tribwe 
roSS. which the pilgrims paid, he laid out very great fums in bolld- 
ing towns in the defart ; where he ordered a great Dondxr 
wells and ciAerns to be made, and '^ter to \x conveyed 
to them from all fides. He llkewile commanded plenty of 
provifions to be carried, for fubfiftence of the |^gnms ; xod 
, diftributef) immenfe fums among the poor, wtm aa nap*ral- 

kled liberality *. 
Fond ef ^""^ Maiek Sh&h'i greateft pafTion was for hufltingi He 
huntine. J^^P' 47.0O0 horfes for his ordinary guard, and the chace (P) j 
in which he fpent a good deal of time. 'Tis faid, that for 
every beaft which he killed himfelf, he gave a piece of gdtt 
• to the poor : and it happened fometimes that he Qcw a f^tat 

T Bin Amid, p. 3);4. ■ XoND.^pi D'Herb. p. 541. 

• D'Herb. p. 541. 

(M) Kandamr fay), he o^ (O) According to ibcltt— 
dered coIleKCs, hofpitala, and tariih, he performed tkc pi* 
honfea of pleafure, to be built grimage in Hgrai 4/9- 

in feveral parts ^of his domi- , (P) AccortUng to the Ltt- 

liion^, D^iierh. p. 544. taftib, he kept a ftnubng axvxf 

(N) r^innian is the country ve of 48,000 horfe always on foot ; 

call Arahia faUx. Kmiamr who had lands allotted them 

fays, his dominions extended for theirm&iotenance, thatifac/ 

from Antioih to IJrkcnd (oi V^- might not be bonhenfonae x» 

hnd), a. a.ty ttf Turhfldk. P" die peOple. 


i- S4»- 


many. Id . Sban,' MaJek Sl»lA is ackoowh;^ -to have heaa 
the greaodl prince among the Se'juldant ;■ wheiberviecoDii-, 
-i^cr'Jut cosqoefls, die extent of his domiuipoS) - or his mag- 
mficedce, liberatitTi and other virtues. 

Hjs ambitioa feetns to have been very .moderate : .for i^sprevincit 

- dUpoled of great partof hisdomintonst'inhishfe-dine, among^'^fK' 
loa relafioas aad domeUks. Be ^ve to l^s coufin ScUymin, av^j 
ion of KpteJmiJh, the country of Mm, or u^hat be l^d taken 
from the Greek emperor, extondiag from th? Euphrates a 
great way into ^ifta miner ; of which part y^zzerSm was then 

the capital. H£ eftabiilhed, xx teftored, Soltan Sfiih, Ton of*; Malek 
im ui^ile /CaderJ, before-mentioned, in AV/Twi^r, or the /*cr-Shah. 
^aa Caramania ; of whjch he was the fccond Sdjuk Soltan. 
He gave part, of Syria to hSs brother Tibs { Q_J ; Karaztn 
to njbteikin ; the country of //a.'e;^, oi ^cPj-o, to Ai/anhr', 
that of Mu/ol to Chaghlrmi/b (R) ; and MardSn to Katmur. 

- . SoMB g£ the above-mentioned ftates became revniKd in. 

- tiooe to the dominions of the Jnunily of Mdltli ShSh, aad' 
others the families of thofe to whom he gave 

■ f^naa.K ........ ^ 

We mull not conclude this reign, withoiit^ying fofne.qc-Jalalcan 
coom of the 7aiaarikal JalMi, or the JaiaUem kalendar, already ioUnda-, 

- mentioned ; wluch b a corre^ioo of the Perf^n iial^d^, 
firft made by otder of Malek S/idh, and afffrwafds by Soltan 
JaJal-aMM !)'Iankberni, fon of Mohanut^d Karasm Sh4h. 

The Maiekain epocha b^ins, according tofotpe, on Sun- 
day the fU^tfa day ofSMdn, or the eighth mpnth, in the jqtr 
<rf the Hafra/t 464 (aofwcring co that of- G^rj? 1071) (S); 
according to others, on FrUay the tenth of RaTnadhhi (or 
the ninth tnoath) in 471 (or of Chry{ 1078) (T). So th*t 
there b a difierence of 1097 days. The caufe of this dif- 
.fereoce vas pnknown to our author Ulugb Beg, Accqrdi^ 
to the fecond, and moll received, opinion, the year which is 
(blar be^ns on that day in which, at noon, the fun enters Jries, 
and the months are reckoned from the pafTage of the (anatmMai 
throng the feveral figns : however, they confilt of no taoiffit. 
thiui thirty days each ; but live are added to the laft month. 
Bad a day intercalated every four ye^s. But when the ui- 

" D'Htai. p. 5u. , 

(QJ This is, doubtlefs, a {Vi) Ot Ja^armtp. 

millake in the copy for Taia/b, (8) Beginning WcJnifdayy aS 

b/ raiJplacing rhe diacritical of Srptraier. 

points, lataji^, or Tutui, zt the (T) Beginning ^a/un/nj-, 7"^ 

Grteii write;, is the fame with Ij. 

J^aj tjdruilat. 

UoD. Hist. Vol. IV. K teixaktion 

- \ ... , L.OOQlC 

' Krcala^on comsf to be made fix tir fewa-ticiei, the leap-rev 
is pot off «} the fiM rear. The JaUiUa» year csofifta «£ 
j<Ss days, 5ho«n> 49. 15". o"'. 48'/; aod itmilytrofi- 
cal, moft ezaAly conw(}>oBdiiig with the motion oE the fi)n : 
for the fisdi, and fometuncs the fereath, Ic^year bang 
tnasferred to the filth year, the equiooxes and folftkes be- 
come conAaatly fixed to the &me days of the moBth. TUs 
fana of the year was contrived that the Newrfiz^ or neW' 
yearVday, Rtight always &U oa the- £une day c, 

< Viva. Beich. epoch celebr. p. 38. Bevemdci tnftit. 
chroool. p. 45. 

SECT. vn. 

J*ie reign of Barkiarok. 

Barkia. •'"' j4r, aad Maimtld i which laft he apptKntcdfoi'.hit fnc- 
u>Ic cdlbr, though but trve yean (A) and tea moatba oid. This was 

done by the management of his wife Turidn KbatUn, and the 
Wailr TajoU Moik ; who, coocealiog the Sokin'B death, 
eefried his cofps out of BAghdM; and, by difttibiuiag 
mon^, got the army to take the oat^ to her fen. The Kha- 
Iifah aifb ordered his name to be pubUfhsdia thepolpita; 
and, leading him the enfigns of invelViture, be waa cloadi^ 
«nth the Soltdn's KaftM, or vefty the crawn put oa his 
head, and the {Word girt to his Jijdc. On this occafioa it is 
^^ferved, that never prince fo yoting behaved trith better 
grace \ and that, aftn- the Ealiiah'a Wazlr, who peribrmcd 
the eeretaony, had made him his mailer's complimcote, he 
returned thanks fw the fevonrs received in a , wry tiandfooae 
saanfter. As ioaa. as the ceremony was over, the SoUaaft 
went to Nabraivm and encMiped •. 
fradidmtd While MahnM was crowned at Bt^hdM, AMI Mot&tf' 
at'lfp%. fer K&JJem, called Buriiarok, was acknowleged ior legal fuc- 
liln. ceHbr at JJf&h&n, where he then was: with whcm many 
jcaned, as being the dded fbn of Malek Shih, and becaufe 
he was thought more capable of ^vcrniog the Hate thaa a 
child and a wcHnan. 

Hereupon Turkan Khatiit, Who was a woman of great 
rpirit as well as underftanding, marched thither'frQin Nshra- 
win, with fuch diligence that Ihe furprized him in that city, 
which flic took : but fome domcAlcs of the late Nezdm al 

■ Abu'lf. p. 239. Ebn Amid, p. 35;. & ht^ 
(A( Mi'lfar^ { but four years old. 

3 Malk 

C. t. SmrthSfikin^ Barkiarok. Iji 

JHtAioind meani for htm'tD dcape otit of hif fiioditf-ift-TaJnt;^; 
kw'i haads, uul retire to Shir^z ; where refidcd ToM^ffi'^'' 
TtUdttt who had boeo made Atahek, that is, lieuteauit' 
gCOenl tA PAfs, or Prc^ Perfta, by Maitk Sbih b. 

That gntefal prince not ottly gave him prot^£Hon, \y*t prtcUim' 
CDDdafted hiHl to At/, ooc of the capitals df/riM; where he ;J or Ray. 
had him acknowl^cd ^e netful Aicccfibr. At the r«me time 
the Soldoa cstufed her lira MahmAd to be crowned at IJ^^Ma, 
the other capital, and fent troops to purfue SarkiareJt : bnc ' 
mtutj of them goia^ over to his Me, he defeated the reftt 
AmMg the prifooers talien on this occaTion wa$ Tme'l Mali 
JGmni; wlio, hong bronght to die 8ott^, the uiends of 
bis predeccflbr flew turn. He was a Person, endowed with 
a«ay nrbies, aad exceUcocies qf every kind : Ijal all, his 
good qulMcs weie dcEsced by the murder of Nad^Sm '. 

AfTek this Barkiarok marched to Ifp&h&n, and befi^ed Mah aU 
hi) brother, with an anny of 10,000 men. Titrk^ Kh<a^,'^t!'^. 
fadii^ the. peo]^ ready to ccvolt from her, came to an m- 
commodatioD : t^ wluch Mabm&d and fl>e were kft in pn^- 
i^oixi of ^iHn, and its det>cadencies, on condidon he di- 
vided vriih Markiarak the treafure of his father, which wa* jn 
d>at dty. * 

Tme Soltftn, having received for his Ihare ;oo,ooo dinars^/, it*- ' 
in gold, raifed the iiege, aiid turned his arms towards Ha-ihri n- 
maddn, where one of his uncles, named ^(nar/, ccMomandedi^/- - 
who, allured by the Soltina, with hopes of maniage, had 
Bade war upon his nephew. The two armies, which were 
pivtry eqoal, met, in 48$, near that city; u^iere, after an He). 496. 
obfttnate battle, I/mail was defeated ; and, being taken by A. D. 
the enemy, (lain by them. The fkme year Takajk Sbih, fon 1093* 
of JrJUbi Shih, aaother of Barkiank'i undes, declared war 
againft him ; and, Iiaving a much greater force, obliged him 10 
retire towards IJpsh^n, where he was very kindly recdvcd bj 
fab brother Soltia Mahmid, whofe mother was then dead. 

But thofe of MahmUd'i party, jud^ng the opportunity of ^"wrf ! 
advancing his af6irs ought not to be Hipped, lazed l)is bro-**'S'*^f*'* 
tber ; and, 'tis faid, orders 'Were aduuly given to deprive 
Um of A^t, when Atahmid, being t^n with the fm^ 
pes, died in a few days. - Hereupon Barkiarok was fet at 
libeny, and fatoted emperor, by the very people who juft 
before would have rained h^m. Being by this unexpe^%d 
accident feated a fecond time on the throne, he chofe tor his Mowiad 
Wazlr, or prime minifler, Mcwiadai Molk (fon of Ncz&m>^^* ^f»- 

* KosD- ap. D"Herb. p. 185, art. Barki 
vbi fiipr. p. tSS. Abu'i.f, p. 2J9. & feq. 

. K a 

art. Barkiarok. * KoMO. 


IJ2 T'i'i Scljflks c/Irin.' B.I. 

*/ Moth), mcntioLied in the former rdgn: but, in a little 

-' time, through fome diilruft, the Soltan turned him out, and 

put his brother Takr al Mdk in hii place '', , ' 

Crtmintd ^^ 4^7 Ti/rkdn Khdtuii died (B), and Barkiarok matching 

at 8agh> ^ BaghASil, had his name menttoiied in the pnlpitt, and the 

4ad. title of Rokm'ddtn given to him by the Khali&ih • : he alfo 

Hej. 487.alTumed that of Anir al Mttmentn, whi<3i no prince before 

A. D. Maiek ShM had been honoured with. Having fettled his af- 

'<'94' . ftilrs, heappticd himfejf intirdy to war. His firft expedition 

was agalnli Takiyh his cou fin-germ an, who fome time before 

had drives him to the extremes above-mentioned ; and, af- 

Rebtl un- ter feveral battles fought between them, Takajhwas at length 

disjlain. flain (C). Afta- this he marched into.^*OTO^, where Ar- 

JlAn Sh&h, father of Tak&/b, who commandod there, had con- 

Hej. 490. fidci-abie troops: but he was delivered from his enemy by 

■ A. 1). another of his fons (D), who committed that parricide, in 

'09^» order to feize his father's government s yet was difappoint- 

ed i -for Barkiarok, being thus become maftcr o£ it, gave it 

to his brothef Sanj&r, and returned to Irik '. 

Tatafti BJRKl^ROK had ftU! another uncle to vanqnifti be- 

ttfiirii, . jbre he could be at refl ; and that was Taj oddaiulai Tatajbt 

fovereign or king of Damajius, and moft part of Syria. 

This afpiring prince, as fobn as he heard of his brother 

' ' NaJek ShiWs death, ordered the Kstbah to be made in hid 

name; and lent to Moktadi, to deiire that the fame might 

. be done at Bagklid ; but the Khali&h refufmg, he marchctl 

to Rahtiba {or Rabba), on the Euphrates, and took it, Here- 

." upoa Ka/inar odJawkt (or Ak Sdnkar) (E), (whom MaUk 

i KoHB. obi fup. p. 18', 188. • Ebm Amid, p. 3^7. 

AGu'i.F. p. 240. ' KoHo.^p. D'Herb. p. iS; £1544, arc. 

Barkiarok&.MaUk ScLah. 

(B) Ehn A/.iid BXiVci\tct i'le hath been related. If not, A' 
before M-thmuii i faying, that, hi'lfaraj mull have afcribcd to 
01) hurdealh, 6ie amiy deferted the fon both the name and 
from him to Barkiarok \ and death which belonged to tfa« 
that. On hi» approach, he quit- father. , 
Vt^BaghdaJ. (D) AccordingtOj^iw'/frriy, 

(C) AbiUfaraj, p. 240, fays, Solldn Arftim Argm (as he calU 
he WBS fmothered uoder water, him) was llain by. one of h!& 

' and one of his funs flaiii at the domeftics, in 490, to fnt iiiam~ 

fnmc time. He alfo makes him kind fram his injufiice. 
tiic untie of DariiarDk. If fo, (E) Tills muft be the fame 

he mull be the (ame Takap, w th li iankur, or yfi Sankai-, . 

who, according to £6n Amid, here after- men tJoned, to whom, 

rebelled againfthis btoiher l/:a- MaUk Skah gave the ei'y. 

Uk Skdi ten years before, as 

C. I." Feurtb Solt&B^ Barkiarok. 13^ 

^& ha3 'ftiaife-' governor (rf Hdcp, after he had taken it from A. D, 
his brother f'li; oiiitn'iir^, ftbniitted to this latter », But,' "093. : 
111486, going ova to Barkiarok' % fide, Taj oJJawlat foaghi 
fcvcral battltfs ■wth him ; who at length was (lain. 

By this mttmsTataJb becoming lord of Halep, he ^n- 'vanjaiji- 
5wedtomafchinto//-ii. Accordingly, in 488, JurAiflroi met «/. iid 
him near Ray ■ where a bloody battle was fought, in which hisJ^"'*- 
rebellioui uiicfe was (lain. Ta/oiiinu/a/, before the engage-: ***i J:^'- 
raent, had fent Tufef, fon of Ortok. the Turkman, ■before-mcn- *■ ^* 
tbncd, to get him prpclaimed Soitan at Baghdad; but Ttifrf, °5S' 
hearing of his maftef's death, fled back to HaU^ *■, The 
dreek hiftorians mention the death of T.rtnjh, orTtitus, as 
they call him." They fay, that Pujan, who had been fent by 
the SoMn againft j4Jie! Kafctn (or Ahu'l Kaffetn) at Nice, as 
fbon as he heard <rf hia mafter's death, marched towards 
KhomfAn, againft Tutus, and was flain in battle : That, after 
this,' T:iius expcfted to be acknowleged Soitan; but, being 
met by Barkiarok, the late Soltan's fon, was routed, and 
flain '. According to this account Piiidn (hould be Kajmar 
oddavilat Ak Saiiker, nx Ik Sanker. 

BARKIAROK, whofe reign was a fcries of rebellions, ^»wA(r' 
was no fooncr freed from one, but afiother arofe,. Mtnj.-Uid,rcitUUn. 
from the, time of his being turned out of the Wazlrihip, did 
his ntmoft to revenge liis difgrace, by fomenting new trou- 
bles. He began by fpiritlng-up Anzer, who was formerly 
flave to Malek Sh&h, and had a great Influence in the pro- 
vince of Irik. He enabled him to fet a confidcraSlc army 
on foot ; and Anzdr might have given the Soitan much trou- 
ble, if he had not been taken off by an alTaflln, in the city 
of Savta % "where he was already advanced to give his fovc- 
reign battlr. Mowlad, after this, applied himfdf to Afoham'^*'^^''^ 
Timi, brother of Barkiarok ^who had gii-en him but a fmallT*^ "" 
(hare of his father's dominions, in the province of Adherhij&n)^ ' '' 
and ncvcrccafrd urging him till he had taken up arms againft 
his brother*. 'Mohammed (furnamed Gayatho'ddin) and San-^ 
jrr were Matek Shdh's .children, by file lame venter. Mo' 
hammed, after his father's death, followed the intereft of his 
brother MahmAd; and, after the battle, which the latter 
loft, obt^ned, from BarkiarSi, Hamkha (F), and its depend- 
endcs, for his fupport : to Which "place he retired '. 


' Ebb Auin, p. 356. * Ess Amid, p- 360. Aeu'lf. 

p. 141: - ' Ano.CoMNEH. in Alex. 1.6. C.ii. ' * Kohd. 
■p. D'Herb. p. I86,,art Barkiarok; ' Bbh Amid, p. 364. 

- (,F) Wc know no (ucb place. According to Kmdam'r, M«- 
K 3 hammtd 

B«rld»- Tnu prince fct forward io 492 to di&ut* the tanmffOf 

Tokfiiti. wldi his brother ; and, alihou^ he had oflly a. finaU army 

**^-19*'at firft, yet it foon became fbrmiditJc, by the great credit 

^^' >nd in^uencc w*ich Mowiad had in that province. At thi* 

'°9«' ^me (he lords of the coort, banf inceowd agftion Mojarei 

«/ Molk Itiami, fuperiatendant of tfie finascci, by wbde &n> 

ral manajgemeot they found their iaJaries curtailed, attacked 

Sis houle, and obliged him to Ay for refuge to the Soltas. 

The Solt^n refiiriag to deliTcr him -up to them, ^ey took 

the palace by anauTt ; and, cutting jf(«ini in pieces, would 

haft treated Barkiarok in ^e &me manner, if he .had not- 

cicaped by a back-door ; abandoning Ir$k to his bro^ier. 

'4ffti4lh MOHAMMED, thus poflcITed of a great doininion 

Ayyub wtthout ftriking a lb-ok« (G), made Mvwtad al Molk bis 

tfazlr"; and fent an ambaflkdor to Baghdad, to get bis 

name meodoned in thv Kathah, or oradon, made In the pul> 

HeJ. -W3- P^on fridayf t but, ia 493, Barkiaroi, "rcpairiiig thither, 

A. n. had it fapprefled. Then, afClmbUDg a ercat army, marcbed 

1999- to meet Mo/iammed I who, at^fnMm. aefcatedhim; Barki' 

■ iS-atficapiQgwithonly fiftyhoffe". Hereupon, qultttog^ot', 

.}m fled to KhAzefiin ; where Ayydx, fbmicrly Have to M^ek 

Sbih, ruled with ahnofl an abfolute fway' : by whofc aAift< 

puce the Soltjii fpund himfelf f(xui at the bea^ of a power'. 

jFul army ; with which, in 494, be defeated Mobtmt'ud'a 

ixces in feveral eagagemcPCs. 

^tjiait its I^ 495 i^^ l")cl another battle ; but, as Barkiaroi had 

kmtheri. tropps, and Mehammed only i $,000, the latter was 

iit]. 49S-put to flisht, Hereupon, taking hla way tg Kborafin, to 

A. D. fcdt qjd of king S»njar, he flopped at JvijAn. Here Stnjaf< 

iti9>*, (Omlng to him with his forces, they went to ZJium^^ ; wherg 

the army laid waflt? the country to fuch a degree, that th? 

Inhabitants, for want of doga and dead anisiali, cat one an- 

odiq- f. After thia, marching againA Bvkiarok, they were 

put to fli^t ; and their mother beii^ made captive, was ex- 

i^hanged for the prifboers taken before by Stnjar. 

pe). 496, l!iLXTy«aiS<dlAnBarkiar^h^itgcAMoh«mmediti Ifpih£n\ 

A. P. tw V^ pbl4^ iopQ to depart, for want trf' tbiage ioA pro- 

■■ KoHD. nbi fupr. p. tS6, k («}. ' £bm Auiif, p. 364, 

-• KoXD. nbifupr. •* A»v'lf. p. ^43. 

hanmtJ refided comiBOoly at {G} Ebn Jpid fays, SarJUa' 

G^^tb, a city of Arrdn, ^art rtk fent forces againlt him j but 

of J&trbljan, near' the nver that th^y went over to him, io- 

Xiu-, and (he borders of Gt»r- ft^ of l^i'D^- 



Qt, Fourth S^dnt Barkiatok. 13 j 

litet. Mtkmmmd hereufOD' rai&d troops, «Rd met his 
I hoAcr : but, tMiqg defeated, was obliged to fiy ioto Ar- 

It » oUsmUc, dut the f af^d vias Interclia'ngeably made 
' ttgyMfaf, fa tfac iuunes of ihc^e two Soltins, as often as 
tli^ Sid the adMOD^ oae of the other. Of fo great im- 
portance ^ras that coemony thought to be by the Moham- 
wtefHncCSifokM^as the race 0^ the Khalifahs fubHAed ; 
Aoq^ iat this time, they were do more tbaa Qiadows of 
vhit dicy had been foraierly. 

Ovs roftdors, deubikls, will be curiiaus to kaow what be- Tie trai- 
c«ft of Mov^ad, ibe widior (£ tbefe troubles. Weniall'"^ Mo. 
ifaer^ve infonn them. In one of the battles a'bove-men- *'"^ 
liniBd, In which Barkiartk had the advantage, he happened > 
(» la ttkca ftrioua ; but, inftead of being punilhed, as he 
dafani, hc^ l^ bis addrefe, ia gained the principal lords of 
tfaecoait, that the good-natured Soltan, at their intercelGoa, 

I him, and afterwards made faim liis prime Wazir. ,^^*„-^, 
, he did not kng enjoy that poft ; for one day i^^r. 
\, retirti^.tD refV, overheard one of the geatlemai 
rf til bed-<j»«iber, who thoaght faim aOeep, faying to'ao- 
Mktr, 71^ Seij(UUBO prmai are of a miture very different 
fim tkmt ^ mafi other princes, they nather know htmt to 
■ifc iAen^hrtt feared, nor to revenge the irguriet dene to 
itm: for in/taiKe, added he, thisMavtad, -who has hen the 
t^ ^jtt many evils, it fromeied by the Soltan to the em- 
f t^ m-M tf Ifaxtr, as a rruiard for aU treafom. 

BAItKIAROK, touched to the quick with thefe reflec-^,, « 
tei at hi* conduct; not J«ig after, lent for the WazV, andd^i. 
flBricred hkii to fit down. Then, witlx>ut Giytng any thing 
ttther. with oCte ftrake of the fcymitar, which he held in 
Mt famd, be cDt off his bead, APich fo much dexterity, that 
it mnaioed on tiis Ihonlders till the body fell. This done, 
he fald (6 hie courtiers. See row if the frincei of my houfe 
io met kMcnu hno to himJu thnffidves feared, and taki venge- 
met m their t»emi*t. 

Wbilb this tr^edywBsa^Dgatconrt, the armies of the 7*^ no^V^ 
Scdtan and his brother often fkinniOied, \rithont coeung todividtii. 
a gcaoal engagement. At length, ^ 4^)8 (H), a treaty was Hej. 4^1. 
taeddded; Wherd>y f/hbkmined rtinmiKA BtelWef the pro- A.D, 
vinocicf Sbditt, at Syria; Diy&riekr al Jazireh, or Me/i^ 1104. 

4'Bbn AmiO^ I^'s&f, ftrftq. 

(H) .ASlfar^ia^, )K<f97. Ibe .coouriei ylfldvd to i&- 
He likewife omia jldberh^im, hammed, 
■^nmit, ad Qempsi among , 

E 4 fttRM; 

L ._. ,=,l.,oo;(lc 

1^6' The Sc\}hVs ef hin. RL 

tamia ; Mu/ol, Adberbijan, JrmAtia, and Georgik. The 
reft of the empire-, viz. Part, Irik, Kermiu,- Khor»fimf 
Mawam'lnahr, and part of HindaviJiSn, were to be polledal 
by Barkiarok '. It was alfo agreed, that Barkiarok AwuU.oat 
go to meet Mohammed with drams, itor bb named in the p(il> 
pits aloDg with him in the countries mliidt weie ceded n 
him ', 

The civil wars, which for To irtany yaxt together had ti- 

fli^ed the Seljikian dominions, being thus at length bvoi^hc 

to an end, by a partition of the enifnre between the bfothcn, 

]et us now turn our eyes towards Syria, and fee what was 

doing there, and in the neighbouring countrin, during tiiu 


jtffir: ef ' As foon as the news cf the death <^ Taj cJdantlat, iiog 

S>ria. of Syria (who was (lain in the battle againft Barkiarok, » 

hath been before related), came to the ears of his fon Arf- 

■viSn, at Damajbis, he repaired inunediatdy to Haiep, and 

took poffeilion of it, with the,title of Tahro i Molki)\\i His 

brother Dck&k Shems al Mol'k (I) following him (mm Di- 

yarbekr, with part of his own and his father's army, tSeie 

SulicHio ^^^^ ^'^^^ ^™- ^°°° aitt-r, receiving letters firom Sih^tUm 

il-i al Hadim, Taj o.^Azwlat's lieutenant crf'^the caftle of i)to> 

tiej. ^iS.maJius, he flipped away, without Redv/in's knowlege; mA, 

A. D. though hotly pnrfucd, ■ got thither, and took polWJtoQ <rf the 

1094, city. Dekak made SubteikSit his lieutenant, tO'^gtwero tm 

ft;;t;; but foon after fet in his ^zceJtaM{&) TfgMbUri. 

who had been governor before both of it and Miy»ftriAn 

under Taj odda-wlat , and preceptor to DekSk h&itlelf.' He 

was taken prifoner at the battle wherein that prince loft his 

life ; and, efcaping back, was received with great hoootD*, 

and promoted by his quondam pupil, as hath been txlated ; 

which SUbtekkin (L) rcfcntcd fo highly, that I3ekak pot him to 


Sons of In 4S9, Dehik inarching ■wdth his troops towards the la 

Tataih, coaft, his brother ffsrAriw, wholonged'to^reoover ZJatm/Su, 

Hej- iHq. haftened with a great army, to furprize it hi his abfcucc. 

logj. r KonD. ubi fupT. p. 187. ' ' ■ Abu'lp. p. ft^j. 

(H) That ii, «^ fk? #^ fit ' had ' die governoient Hsd ^ 

• iuftdrm. . . \ ' ^Qioa of t|)i,e SfS^kiint princev. 

(I) Tii/uH afihc liiifgdnm. ' They grew fo' powcrfol u UA 

'{K) In the copiojlttaiic^srfti ^.-ttp touod /our races, or djr- 

o( by Erit>!iui znA D'HrritUt.' MiViei, in Irai, jfJtitriijma, 

'MaLi. ^Jr^i' iipimtf, in r4*ii'ot.i>rifirWy/lA-, ittd U- 

TuriijA, father ofihi /fJuWr -A r-f^ik. ' t : ' 

, . title given to f;vcral lords, who ' 'PLti3y-fon»*^'MepS»Ji»il*8i. 

i'-r- ■' f. .-t r^^ 

Q M Fourtk paffefjfa^BaAiw^ 137, 

Tlht (itissnj; flwtting ttie,.^»cs. againft hin^ hebaTuseii tbe- 
ji^ce ; bnf DtkiA rstunungt he was obliged to retire. Up- 
oo tUs he^wro^ tQ JfliT^fi .)<^/f,' Kiutl^iidi oi^gypt, promUing 
tp have his name pii]3^1hed,)n the pulpits- of //ojt/, provided . 
he would al&ft him . to rake Damaftus \~yAai^_Mofia M Agree- 
ic^ to, the Kotbah^Qrdio^y made in his name : 'but 
fiuliag to fci}d him troops, (le/pon loft that -honour again ^ , 
- SYRIA was thus (carca redkued under the power of the J':i« it»' 
yeijaUat Turks, who took it from the //mi/.wheQ Ihe fbundyiu!'. 
b^fif iqvaded by an army of Tranks (L) or Eure^eaiu, ga- 
thered from the fartheA wt;|t. This was the famous cnifade,! 
or war of the t^rofsimpiccommoiily called the holy war;- 
wha«in almofl ^ii the CfarifbaD f»inces, influenced by a tnad 
Tcal for devotion, excjtcd in them hj the artifices of the 
pope- (more with p .view fa cany on his own ambitious Ae- 
figias (M), diaatoiervi^th; interefts of religion, which was 
the pretence), eottfed into a league of confederacy to rcfdie 
the lepulchre of ChriA at J^u/aiem from the Mohammedani^ 
and drive them out of the Holy Land, 

In proTecution of this extravagant undert^ng, which may Fr*nlt> 
jofUy be termed a religioi;s frenzy, or piece {>f knight-errantry, tfi' An-, 
a wft army of/ranAf.wiih kingWi^uA at the head of them, "-"H^- 
Catered Syria is the year 491, and fitting down before An- Hej, 491/ 
tiokS, took that city. . We Ihall lay nothing of this fiege A. D. 
from the ChriAian writer;, ai) account thereof having been i^7* 
Steady given. elfewhece " ; but dull, for the moA part, con- 
fine ourfelves to what. we find related ip the oriental hiAorl- 1 
ans concerning this war.. 

Ag IboQ as KatuAm adcLnaaiat Kcdhiia (N), who was m^^^ 
M^otamia, heard that if^^iokh was taken by the Cbri^iam, '^ '^''*' 
he railed forces, and, coming into Syria, laid fiege to it, 
with a dcfign to recover it. There were then in the city 
five ChriAian princes ; namely, Barda-wtl, or Baldwin, Saa- 
jif, Gen^r-if Kumes the prince of Soha (0), and Biymimd 
pi'mcs oi Jntiokh (P). Thefe falling in want of provilioos, 

* Ebn Amid. p. 360, Se feq. ■ Univ. hift. vol. xvii. p. 14^, 

(L) Rather Frami ; (p the (O) The Coqnt of Rafra wai 

orientals ca]l the ^afiaiu, and ta|ceiv after by Jagv^^, and 

tbenctthe£*v^i>uinscneral. releafed by Al JdiuiU Saiatiia, 

(M) P'urehai hat let forth Abulf.^. 148. 
thofedellg'ns, iDhiscollet^onaT ,,(^) Thefe are BaUviin, tlra 

4urd*, vol.,ii- f.tzi;. CQtmt^f St. Gifii, OoJfny of 

,, (N)Tiie>veflernluftoriaiui^f ^K/tiV.lhe count of'S-/^, fn* 

thccrufaile camtiiq C«r^^^, 'jB«n)Mr^...; ,,. , . 

«im1 Cariagatb. ..(',,. 

1 .. ■ ., .-., ^ _ ,;\ \_ _ _ifeBt 

L l,z<.;t,L.OO^^IC 

{m: toZbifMAi Ok^ng to fmntufer ^ tBmt, M oeadl- 

ddh'that he woutd fuf&r dien ta depart i "but be fcfoftd, 

O^ag, thty finili *Ji^ m ttiefviji than by imiMg •keif - 

Rai/t lit ipajf -aiti the fimrfl. WMle they were in Ma H&tk^ ■ 

Sige. dtodk [^tbi^ ttBs them, tbu dte ftiff of St. />««rr, ftt«^th- 

etied wftli iron 4t the end fQ_^, wu Iniricd in tlie c^oMdi cf . 

the pricAs ; md thu, f ttUTnund It, they. Ihottld ovtrCMw 

■ ■^wir ttiemies in featde ; if not, they feoidd >U perifli. After 

ihm dx79 filftii^ and praying, &xy dvig and feuod ^ AalF. 

. Encouraged by this good omen c^ mbory, ' tbey b^aa ia 

tnaith out of the cirf, ine or fix «t « time. XtdMa's of- 

lictrs aSvtfeti!, tint their foldlen might ftand at die gates, aiul 

kUl aQ who came Airth ; bat he Ud it wbs better to let. 

Aem all come out firft, and then to pat them to die (vori. 

When they -were aU come out to (he laft mui, tbey finiBec! 

1 great army, «hidi pat the Afofimi to Aicht. The taft 

vho fled \r3s Sokmin Efn Orhk. Many tbotdands of them 

were kiBed ; and the FratAt le^lng tb^ camp, got pro<ri- 

lions, riches, horfes, and arms '. 

T'oitr^en- Their afBUrs bdng thus reftraed, they went end took 

falen. Moarro'homin, fhtyii^ its lords. Thence they proceeded (o 

Hg. 4.92. Samfa, or Rama, and took it. In 4921 percdring the weak- 

A. D. nefs of the Egyptian Turkt, they went and belieged B^ «/ 

1098. Mikdes, that Is, feru/alem; where SqkmAn and I%Jlzi, foM 

(f 0>-fti;( the ftirhnAn, with thdr aiKie ffutw;, wav (hnt np. 

Bnt the Fr/ttth [laying abcTTc feuHcore engines agajnft me 

place, it was inrrendered npon terms ; Stkmin and his fel- 

, . lowers haying leave to depart ; but rfie Egyptians pm in )hs. 

Worn ode E/Ukard'Mtmlat. Whertfore the fVanks h*fing 

ettfted two towers againft the city, they to^ it en the nortn 

ftde (R), and put the peo]^ to the ftnKd. They conthmed 

to lull the Majlmu in the country round for famal weeks 

together : they aflambled ^ the fevis into their (em^e, and 

t>tinied them in it (S) : they luHed more than 70,000 Jtf^ 

" Abo'i-f. p. 241. 

(Q^lfrhe weftetn hifloriaasfay (R) Dt la Crmx afcribei the 

. . it was the tance which piercecl lof^ of JtrKfaUm, and elhcr 

tlic iUe of Cbrifi. 'SmFukbrr places, to the dilbidert whicft 

'CarnoUnJis, Who was in tbe eX' happened on the death of IHm- 

Qediuon,refrefEntsitatache3t. hk zUh. Hilt- Grtgbif Kin, 

TTe fays, many, with the bifhop f. ijo. 

«f Poiiium, fnrpefted'ft; and (S) ThehrftoHansoftbe wMt 

that the man who fouiid lt,'in fey 10,000 SfrMttiii wtrt d4» 

paiSng through Che Are to prove #Tt. — ■■ - 

hi* integrity, was fo bonit, that ■-- ' 

he died in twelve dajs afKr. 'm/ 

L ,„.=,l.,otwlc 

C ». Fmib Sikdi$t BsiUardk. i^y 

Imt (TS uti todc ab hmiaA VoiAm; MMi^ tKTt^IE^ 
more than 140 fiher lamps, wc^iiig mtk )i$oa dr^lUM (0) $ 
a farnao* w^^hit^i foi^ fhtundB (X) j aiMl tbdrt trwiAtj ' 
lanpc of gold r. 

In 4S)4 the Awfo Uok JVi^ (Y) to llla*h flhd JfJS/Ftrtitr. . 
hy ciH^Kilidon ; maldng th ta ^lms Runrs of nuift tif ^fuec^et, 
nmBmc fdaoe». _ Next yor Hxj ttffi^td tH/«fi, *beSi loM ^^- i^V 
Fskro'biultk, foQ of ..Ahiu-, fending «> Shati^'ddawliit l^ A,D, 
U, |)riaa of D4diia/t«t, and ifM^i^yn ^(hoiw'iiiiwAii', lonl | "=^> 
o( Ham, they feat Un troop*, but Mftie touted l^ did 
Ftmis. Thde nfbxies of an encAi; In the heart of <^lv{a, 
did Dot hinifer let prinoea from ^riaiag tMr pi'fyate neHn. 
or revenge. Hi^nyn, wbo had kiifaenia bMn of Fiih-i^imM 
iUdviAn'a party, quitted it in 496, to go Ovdf to Z»t)M ; 
vhercnpoi} RedtaM got tfam Ai^i^ » af&iGiUti ^01 ia 
the great Mn^ed, or tmple. 

Whbm this dews ^n■ brought ui Jtdiik V^^tHtTI/(n, fur-TnrlEiflt 
named FoMro'ttiibi, and DeUky iSej ibU^bed to ffeihr, «rMkh, irti/s. 
with the caftle, was furrcadered to- tbtMi. "TVis happCfaM 
jpft at the Me u^mb tfas irswb ainimS M j?t<^ (ZJ, With 
a deJjgn to anadt Mnu f baton advhiettnt IWMl/t waft Adn, 
tb^ ntaroed. The yctr fellbwiflg, smt id MoBt DekMt'^- 4f7<; 
died. Scne&ythftt fats mother, who ItalnfiMed to tht^fff' ^' "* 
M: TtgtsHtltt, 6st him a femnt ntid, Whb tM&n«d hirii, * '^ 
tHf fn^i^ a gnpe Wiith aa tavfesmma hMdtc, i&acit be 
{^o^andcw. aoweite that l», rft» Ms 4^Ut Tr^^ 
ibi made himfctf maftcr of the kingdtHn of Damafiui, and 
its dep e n dc ndea. 

In 497 the Frankt iqc/k Mia ^}. daHwH, who. HadTtfif Ak- 
made iiimfelf mailer o£ Jmtfaitm, c^i^e there ■vath iw troops, ka, »r 
aocompaiUDA *y te cSae^ n^f«*», in tgtiety ftiips ; and *^"-_ 
hariag feized aU the nei|^boiiring ooKotn, bath by fai add 
land, 030k the dty ^^rm. ZaJcro'JcUv>lal ai ffttkajtit "°^ 

f ktm^i. p. 143. EflV Amid. p. 363. 

{T)MS'!fir<^{m,Atifzm- (K) Or fetty raarfci. 

ber «u nun in ,i^/^^ or the (Y) Called <>fp/^, by A» 

fmrthtf doftl only. The ae- croTade writsu. i( lUfldt tl 

contit |^*ea by the cnifade hi* the mooth of d>e> b«>y ofAUa, 

flarioM fbCiHMlwn wbo Were whshmaii, on the fouth Tide, 

prefent, 11 fluKking to hninaa (Z),A townon theTiyer>^f, 

natere; die Citi^m tofi'im ot itnum, between Henu and 

tiuiitda£caJili)btirAitdaiiblmi\ titttita. 

aod Teemed to delight in murder {A) Called by the cTufaders 

jAdcTDclcyi .^d ; the ancient i'/oiirftuii, 

(U) That is, thirty.ftwn 
ntj^)ci and a|i half. 


L ._. ,=,L,oo;;lc 

JMi rSh'StJ^les ef lAl. ■ B.I. 

XaJ>fimi^t,vA theftce loEgypt ^. 

Barkiarok ,_ \-t f^ time now. to return to /'fr^.-whithcr the conrfe of 

£»• our hlftory calls as, to conclude the reign of Barkiar'sk. - 

. ..-"^Jiat priqce, 'after thtf agreement made wth bis brother Mo- 

lAiy.:^i,hafit^ne4,\ii 498, as befcn^-mentiooed, advanced towards 

A- D- iBaghddd, to vifit his great bcnefiaftor Ayy&z, who had a fo- 

■|'04- v^gn authority in that dty. But being afflt^ed both with 

^cosfupiption and the imIcs tc^ether, he died by theway'at 

JJpAh^}, ip the thirty-fifth year of his age (B), and thirteenth 

of his-Vogn ;.£pp(miting for his fucceJibr his fon Malek SIM, 

thea but four ye^u^ attd oght months (C) old. He had htm 

<4oatited with a Kaftan, or wft, and appointed Amyr /fyy&z 

Ws Atabek, or governor, in the prefence of liis great officers, 

who all promifed to obey his commands *. 

J^lnUa The firft thing which was done in 'favour of the infant' 

fuct^ar. .prince, was to gCfUw Kotba made at Sughd&ii in his name; 

to wl^ch was added theiiirniime of '^itW-aVi/awAi/, that is, 

the omammt ^thefiate.. 

. About the ^sa^'&aK Barldar^ ■voi on-hls-way towards 

Baghdad, Sottan Moh^lMied mardicd fh^ni- Adherh^in, to 

Hei .100 ^'^ ^'^"^ from J^armtjb. The people of the country, on 

A^ i^ his approach, roli fti their prince's defence, anfl killed the 

n65,- Soltiln a great many men : but when the- fiege had lafted 

three months, Jttgarmfjb, heating of Barkiarek's death, fcnf . 

to offer obedience tp Mohaimfud, who reoaved him with c»-. 

bracei % _ .-." .■■■. ' . .. 

- S E c T. viir. ' 

The Reigfii of Mohammed W Sanjar, 
'^? AFTER 'this, the Sohai*; who aIreadir!poflcffed one part 
mi*I!™ ^- of' the Seljakhn' cmjnrc, prepared' to wreft the other 
"" part from his nephew Ma/eh. Sh^, and ^mtfi it to his own. 
According to Ebn'Amid, he, on the news of tus bro- 
ther's death, repaired without delay ta~ Baghdad ; where Ay- 
yMj, or Ayy^z, had gatKered i's.oo'q iiorfe to oppofe him : 
but that an accomniodation taking place, Tf/oAaoBn^i/ entered 
that city, and took pofleflion of th^ Soltaqat : ih^ShalifaU 

» Ebn Amid. p. 36+, & feq. «-KonD. «bi fopi. p. tS?, 

Abu'lf. p. 244. Ebn Amid. p. 366. " Abu'lp. p- a+4. 

(B) He was but twentylfive (C) Ehn Aimd ha» fotdrteen 

years old, according to .&«iiS- ywrj. 

air'xaD'HcrlieUt, ■■•- ^- ■ . 

3 .' ' Hffiadher 

L ...... L,oo.^lc 


Ca. Fi/)6 iSW^s? 'MoKamnicd. i^i 

M^tUbtr SiBah prdentiaghim witii the '^afian, abd dfi^- 
fcriog into his tuinds the command of the pdacc. - fVi ^heQ 
his a£ur5 were feMled> h.t fuzed i^y^ddh; and - put btm to 
death'. ■ . 

The autbwor anthors made tt(e di^^yO'Iierbe!ot, 0^es a.Opf<>fuhit 
KTj dtf^ent aax>uDt of this aifair"-; .vii, that jfjy^^ sai 'Se-iufirw. 
JtHai, the tDtors of thr young prince/having aflembrcd bow- 
tiM forces to oppofe Soltan Mohammed, the twd armier di^t 
in 501 : but that, whik they fectd each other, expCfling tneHcj. cot. 
bffa\ for bank, there appeared In the (ky a cloud;"fe fotm A. D. 
of a dragon, which caft down {<>' much fire upon the nroo^s ' i°7- 
d Mulek SbAh, that the foldiers, ftrrified with -fo ftraU^'flb 
evcur, threw down their arms, and" begged quarter 'tn'Tlfo-" 
kanmtd; who, by this means, beeani^'mafterof th^ pferi&As ' 
both of- his nephew and his twogenerab,-'*hoiii;hfe fent^jMl- ' 

feaen.[o the caRlciof /.,<^ferf, ' ■ ' ■ ■[ '''-, ■' ' •■■■■■' 

AJiER thisnncxpefied-vifltjry, wiAiut'a bldw, lie marcft- Oi(j/«/ 
al Ki Baghdad; wherehe OlM&ined the -title of -OkyAih, 'iithtt^^rt' 
Mtgaf&th-o'ddin'{A)'\ And inhis paileiits'was digmfidd rfifli 
^ici Jn^r aJ Mtitienln) ox c^nim&n^r rf they<athfu( •, ^ 
whicfa, in effea.'ihe wmporal 'piwisr'ef the Khallfidi ovir 
the jV^&dr; was coftfih-red fin hknJ ' '' ,-t ' . ' '' ' 

The feme year thfc SokSn maraiftd'"Sgamrt Sayfo'MmS'&- 
(U<'(B), prince of ffrf//fl, -whd wdS (Tain, and his forces' rout- 
ed, idier he bad-en)oycd his ftite'twehty-two yeSrs, Wd 
Sued fifty-fix. '■ " ■ -' 

;v/0^^^>«ffO'havingfini(hed thisfmallexpedWon/re-y^/"^ , 
turned to Bavhdad: 'During his flay there, he ^vas inf6rtned,^^^ 
that ODT' iihmed, Turnamed Atthajh, i pretended prOphct, '*""• ^ 
badnot only gained over'' a great nnntBer of fcrildwerls by Hs 
impftftnrea, but atfo- fdicd' the fopfrfefa df Dizghodeh, after 
comttiting the minds of the garrifon vdth his impious tfe- ' 
lets. This important place had been bulft by MaUk Shdb, 
near fjfihm, to awt the inhabitants,'"whb were very fnbjeft 
xo revolt. On this advide the Si^n haned thidier, add 
iantxA the blockade of the caflle, -Which" was-fo ftroiig,-%Qth 
by fituation and art, that there wis 'no reducing it ^'t by 
tnnine. ..-'.■..>■■ '. *■> ■■ "" "-"'■■ 

The pla<» not having been furnifhed ^th provifidns,-^-^'^' 
thi^ ioon found himielf obliged to fend a man to inform'™''*" 

» Ebu Amid, p.- ^7. . ' ' \ 

[\')T\[a.tii,tbe prapegaior of (B) Son'ofi)«MV (DnhofiJ, 
thtrtlipon: he is .called alfo fon of dHy fon of IVaaV <i/ 
OmiiWiBn AhSfifjah- Miheai- JJadt. ■ - ' , 

L i,.< t.L.OO'^iC 

¥42 . 93tf$($ftM^MftI .KI. 

l)a4 ^? infected vith lus ofxiuoos, thjit h* could sot hoM 
9ut above t^o or chfce dnys loqgpr. Tbe Wailr uJvenrf, 
that he only deCred hun to Aaod his groutid eight or tan . 
daj^ more. Sag ^u^ wdun fw^ tabtt, 3ae wohIU find iieaas 
tp ^bf i^ni of that d)g, meantag the Soltia. 

TfU|$ {KWVK. whp was of « veif tisfpiiae ccmi^exise, 

9qd M()4aUy ^tJl iqto gcf^tt dilbFdfTs occafiooed by «acd) ^ 

1)ktqc^ was apcuftomed to lofe lipqie «very month. Jviji 

herrajpoti veqt to tha fHrgeoo, who, for tho iCvwrd «£ a 

tt^QQ^nd cheUiu, and a pnrpk tcA, promifed. to aulu ufe 

ij^ft pai£>nid Lmksc the fixft time he bW the S^t4iL 

Biitrta- , T44E floe hxpfseoipg t^ omw (q the IcMwlcgB c^ oat «f 

findtttB- the jffoom^ o( d^e fa^He«'s cIuiB^, bf oUfcoMwd it te his 

. <^ wife,'^ fbe to har gtjliuit, vho. QOi)UWlli(M«l it to die 

Saltan himlclf. As Toon as he vw stppelud «f it, he ftt- 

teaiM lie vaotqd tp be let Mood j «od mxmbigly tlte fur- 

geoa vn km for.-, wjiq, h*meg baa»l Uf the SoU4n'» ata, 

it^ OK the fa^l iaiMneept j but vWte he w» ffwig to 
pedwn the o{»cijiti^i«, ^iMammaf citft fo terrible a Jodt at 
Etjp, tji»t the wretched fMebotoouft, tnog &iz«d aU over 
with a trembling, whidf made the Uncet drop oat of Us 
bRod, fdl at his fayercicd's foet; and cooiieffiag his Wklced 
.deitgi, decUred who w*s the tutfaor oF tt. The Wailr 
,w^ iqunedi^uiy fuMd, 3ad fXiniflkBd as be defcned: the 
liirgcon was only fentenced to be bled with the laiae iuftra- 
qicnt which he- had p^pared to bleed ^ Sdbi*. 
Thf rthti yat, rebels lindisg tjiat tbeir tnedcxi vn oilCDratd, and 
fu»i/b»d. bei^ 90 ici^ga: ^U to re£lt, fuiT«Mkre4 M difcreooa. jA- 
^4/^ thcij r cluof ■019' cpadu^ted to yp&hAn, tied neck and 
. bo^s upoo a «aiMl : tbenv after the prophet had bMO ex- 
. po|c4 for fqme day* as a laughioff-ApcIc to the people, he vas 
f ut to a QTUcl deatif : after yrluch his body was bumed, whh ^ 
a great number of b*s di£H[de^ who had jCHned in the re* 
vm. It is reported, that this impoftor, wlio was well veried 

in aftralpgy and gewiascy, iWling IwiB&lf hatd preflcd by 

the befieg^^ wn;ta to ti^ $oltan. chat be had found by bis 
horofcope, that, in a fcm days, he JhouU be furroundtd vdth 
f, grufi Dumber ^ fiars in tht wu0 ef If^hikn, even in tht 
p-efeacf of the, S^v : and when be vas kd thioagh the 
. . city, accompanied with great crouds of fpcftators, to the 
place of execudon,.beingpflKd oonccrnihg (he accompllihmeDC 
of his predifljop, he aitf^^ered, that nothing could be a clearer 
verification than the cenditiea he then viat in ; iut that hefnatd 
the great Tuanher if Jars, -which he ho^fd to fee, were not t» 



j^rv« Aih$had. ttttnttd, taJe^ kcaw* hif to cevtr i^ft 
vtifi Jbteiu dnd cot^i^im. 

marrhtd into JiindowfiS/t^ oad m^s CQoAjerable coii<^[Lej}s'«^'>(ua. 
thrrr. The aaiboc <rf the 2V?W Chuzijeh relates, thai this 
prino^ who WBS very zealous for roliraoDi having found, ip 
oat of the templet vihieh he bad (umoUfli^, an miage of 
fionie, wei^iiiu ^oo Ituuala, he ordqreil it to tx remove^, 
^aAob>e« qT idolatry, The.itJutu oW^eiita wdght'iit 
predoua {baes, and other thIoffB foe it3-ranfbnt ; halJ^hajf ' 
mtd i^eOiag tbdr ppaj^al, fiud tp Us pSsxrs, / tcsuS;/ nof 
hav^ it rtp^ttd beret^ta- that A3^ (Q) -was tm^ktr o/im^- 
ga, tmdJiAobSiaaoei. was « merchant if thtm. At the-fame 
tiine he CH-dereJ th^t great heap of ftooe to be traiifp«trtet| to 
y^ihtn; whoe, sner hiving been Ihewn as a trophy of hil 
\3&urSf '^ ''"^ wi^emned to {arc for the threlhold of dis \ 
great gate bdonging to the ftuel; cc^ege whicb be, ere£l«l 
ihtn, and w^ucb ooiuajocd his fepnkhre''- 

AuTHOftk ba;elng furniAied as with no fa V 

tisiwof. this Soltan's rc'.g^, in the »ft ^W <^ 1 
OS look weftwa^d, aoi) we what is domg on t 

Xn~ 500, the yew after yajarffli^', prince < 00. 

{vbauad ipMtbaauiud, as haih beeO| ^fore r K 

ivali Saia-wwa, lord of Hoha, or 0r/~i, marchei ■• 

with io9o,jneD ; ond-rufluiifc iuo the nu^e 
thfmgh dat^ik the oamber, put them- to fiif 
maiaing. beUod but Jfagarm^ bunfelf, who 
nd« for a paralitica! difbrder, was carried id i 
news of his being taken coming to the cidzenf, 
coroiaaB^ to his Tip Zenghi. Afterwards Jl Jan 
Mi^4* had Jagarmijb Shewed to the people daj 
ofioiog to fet him at liberty, in cafe they wc 
the dty to hhn. Od their non-compliance he ii: 
in a:phce under-ground, where ooc mernicig tt 
dead. . _ 

Mereo?on his fubjefts wrote to AJjy ^ijlm, fon (£■ So-Scliin 
leymmjon of Kotolmtjb, prince of AfonO'd (D) and-^M^a,of-Arflan 
feriug to deliver the city to him ; on whofe approach -^l j^.^rewnid. 
turK broke up the fi^c. Kiltj Arjlan, after honouriog ZengH • 
-aad his attendants with Kaft&tu, ordered, the naio^ oiE.Sol' 

^ D'Hekb. p. 605, & feq. art Mc^anived bcuMalekSblh.' 

(C) So they call Terah, the Pul-tirafi, that i), thi cutltr or 
fxtMer of Alirabani. The Ptr- tarvtr efimagti. 
Jitau give him the rumame of (D) Ranium, xixAfiaminM'. 


144 ■■'■J»'!Selj<«[S'«f^'Iltei^ -8,1 

tan Mohanirned to be Aipprdled in'thie'pali^ts^ iin<I his owa 

~ mentioned mftead of JL . Tjus done) he marched agaiidV ^ 

, ' jt^vjeli, who Wias at J?t)Ai (Cybiitwasdefeatcd at the rifCT- 

" K^aiS'ri into wiiich t^e Spltlfl (Altering, defend^ hinriidf 

^With his Ijow 'agiinft-the enemj!;'' 6iit''his horfe can y lng 

-iota out of' his dSpth; He was 5t&^od:'. JWi body Bppeif- 

in^ fomc daj's after, Kc ^aSi barjfef'St "5i«^nM.- ^ J^wf- 

Hei coi''^' °"' '*'"'^' fuc^t ^tit hack,' and' tSpfr -Wfyj^.' ■ "But, fai 

A.D. ''i?'?-' ^fl"'^!'^, fon of ;^/Ai;riWyA:fl^;'Vi* the army of 

1108. .Spltan MoAatenia^, '?eM\tred lt;":iiy tDofcpofleffion «. 

Franlci ■'. The l^nlc JCar the Frat/ks took 1%>(«f by capitnlatkiB, 

**t« Tri- ■ ^t^ a ficK of fe«Q years rominbaWM^, the inhabitants htT' 

pol"* Tiig^ Ken (fcftrbyed by famine anS tfce^ fword. Itwiaagnt 

ffltj;'' full* of Mbham)peddns iid learned then *: - -' '•'• 

"l ...Next year Tdnzfl'al Franji (Tankr/ifjiord of sfntiM, 

^t6o^."Viijy«x and ^i^ndi, ' in the bordeFs of /fy/^ff, wnd/ft/i^l 

:WrcE3 (G) futfchijered'lo hini '., ' Otlwrs faj-; the-fiwtrf'bf 

Jka4.?adi ,Minaftar, were reduced' i'' btif Aaf^fr^y^r 'ti»a 

"~ ,rt,/^*£'^, bought .their' 'peace, by agreeing to pay tribute; yet 

(M^Bcry^ioofirilvoUed. "riie ifWrt*! llke^v1fc -fabdiied Sifyr*/, orJIf-' 

*"•• . .^.("f-T ^ter a long ffege ; the ambaffadors of Ac Egjftin 

• '■ '' "lu^ifah" niaking a vigorous defencp: ■ The lame -year died 

\ '^ori^a, prince of Hefm, and was fucceeded by his foo Sam 

'fam'HeroliAn f. 

Sidon ■ "ly; J04'the Ftankt took Sajriia, or Sw&n,- and KanSt, 

f^*'- ^tii 'all the coaft of Syria. At the be^nnlng of the yt«r 

a' ^^'''i°^' •^'"^'" ^''"'^' ^^'^ of -'•^"-/^'. encamped near jr«k, 

■ wRofeiorn- fields were devoured by his army. From thence 

■ "he Femoved to Sartij (H), where they did the fame : not ooce 
•thinKlng of the Franki, till JiJIln (I), lord of Tel Bi/ber (t), 
"came on him fuddenly, while the horfes were difperied o»w 

the' pafturcs, of which he took many, and 'killed a good 
'number of his men, 

' Next year, the Mojlemi uniting their forces, inradcd tlie 
. acquifitions of the />««*/, who were drfcatoi ncar7iAfri«. 

• Abu'lp. p. 244, * feq. * Ebn Amid. p. 367. 

• Abu'if. p- 14s- ^ Ebs Amid. p. 367. 

'" (El Or Orfa, formerly E- journey eaftward of ftV, m« 

iete. Harran, and Rthe, otOrf». 

(F) AlimTakin. or Tatih. (U J'Jil'X'- 

(G) Thatis. thceaftlcofthc (K) A very ilrong caaie. two 
Xuriii. days jourQcy (o the north ot 

(H) A fmall town, a day's Ha/'f, or J!tffc. 


C. 2; Piftb SoU^, Mohammed. 145 

After, the battle, MaHdid, who was one of the allied Franlu 
fninces (L), save leave to hU troops to return and Tdrcih^'f"^- 
themfelves till the' fpring following : and went himfelf ^ ^^^■ 
Daina/lus, to fpend the feafon with Tegtakkin, lord of that *' ^■ 
dtjr : but one day as he was going inrtJ the Mdijtd, a Batii' ' " 3* 
nifi approaching him, under pretence of begging alms, ftab- 
bed bun four times with a knife, of whi<:h Wounds he died 
the lame day, and the alTaHin was put to death i. 

The fame year died Ftthro'dda-uilat Rtdvi&n, fon of Tt^'od- 
davtlat Tatajii, prince of Halrp, and was fucceeded by his 
fon Tajo'ddavjiat, furaamed Ahrds ; who being flain the year 
following, the city and callle of Nalej> fell into the hands of 
JJih, page to Tajorrds, foa of JaUtla, who afterwards re< 
figned them to Soltan Sh^, Ion of Ridwin. 

1h 509 Dhahero'ddln Jtabek Tegtakktn, prince of Damaf- jfffain ^ . 
kus, went to BaghdAl, and offered his fervice to MofladirSyri^. 
BiUah, and Gayatho'ddSn Mohammtd, who received him with^^- S^- 
' great honour. Next year he returned ; and Ulii, prince of *■ ^• 
Baiep, was killed near Balli (M), in going to the caAle of '"5- 
Jiiffar. Thereupon Abu MeaVt Ebn Malki, fecretary of war, 
fiicceeded in the command of the forCrels of HaU^ ; which, 
the year following, fell into [he hands of JWr Bulgari Ebn 
Artk, who held it five years ^. 

The year 51 1 was fatal to SoltSn Cayathoddin Moharmned,Dia^ tf 
who died in-thelafi month of it, after he had lived ihirty-lix Moham- 
years, and r«gned thirteen (N). When he perceived death"™- 
approaching, he fent for his fon MahmidAbul Kaffem, but**|i- S'*- 
foaneen years old, whom he had declared his fucceflbr, kif- ' 

fed him, and wept : theh ordered him to go and fit in the '* 

throne : but the young prince declined it, faying, it was an 
nnlacky day. The Soltan anfwered. You/ay true ; but it it 
fo to your father, not to you, who gain an empire. Then 
moDRtiDg the throne, he was there adorned vdth the crown 
and bracelets '. 

« Abo'lf. p. a+6. " Bbn Amid. p. j68. ' D'HiKB. 

fbi fupr. p. 6oy. Ebn Auid. p. 368. Attu'LP. p. 146. 

(L) Ehti Andd fays, he was .(M) A town on 'Ha.t luphro- 

fent againft the Frankt by ^ellan Iti, between Halrp and Rakia. 

ilihammtd, in C04 ; and that he (N) According to the Ltbta- 

was billed by the Batamfli, near rikh he waa born in 474, reigned 

DmmafeMi, in ;oj. Bat we 13 years, lived 24, and died in 

cboole to ifi&oti Ahi^tfer^ a* coi. But thefe two laft nam- 

totfacdaiet. bers muft be mitttkei, for 37 
and 511. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV. L Soltam 

'l I,.,.. t.L.OOgif 

146 ^be Seljfika o/lran.' B. f 

Hhcba- SoLTAN Mohammed was eminent for gravity, jnAfcc, snd 
rmSer. clemency; was ftroi^, and could talk well*. He left ia the 
treaXury eleven millions of gold, beHdes as much lo forni- 
ture, and other etFe^a. HiAorlans do not tell us what' me- 
thods he' made ufe of to fill his cofTers : but by the follow- 
ing ftory, related in the N'tghiariji&n, it may be jndgcd, tbat 
that they were not more equitable than thtde which oifaa' 
princes have employed for the fame purpofe. 
'ThcWa- DHIA alMolk, fon of the famous A^«*m a/ ^HbA, aflaf- 
«^'r ii finated in the reign of Malek Shhh, apprehending himlctf 
taught injured by fome ill olHcers of j^lao'dJa-wlat, prince c^ Jfama- 
ddn, who aiTumed the title of Said or Se'id (0), wtudiword, 
iignifying lord, is appropriated to the race of MahamtneJ; id 
be revenged on him, told the Sbltan, that if he wonld per- 
mit him to call Alao'ddatulat to an account, he would o^age 
to bring 500,000 crowns of gold into the trcafnry. The 
Soltan granted his requeft. But as the Said, who bad ma* 
Qy ^ends at court, was quickly informed of what was di> 
ing againft him, he made fuch hade, that he was at I^d- 
hin before the Wazir knew any-thing of the matter : and 
in bis 01 n^'^^'^K ii^°s to throw himfelf at the SoMn's fcct, repre- 
faare fented, the injujlict he ■would commit in giving up a prince if 
the houfe of hii prophet into the hands of an ir^uiel and here- 
tic, as -wat the Wazir. He added, that, if the defire if fo 
much money -was -what had induced him to confmt to hii mi- 
vi/ler'i injurious proPofal, he vjoiild pay down 800,000 crvwits, 
' ivhich were 300,000 more than the mtilicious JVaztr bad tffer~ 
. id, provided his majefy -would deliver Dhia al Molk nrfa hit 
hands; ivith leave to oblige him to render as exaS ajtd ri- 
gorous an account as he Jhould require of him. 
Iifianct rf Trtis propofal being accepted of (P), the JaVJ retnnicd, 
frmnefi, along with a perfon who was commiflloned to receive ifac 
money. Being arrived at Hamadan, the officer, who expec- 
ted that th^ prince would lodge him in his palace, and do 
him many other honours, was given to underiland, that be 
muft repair to the public Karawanfaray, or inn, and liwe at. 
his own expence, till the fum could be raifed ; and " that 
then notice ftiould be given him to come and take it away. 
The officer, offended at this treatment, began with cocn- 
plaints ; and finding them of no avail, proceeded to meoaces. 

k ABv'Lp.p. 24.(1. Lebtarikh. p-4}- Ebk Amib. p. 368. 

(0)0r Styd: t\teSpaiiiariiiicon\ frequently praftiftd by Ae laCe 
■ thence have made their CiJ. h'uley Jfmail, emperor of Ab- 

(P) This fort ©f trafiick was lokh. 


C.:i.' Sixth SoUdn^ Sanjar.' 147 

But the Sdii, aflumiDg an air of authority^ told him, If yauand *»hk 

da not be eafy, Ituill ord.;r you to be hanged up vijlajttly, be^J^rgt, 
fore the houfe where you lodge ; after which I have only fo • 

eiM 100,000 crowns more to the fum -which I have pronufed 
the Solt^ ; for -with that money he might buy a thoufand • 
Jlaves, the viorjl of whom woiHd be better than you. The o^ 
fire'r, who was in fa£t one of .the Solian's Jlaves, hearing the . 
Sa'id talk in that manaer, thought it bell to bear all patient- 
ly, and waited at the inn forty days ; in which time Alao'd- 
dawlat raifed the fum in quellion, without either borrowing 
mooey 00 interell, or felling any of his efFefts. 

On the cafli being paid into the royal trcafury, the WaziTUnpara/- 
was delivered into the hands of the Sa'fd, to do with KimMltd gf 
jaft as he fliould think fit : but that prince let, on this oc-'"rofitj, 
calion, an example <^ virtue, the moll eminent and rare to 
be found among men ; for, Inltead of taking vengeance on 
his enemy, or even of making him pay the fum which he 
had been obliged to give the Soltan, he treated him with fb 
much honour and generofjiy (Q_), that Dhia alMdk became 
his bell friend '. 

After the death of Mohammed ■was known, Sanjar'{K), Sixth S»l^ 
(oa (rf Malek ShM, who had governed the great province of '«'•. Saa- 
Khoraf&n ioi twenty years, under the two preceding reigosj"- 
of his brothers, raifed a puiHant army ; and marched (S) in- 
to the province of Perfian Irik, where his nephew MahmUd * 
Abu'li^em, fumamed Mogayatho' ddin, hai) taken the title 
of Soltan : but the latter being defeated, after a bloody bat- 
tle foDght between them, he retired to the caftle of Saveh, 
a place of great Arength and importance. . ' 

MA U MUD, finding his aiTairs iniireh' ruined, was obliged jyividet 
to fne for peace to his uncle, aiid fent to him his Waiir Ke- the tmfiTt\ 
TBoio'ddin All, a very eloquent perfon, who, by his addrefs, * 

brought about an accommodaiiou. Hereupon MahrnHd went 
to vifit Sanjar ; and was fo well received, that he obtained 
«f him die invefliturc of the province of Irak (T), with the 

^NicHiAKisT. ap. D'Herb.'p. 606, k fcij. 

(QJ Thi» is agreeable to a gan in the year of the Hrjrah 

JiKcept of the Keraa, Da geid 10 513, of Chfift II19. 

Um 'o^dusyau harm, (T) In another place of De 

(Jt) PrODOODCcd alfo Sanjer, IliibeUt, p. 537, ore. Muhinud, 

And Stiifar. it U faid that he was made San- 

(S) According to /^j»'^drd/V jar'i governor, anj lieutenant. 

UM tbc Ltbtariib, thiiM#i; t>c general, in both ihc /j-ai/ ; and 

La p. iBj. 

14? Tif Seljaks o/Iran. B.I. 

foUowiog condidons : that the tiamc of Sanjar fboaU dwtyt 
• be mentioned in the public prayers before dut of Maindid; 

thai this latter Ihould not have the fourth veil, or curtain (U), 
in his aparUnents ; that tlie trumpet Ihould not found wbea 
.he went in or out of his palace ; and iaftiy, that he Ihotild re- 
tain the officers whom his uncle had eflablUhed in his pn^ 
vdih bh MA H MUD; accM^Ing to Kondan^r, was obliged to te- 
mtfbfui, cdve thefe conditions with thanks, and refolvcd to fpend fait 
time in hunting, without meddling with any affairs. How- 
ever that cnay be, this feems, from the courfe of the hiAixj, 
to have been an adual partition of empire, which took pJace 
{ooa after, if not from the time, when the i^eement was 
made ; by virtue whereof Mahmiid and his dcfccndants woe 
to enjoy the ihare allotted to him, with the title a£ Solifin, 
in as ablblute a manner as Sanjar enjoyed his. Actxirdiagiy 
we find that MahTnM was fucceeded in his dominions by km 
or five princes, who daimed under him, during the reigD of 
Sanjar * in KhorafSn : nor does it appear that he gave any op- 
pofitioQ to thrir fuccefTion ; or that they applied to him m 
fits confent. At the feme time it moft be coofened, that the 
biAtmes and extracts which liave come to us relating to ibefe 
Soltins, are very defe^ive ; and, to add to the misfiartntie; 
that of£iA<^i</, which was one <^ our chief funds, deicends 
no lower than the rdga of Salt^ Muhammed, Sanjar'a pre- 
Dioti »f This Soltan is called ■ Moaza'jJdln Jbu'lharelh, and JIfc. 
Kothb- axo^JJin Borhan (X), The firft thing remarkabic that wc 
o'ddin. meet ^th in his reign is the death of Kothbo'ddin, faaaAa of 
a new monarchy,, in the year ;2i. His father Bufitkldn was 
llave to Baikatekkln, or Malkattkktn, who was one of Ma- 
Itk Shah's principal flaves, and poflefled the employment of 
tejbtdar, that is, great butler, or cup-bearer; on wfaofe 
dath the Soltan gave it to SufiekUn .* and, becaufe the r C T utu e s 
<& Karazm, a country on the eafl fide of the Cajputn lea, were 
annexed to that office, be eafily obtained the govenunaM of 

* KoHb. ap. D'Herb. p. 75;.&{eq. art, Sangiar. "Di 

Hxta. art. Seljukian. * Lebtar. p^ 43. 

p. iSj, an. Barkiarti, the tit!e (U] Hung before the door of 
of /(>>i/m«nf'f'«jurii/is given him a room for ftite. 
as the figni^cation oF Aiabek. (X) This is the fame m««- 
Th:s lehariih'liys, tituSenjar tioncd by X. Ben/imlii, xbclyutr 
reftorcd to him Irdk, as far aa yew, in his travels, who calls 
the bordersof theJiamonempire him Serigar Shah, Ton of Si«A 
and Syria. ( 1 ), that is, Malti Shdh. 


C. 2. Sixth Sohdtty Sanjar. 149 

that province. Hibfoa fCothio'dJln fucceeded him in all hisHej. 531. 
places. As he was a man of fpirit and valourj his credit A. D. 
grew fo much during the reigns of Barkiarak Sanjar, '"7- 
that he obtained the title of Karazm Shah, that is, king off/^ K«- 
Kbarazm, which defceoded to all his poAerity, in that greatrazm 
monarchv of which he was the founder, and which proved atShah. 
length the ruin of the Seljukian dynaily trf Ir£n, to which 
they owed their rife. However KothBo'diSn, though very 
powerful, never departed from his obedience to the Soltins ; 
and, for thirty years, he did his duty of cup-bearer at court 
every fecond year, bring relieved every otlia- year by his (bo 
^Utz ". 

Ih the year 534, Sanjar palled the Jihitn, into MamiarSU lUvtHtrt 
nahr, to reduce Ahmed ebn SoJeym&n, governor of Samarkandji^'i'^' 
who refufed to pay the ufual tribute. Being obliged to fur-**^- J^*- 
render after a vigorous fi^, the Soltdn fpared his life, only *, 

depriving iiim of the government, which he gave to one of *"9* 
his Oaves; but Ahmed, finding means to get into Sanjar't 
Javotir, was in a little time reflored. After this Sahrim 
Sbii, Soltan of the Cazni family, whole kingdom extended 
ftx>m the province of Cazna, to the eall of Khtrafht, a great 
way into Hindovift&n, had a mind alfo to Ihake oif the yt^e 
ctf the Selj&k'tant. Hereupon, in 530, the Solemn entered hisKcj. ci*. 
dominions with a large army ; but Bahrim, not bang able A. D. 
to refiil fo great a force, lent ambailadors to pay the tribute ■ 1 J5. 
ami do homage for his crown, by which means he diverted 
the ftorm \ 

Upon the death of JTo^Mo'ijUi/i before-mentioned, his fon^f- AtitzK# 
sH, called alfo Taia/h, fucceeded, both in bis employments and raza 
the title of Karazm Shah, though 00 more, in reality, than go SUh 
vemor of that province, like his father. He grew in great cre- 
dit with Sanjar by his fervices, efpecially in coming up feafona- 
bly to refcue htm out of the hands of an ambufcade, laid for him 
by Ahmed, governor of Samarkand, before-mentioned. But 
afterwards growing out of favour at court, he got leave to 
retire to tiis government, where the people were inclined to 
revolt. The Soltin, at his departure, fapng to thofe about 
him, / fie the back ef a man, -whafi fate it is lihely I never 
JbaU fie again. They advifcd to have him arrefted : but 
Satgar- would not confent -, alleging, that he flunild' violate 
the acknmuUgementt due both to him and hit father for their 
Jervices, if iefbouiddo any thing to iffend'bmum a be^efufi 
fUim. , 

' D'Hiaa. p. 176, art. Cothbeddln. >^Kdh«. »p. D'fl«b. 
f. 7j6, an. Sw^ar. 


is^ 7i*Scljfikso/Mn; " ^.f. 

reiefiiviih ATS TZ verified the Soltan's prognoflic ; for lie no foon- 
/"f'ifi: er arrived in Karazm, than he put hlmfelf at the head 
of the rebels : fo that Sanjar was obliged to reduce by 
force an enemy, whom he had futFtred to efcape, by having 
more regard to the maxims of amity than thofe of policy. 
However, the expedition did not gi\e him much trouble } 
Hcj- 533- for advancing in 533, with fuperior forces, he put the rebels 
■A- ^' to'flight : and U Kilij, fon of ^tsiz, being taken, was put 
■"5^' to death. The troubles in Karazm being thus effeftu ally 
fupprelTed, Sanjar gave the government of it to his nephew 
SMeymit Shah. But as he left him only a few forces, he was 
foon obliged to quit It to Jtsiz ; who advancing with a con- 
liderabl? army, re-entered Karazm. And this year is reckon- 
led for the commencement of the dynarty of the Karazm Shaks^ 
or fovere'igns io a proper fenfe ''. 
'Jn^htr Two years after, Samariani/Tebened again, in oppofition to 
rtheUion the governor ; who, being afflifted with the palfey, was not ■ 
• I""-**''- able to afl:. The Soltan marched againft them ; and, after 
a' f^^^ ^iz^^ of fix months, the city furrendered ! bur Sanjar fpa- 
■ ' red the inhabitants, according to his ufual clemency; and 
difplacmg the feeble father, gave the government of the place 
to his fon. 
Tartarian Dijring the .Soltan's ftay at Samarkand, he was folicitcd 
■war. by fome lords of his court to bend his arms agaJnft Curjajh^ 
kingofA'ara^a/i»j'(Y} ; alleging the glory that would arife from 
the cooqueft of a country deemed in a manner inacceflible, 
Sanjar, prevailed on by their inftances, marcfied on that 
fide (Z) ; but Curjajb advancing wiih his forces, cut in pieces 
30,000 of the Soltan's troops, and feized his camp, where 
was all his equipage, and Haram, or women ; among whom 
was Tarihdn Khatun, his principal queen. Sanjar, in this 
diftrefs, picked out 300 of his bravefl men, and made his 
way through the middle of his enemies, in order to reach 
Termed (A), where he arrived with only twelve or fifteen fol- 
lowers. The refl of his fcattered troops repairing thither by 
degrees, he palTcd with them into KhorqfM, quite a(bamed 

1 K.DNi>. Lebtar. &Nighiar. ap. D'Kerb. p. 146, art.AtsiS. 

(Y) See an account of this (Z) The Lritenkb places this 

country before, p. ;7;6;,&fe((. expedition in the year 536, of 

i)'/i>r4</«/, or hia author ^BBtfli- Chri/l 1141. and fays, the con- 

w/r.fays.itiscalledi/df^yiraMr. fequence of his defeat wa» the 

becaufe of ihe ("hicknefs of its Jofiof A/aTt-«r«7n«ir. 

forclls, aad deepnefs of its val- (A) A ciiy on the Jihkn, to 

*Iies,, which render it daik and the north Qi.BeilA. 


L ...... L,oo.^lc 

C.«r Sixth SeUSn^ Sanyu. 15I 

of his expedition ; ■which convinced his people that he was 
not iavincible, as before they thought him to be '. 

^7*5 /Z continuing •more and more to mcroachon theAtiiz'/ 
Soltdo's authority, he found tiimfelf obliged, a fecond tune, "^""^ 
to take the field againA him ; and, in 538, having rcduced''f'"V^ 
foeral pafles and f&ong places in the way, came and befi^ed 
- him in hiscapiwl city, y4tslx finding himfeif reduced to the*^^' i^S- 
!aft extremity, fent very rich prefents to Sdnjar, intreating ' 
pardon, which was granted by the generous Soltin : who, on "*^' 
his taking » new oath of fidelity, Irft him in podeffion of his 
goirernment. But all this clemency had no effeft on the am- 
bitious mind of Atsfz ; Sanjar receiving advice, from feveral 
parts, that he was raifing forces, and paid no regard to his 
■ orders, fent ^djbf^er, one of his great lords, to inform him- 
feif of the conduft of Atslz ; who, on his arrival in Karazm, 
fct guards over him, and fent alTaflins to MarA to kill the thi M- 
Soltdn. But A^b coming to the knowlegc hereof, gave no-'''''-' lift' 
tice to Sanjar \ fo that the bravocs were difcovered, and put 
to death. Atsl-^ concluding that the intelligence came from 
that Icn-d, had &im thrown headlong from the top of his 
caftle into the Jihtin, or Amu. 

Ik 542, the Soltan undertook once more to punifh ^tSahmis at 
treafon diAtstz;, and inrcfted Hazar AJh, the ftrongeft place /"/'- 
in Karazm, where Atsiz (hut himfeif up ; and, after making ^^^j ■ Hz- 
a vigorous defence, had the good luck to efcape ; the city ^- "• 
having been taken at length by ftorm. Sanjar followed him "+7" 
to the city of Karazm, which he might fbon have taken ; but 
whether weary of the fatigues attending the camp, or throi^h 
his averfion to ihed blood, he liftened to propofals of peace, 
liq;otiated by a DarwIJb, or religious man ; by whofe ma- 
nagement Atiiz was obliged only to repair to the fide of the 
Jih&n, oppofite to the Soltan's camp, and there proftrating 
himfeif, kifs the earth. Atsiz came to the place appointed ; 
but, without alighting off his horfe, only Hooped forward, 
and bowed hjs head to filu'te the Soltdn ; who, for all this 
arrogartce, fent him the pardon he had promifed : after wiiich 
all hoftiiities ccafed between t]\em, till the time of the death 
of Atitz, which happened in 551, the year before that k£ 

One of the moft remarkable events in this Soltan's reip,n, Gi^rmaJe 
is the fignal viflory which, in 554, he obtained over Huffeynirihita-^. 
jfehinfuz, Soltan of tlie dynafty of Cowr, acountry lying he- H»i- S'l*' 
tween that of Gazna aad Kbomfin. Hu^cyn having etitered •'^- '^- 

' KoND. ubifupr. p. 756, art.Sangiar. ' Ibidi p. 148, 

ti feq. art. Aulz. 

L 4 this 

ijj 916* Sdj6ks «/ Iran. B. I. 

this laA proTUice 'with a great army, io order to conquer it, 
Sanjar marched hia troops, and, d^eatipg t^em, took both 
bim and ^ii Cheteri, hU general, prifoners. As j4U was bpra 
in the dominions of Sanjar, and had formerly been loaded 
with fevours by him, that pnnce put bim to death for his 
ii^ratitude ; but foon after fent home Hvfftyn to govern 
Caitr under his authority. 
TitSo/tAi In 548 the Soltan was led, againft his inclination, »> cha- 
taitn tj ftife the Turkmani, who refufed to pay the ufual tribute of 
/Af Turk'jhccp{B}; when his army was defeated, and himfelF takeh prl- 
V^*- foner by th»t rabble, to the great difliononr of the houfe of 
Se^uk ; which was fo much reverenced by all the Turktjh na- 
tion (C). TheTe Turkm&nt, not Icnowing what to do with the 
pcrTon erf fo great a prince, placed him in the day-time on a 
throne, and fhut him up at night in an iron cage. He fpeot 
„ . four years in this coniinement ; till the Soltana TariianKba-^ 

A f/ ''*'''> ^^° governed in his abfence, happening to die in 551, 
, , .(^' he refolvedto deliver himfelf out oi the' hamls of the Turk' 
Efiafri hj To bring this »bont, he employed ^mir Elias, one oi his 
firtUagtm. coniideQts, who carr^nng on a corrcTpondence with Aitdr 
^hmed Kamaj, governor of Termed, got him to provide boats . 
ready in thq river, againft the Soltan pafled by in hnndng. 
This ftratagem fuc^ceeded to Sanjar's \ri(hes ; and the go- 
' vemor, after entcrtainiog him magnliiccntly at his ca^^ 
gathered what troops he could, who conduced him to ilfa- 
rH, then the capital of Khora/an, where he ufually refldcd, 
Sut the Soltan found that city, and all the country dirough 
which he pafTed, In fo bad a condition, on account of &t 
iqcur/igns "^hich th^ Turfimns had nu^ during his abfence, 

(B) The caufc of ihis war it [C) This event, in the aiti. 

reprefcDred fomewhat different- clc of AiiH, is placed in the be- 

1y in the Leitarikb : According ginning of 5^ar's reign ; bat 

to this aathor, the Gdv, orTuri- on whofe authority does not ap- 

iMfiu.CTOfrmg the 7'i'<« toward* pear: for thoogh D'HtrMrt 

the end of Sm^ttr's reign, foffer- i\aotetKMiJaMir„it it along with 

ed ereat mifery ; yet the l(:ng other avthori, at tbc^d of the 

refotved to march againft them, whole article, and not at the 

The Gm begged peace in die particular faOs or paragraphs, 

B>oft fuppliant maiuier ; each a* he does in other articles, 

family offcriogapieceoffilver. It is there fatd that JttiK go- 

vichwhich theSoluin was con- verned the ftate, in conjunc- ' 

tent : but the grandees oblhvfi- tion with Mabmid, Smnar't n»- 

ing the treaty, tkf G^ wcfc it- phew, daring the Soltw'f cap- 


D,a,i, Google 

C. i. Sixth StbAt, Sanjar. 155 

Aax he fdl into a deep mdaDchc4y, and aftenraids into aHq. $51. 
diftemper (D) of which he died id the year 552 '. A. D. 

AccoRDiHG to the Lebtarikh, tins Solt&n lived ferenty- "^f", 
two years, and rdgned fixty-two, \a which muft be nnder- "*' **'*• 
Aood to t>c included the twenty years, which, the fame au- 
thor fa^-s, he reigned in KhorafM, before the deadi of Mo- ■ 
hammed his prcdeceflbr. 

He extended his empire from Kat^ and Kotan (t), to 'SatExtat^ 
end of Syria and Egypt ^ and &om the lea of Khbzdr, or tnc«b«M»mf. 
Cation, to Tamman, ot jfraiia/teSx. 

He fought nineteen battles, of which he gained feventeen : 
was much feared by all ; fatuous for Sberality and clemency 
to lus fnbjeAs. He was diluent in matters of government, ff}, tba- ' 
but hated lingly pride ; wearing a ccmr made of fldns *. Tet raStn 
the I^arazm Shih'i fendng the office <^ cnp-bcarer to him, i« 
NOdnced as an argument <A die magnificence with which he 

All the tsiental hiAorians praife this prince for his yz-GrttiHy 
lonr and joftice, magnanimity and goodnels. As a proof c^tthvU. 
this, they write, that he was (b wdi beloved by his fnbjeAs, 
that tli^ oHitinned to publiOi his name in the temples for 
a whole year after his death, as if he had been ftill alive, and 
on the throne, fhey gave him alfo the furname of EJktmda- - 
Tiatii, that is, Alexander the fecond : and his name of San- 
iar has pafled for that of jIUxaader among lus poAcrity ■. 

It is remark«l that this Soltin efUblilbed SaSid Etn Zw Atth^ 
ghi (E), who had been his governor, lienteiiant^general tt^f^''** 
all bb dominions, under the title dAtabek; which title fig* ' 
idfyii^, father <f the prince (F), and given to the tutors or 
governors of the SeljUdan princes, bo^ime afterwards a dtls 
of digmty. 

* KoK 0. nbi fupr. p. 7;6, k feq. art Sangiar. ■ Lebta- 

nkh, p. 4]- ' EoHD. ubi fupr. p. 757, art. Sangiar. 

(D) Accordine to the Night- M^ahr, iA Atal>tk of Pint 

trnfian (i) ixAAoulfaraj, it was or proper Ptrjut, in J43, bMl 

the cbolic, attended wicba loafe- beiog eftabliflied during SamarH 

S^ and vomiting. reign. He feemi tohave been 

[%] Tbii is ftraining things thefirft; bat D'Hfri*letixvtTy 

too far; for, Jnftead of con- eonfnfedondui bead. Seeth* 

aoering, he waa defeated by article* Atahtk, Saad htn Jfr< 

le Km-aiitajoMi, m before re- Ktfftr, and Sa^^r Shi^, 
lated. (F) Dr. i>Krri renders it, */- 

(EJThismufthaveboenOw/. miwifirater ngm. Aii'//*^'' 

iMm Ztngbi, the BrAAiaiti of hift. dvnaft. p. ap. So doea 

JMf, in 5x11 or Ms&afftrt'dMm VHtrieUi in fonw flace*. 


iS4 5S*Sc5flts tf Ii4a; 8,1, 

X^gn tf Aftek Saigdr'z death, M^UmAd, his Tiller's {aa,\sj Mt- 
*J^ Sd. hammed Kbatt, defixnded frmn A^u Khta, fucceeded ia 
J?'"' Khorapn. Bnt at the end of 6ve years, one of his lords (G) 
revolted from him, and, after fevoal batdes, leized his do* 
minions, and deprived i:^ of iight. The Solun of Karazm, 
whofe dynafty rofe .during tbe rdgn of Sanjar, taldng ad- 
vantage of thefe dinjions in Khorafln, made himfelf maAer 
of aoe part of tih^ fF^^ provinoe, wliile the other remained 
an poflelTion of .the rcbds (H). So that the Stljukian S<^iiis, 
who Aill reigned in both the fyAi, no longer had any fboc- 
iag'ra Kher^tet'' . '^ 
txtinSIm We m aft ncnr. turn back to Ae(e Sohans; the firft of 
Khojra^ . ndsom, Magayati^'Akx JUahm^ Ebn Mohammed, thoui^ foe- 
M>l^ ^idning his reiga tt the fame tifoe with his node Saitfor, 

MTii'd^ng twenty-ferco years befcn-e bim (I), is yet redmned 
Ufe (bccdlor : MahmAd, Satgar't fiiler'i fon, beforc-iiicoUooed, 
^ot being put in the lift of Soltaos. 

SECT ix;. 

3%€ Rtipu ef MahiD^d, Togrol, «hi MaOud. 

StwMih TT hath bcAt obferred before, in the reign of Sanfar, that ' 
SfUan, -*■ Mahmud, fan of his brother Mohanmed, fDrnamed M»- 
Mahm&d. gayatha'ddia Aiu'lks^m, by the ^r3ement made betwvco 
• • ' tfrem in 513 (A), was left in^polffiirion of the Perfian umI 
. 'j9rahian Sritit, wirii the coimtries we^ard, wbereof, tbo* 
tffcording to KondttMdr he 'was ooly Sanjar's govortwr and 
tteDtenant-genet^, yet he leeme to have aiied iDdepeadeady ' 
•f him : nor does it Appear tlut Iqs luxJe exercifed any power 
within his dominions. It is true, none of the aiuhofs be- 
fore us give any account of this Soltan's tranfaifHons, aftw , 

y MiRKOsb ap. D'Hcrb. p. ;37. art. Mahmfid Khan.. 

',. (G) The Uitofikhy which governor underS^n/or; bat that, 

.calls Jtim MtfedtJiia, fays, that on the Soltan's death, be wu 

Jw Jiad b«n ope pf Solar's proclaimed by the pwp'e for 

jla^g. his £ne <]ualiiies ; yet in Ac 

■ (H) The Uhunkb fayi, tbc fame page (article Mtbm^amtJ 

.S(4[4njOfGMrhadalfoa[»it. Klan), ma!<c^ Mahm£d tYtc fnn 

(I) H«re we muA take notice of this latter, to fuccectl him, 

^>ia^fc», mftajtein liamUsiir, twenty-fix years after, 

or hisemraai7rZ)'//fri(ir,whq, ■ (A) Vet the beginning of h« 

in.the article of Mabmii/,.foa qf rctan is reckuued from tbc «leauh 

A/ff^^umwi/, p.537. lays, here- .of Ms father, 
fided fourteen years ip Jrai, as 


CV7 Seveitl Stltdn, HAihtuM: t55 

Iiis agreement with Sa«jar. D'Herbtlot's extrafta from J&ti- ptfia cf 
iamSr, and other oriental authors, end there *. Texeita yMoutbert. 
in fuch hafte to finilh hU abftraft of Mirkcnd, that he votiW 
farce allow himfeif id look into the hiftory of the SefjMian 
■ Soltins, or even to know thwr names. The Lebtartkh arSf 
fiys, that Mahmid married two of Sanjar't daughtefs, atia 
fought two battles with his brother Maffui, whom hfe de- 
feared both tim«. In (hort, the particQlars oolteftcd fcy. 
Aki'lfaraj, relate almoft folely to the affars of Mejaftotamia 
tai Syria; which, in cffeft, are all the materials we have ■ r 

towards the hiftory of this Scdtan's r«gn. ^ ' 

That aathor informs us, agreeaWe to the accouirt given ^'*'i _y 
bydieweftem hiftorians, that, in the year 512, as Sa/rfiuift, Baldwin. 
][k^ of Jervfalem, was f^rimming in the Nile at BaS>ays, In "^' 1' *• 
Egy^, a wound, which he formerly had received, opened ; ' ^' 
-vhercupon retnrning to Jsni/alem, he there died, after hat- * " ■ ' 
tng recommended the care of his lungdom to ^l Games (B), 
hxi of Roha. 

ht Si^tbeGor/, <x Korj, who are the fame \ddi tbeJTBi-T*' Ooij. 
tart, the Kafjaks, and other nations, invading the MoAin»i-'"'J^*'*- , 
medan CDaotries, j^l Amir Ilgizi, lord of Mardht, DebSyi #fti^"'» , 
SiuMa, lord of Hellah, and king Tbgrol (C), lb whom ,be- ' ' 
boged Arrin and Nakf^avian, advanced to meet thfem as At)' 
fer as Teflli, with 30,000 men. The armies being draxtii up , , jq'- 
10 jMttk, there came forth aoo Kafjdks, who, as thcJVto/htAj ' 
ibooght, intended to furrendcr themfclves : inftead of that, 
they attacked their front fo yigorouliy with arrows, as pritiai/aJe iht 
Aem into diforder; which thofe in the rear taking for aSeljuks. 
fi^t, fled with fuch precipitation, that they ftumhled over 
one another. The Cor; purfuing for twelve P^-r^rtn leagues, , .■*' 
few moft of' them, and took 4006 prifoners : but Idng 7V- 
ya/, Hg^zi, and Dobays, efcaped. The Gorj returning, be- 
gged 7effls ; and, after harrailing the inhabitants, took that 
tJty next year by florm. 

In ti^SoUyman, fon of Ugazi, being juft turned of twea- Jfiiin tf. 
ty, rebelled againfl his father ; but the latter coming uponSyria, 
Inm nnexpeftedly, ftized thofe who had fet him on, and pn- 
fcflied them. Among the reft he ordered one Na/r, a com- 
■aoder brought up by his father Oruk, to have his cyea 
fbdud out, and tongue cut off. He coudemned another, 

■ Bibl. orient, art. Sangiar & M^hmoad, fill d^ Mohammed, 

<B) For Ctmri ; (b Aey call JagarnAfij, and fet free by yjf- 
tlie coani of Jttha, or EAfa, lutli, before- mentioned, 
yiio badbcentakcn|)rifoDerb^ (C) Ahioiiicioi MahmuJ. 



156 7^ SeljOks »/ Iria: . B.1' 

vliom he bad msulc goTeroor of HaUp, firft to be depmcJ 
of iJ^tt aad then to hare hii hands and feet chopped off, 
^^liu occaJkmed his death. 

SOLETMjiN was brought before him dniak ; but be 
was reftrained from killing him by lutural aSe^Uon. After 
this he fled to Damafiut ; and Hg&zi made Soltymin, foa of 
his brother Abdo'ljabbar, governor of Haltp, and named him 
Badro'Jdawlat ; after whjch he returned to Mardin. 
M/Mefo- The Cune year the Soltan (D) gave Ma^aferkia to the Jmir 
- potamia. UgJtzi tin Ortoi ; and the cities of Mu/ol, Mefi^lania, and 
Sayar, to the Arrur Kofaym odda^lai Okfenkar aJ BorJiU. 
\. ci6. NEZt year Bgdzi died at Mayaferkia ; on whkh his ioa 
>• D> HafiimifiMn 7amartafl> fcizcd the caftlc of Mardin, and bit 
(iia. ioa SoleymSn Mayaferkin ; Badro'ddavjlat Sdeyman aaB^aii' 
A.D. big at HaUp. But, in 517, BaiaJt, fon of Bahram gk» Ot' 
111}, tak, finding his couAn ^(M^ffuin not able to defend hit coun- 
try, came and dofcly bellied Haltp, which was at lall fnr* 
' A.D. rendered to him. Next year he took Manbg, bat was flatn 
I i 34. by an arrow (£] in attacking the caAle. Hereupon bis mrj 
difperfed ; and Okfenkar alBorfiki took liaUp^ as the FraMkt 
didWr, or Tyre. 
Okfankai Towards the end of the year 520, Okfenkar, lord of JI&. 
mftif- pi, was aHailiaated in the royal temple of that dty by tbe 
^*t»i. Baiinifts, and his fon Ezzo'ddln M^tU took polMtoo witb- 
?' ont oppofition. The hiAorian wonders how Ezzo'JJSn QtooU 
"'^' be informed c^ his father's djath by the lord tH Antiekh (F), 
before a courier brought him the news : But AhA'^araJ (J>- 
lerves, that it was fooncr knoM^ to the Frtmkt, by the care 
they took to learn tbe Aate aifairs among the MoJUms *. 
Atabeki The year 531 is remarkable ior being the firft of tbe dj- 
w^ Irak, nafty of the Jtabeks of Irdk, founded by OmaJo'dt&n Z^mgU 
Hej.«i.(G), fon of OA/iinAiir, ot Ai/ankar, who was eftablifhed io 
*• ^' the government of the city of Baghddd, by Soltan MatnM, 
*'*'• His brother Ezzo'ddin Maj/Sd ^yiog the fame year, Omajo'd- 

■> Abu'lf. p. 148, & feq. 

(D) A qnefiion may here a- (F) Bai*, king of y^m. 
rife, whether Soltin Sanjar, or fakm, wu at this tune in poT- 
Soltan Mtthmud, is to be under- feffion of ^s/>«jU.tfaoagk be re- 
fiood ? ftored it to ^MaMWtht 

(E) fulchtr Otrnattnf. fays, the fame year. 
3ai^ was llain in battle aguoft (G) He i), by tbe 
'~»fctlint i that 3000 men were ans of the cnifade, 


lain, and his tcsd fent ra Am- ;<»», which it a con^tim «! 


C<2^ SevinthSoUSny MahmAd.' 15^ 

din became poUelTed of Mufil, and its dependcndes. Next' 
year be took Haltp, '«dth its cafUe ; and the year fbllcraii^ 
the dty of Hamah '. 

In 534 j4l Amr Seahkimillah jfhuali, lord of Egypt (H), Egyptuu 
was aflaiSnated by the Batiniflt, as he returned from taking Khaiifah 
a walk. The feme year there were fcen at Baghdad tear •'Jo/'- 
jnons with wings, and a double fting. finatid. 

The next year proved fatal to Soltao Mahm&d, who died Tht Sei. 
at Namaddn, In Sha-wal, or the tenth month, having lived '^«Efu. 
about twenty-feven years (I), and reigned thirteen ^. 

He was a handfome perfonage, and very generous; but^'^'^- 
thelove of women, and hundng, by d^rees, impaired his *■"*"• 
charafter. It is reported, that his hunting-equipage was IbHcj. jaj; 
magnificent, that he kept 400 greyhounds and blood-hounds, A. t>. 
«ad^ of wliich wore a collar let with jewels, and a covering ' ' '3** 
edged with gold and pearls. He Isdd out fo much In this 
cxpence, that he often wanted money to pay his troops, and 
for other occafions '. Yet he did not Becce his fubje^s to 
recruit his coders ; he Ukemte reflrained his favourites from 
dcMng them any injury. He was merciful, good-natured, and 
pmdent. He forbore to puiufh thole who fpoke ill of him. 
Mo prince ever Audied the art of reigning more. He was 
Skilled in grammar, poetry, and chronology (K) ; was very 
-eloquent, and wrote a line hand ^ 

« AsuYr. p. 2^0. D'Herb, p. i+i, in. Atabek, 
* Abii'lt. p, 8(1. 'KoND.ap.r'" *- 

an, MahmOd & Sanjar. Lebtar. p. 43. 

(H) He was the tenth Kha- years : perhaps itfhonld be 497, 

ttfah of Enfi, of the family of and that will bring it to twen^- 

pAimah. They are called lords eight. The niunbers in tkis au? 

oi Epft, by the hifloriani who thor are very incorreA j and 

lirc^wicbiD the dominions of D'Htrit/et feemi to make ufe 

die princes fabjeA to the Kiia- of them fometimes, without 

lifah of Baghdad, becaufe they quoting him -, and even to fub> 

acknowieged no other Khali- Itltute them for thofe of Ken- 

fah. daimr. In thii uncertainty we 

(I) Our aothoH differ here: muft make ^W^ifrfl/onr guide, 
jyiUrbtUt, who quotes Knitda- fince Ehn Jmidhu failed ui, 
adr, fayi, he citiier governed rK) We were unwilling to 
or reigned alone twenty-feven fully lb good a charafler, by 
yeanr the Ltbiarikh, that he infercing in the text, that W 
lived bot twenty-five years, yet made a coUeftion of the inter- 
pot* hi* birih in 487, which pretationi of dreams, 
e^eads hi* life to dtirty-eiglvt 



EirM MAHMUD left for his fucceflbr his brother To^ro/, 

Sdtan, furnamcd Rohna'dMn (L) : but -his brother Majfifid difputed 
Togrol. the crown with him ; and fcveral battles were fou^t between 
rhem, in the fpace of three or four years, which he rdgned. 
According to Kondamir, he was the fecood Soltin of a braodi 
of the SeljAkiant who reigned in Perfian and JrtdiUn IrSk i 
which confirms our remark, that the agreement made be- 
tween Sanjar and Mahm6d contained a divifion c^ the SeU 
jukUn empire of Irik, or Perfia at large. However, it does 
not appear that oriental hiftoriaos cooAder them as two fe- 
porate monarchies, but as one and the fame ; maldng Mah- 
mJid, the predeceflbr of Togrol,- the fucceflbr of San/ar ; 
though both died fome years before him, as hath been already 
obfcrved '. 
fttirdga This SoI^, according to Ab&'lfaraj, before he came to 
fiiart. the throne, polleffed the province of Arr&n and Natchja-win 
(M). But the authors before us give no account of the 
tranfafdons of his r«gn, excepting AbCt'lfaraj ; whole me- 
mou-s, as m the preceding reign, arc confined to JyUfopotaauA 
and Syria. 
Hej. 526. This annalift informs ns, that, in the year 526, Soltan 
A. D. Senjar-WToXe (N) to Om&do'ddin Zengh't ( Ataiek oilrtk Arabi) 
1 1 3 1 ■ and Dobays E6n SadeiaA (lord of Hellah), commanding them 
^Ataiekio march into Irak, againft iht Khaltfah Al Mojiarjbed. Ac- 
"£ cordingly they went, and encamped in a place called ManA- 
rlyab, which belongs to l>>jayl{0). The Khalifah Al Me- 
fiarjhed, pafling-over to the weft fide (of the Tigris), pitched 
his tents in Al Abbafya. The armies met in Hadra al Btf 
rimakeh (P) j when Zenghi attacking the right wing of the 

' KoKD. p. 1030, art. Thogrul, fit. deMoharomed. 

(L) Accofdingto theZ>i?o. Out of Togrol, then the Solians 

rikb, his name ia Rnkaoidin of /ra:inmft have been depend. 

Jbi'l Moiafir Togrol Bit. We ent on him; and his liicceflbr 

*re the more exacl in giving the MsJfuJ, as well as his predecef- 

feveral Dames, becaulefomeau- lor Malm&t!, mull have done 

thors mencion only one, fome every thing they did by his or- 

;another ; which frequently con- ders or confent. 

iounda reader*. (0| In another copy OaiW. 

(M) CommonlycalledA^a<E£- It is the country along the fi- 

jmaan, Nakhcbwwaii, and Naib- grh, for foma fpace, to the 

fiman, in Armenia. norlh of Bugbdad. 

(N) If the name of Sanjar (P) The villa of the family 

be not put here by miOakc for alBar&makfh. We mention the 


C.i. Eighth Solt^yTogToi. Nt»thMaSSi6: ;i« 

Khallfah, where was yamM eddatvlat Akbal, pat tlvm to 
flight: at thefaioe time the Khalifah, i^^p'^Kd hy Nafr al aitgtla tht 
Khadem {the ennnch), ■wrho commaaded his ict't wing, fell oq Kialifeh, 
the right udng of Om^o'Mln and Dohays ; and, after a Ibaj^p 
coaBidi:, put them to flight ; killing and taking maoy of their 
men *. The fame year the Ataiei a! Shahid recovered Ma- 
arrah Al Nom&n, ia Syria, from the Frtatkt •". 

Nest year the Khalifah fcnt a pretty ftiarp me0'^e to 
Zenghi, hy Sheykb BiUiae'(Mn Abu'lFotuh; who, relying oa 
the Khalifah's power, and his own charafter as legate, adJed 
fevcral reproaches of his own. Herenpoa Zenghi, arreftlng 
lum, Creaud him very ill. Al Mefiarjbed, inccnfed hereat, 
departed firom Baghdad with 30,000 meo; and,- approaching 
Mvfol, Zenghi marched out of the diy with part of his 
forces, leanng the reft under the command of his depuqr 
Ntulro'tiSK, whom the Khalifah befiegcd; and, while be'"'^*'- 
f»vlbd the place clofely without, x gang of gypfies wthiri^" Mitj 
agreed to betray It to him : but being diicovered, and cue- 
cnted, he retired, after three months leaguer to little pur- 
pofe ; and, next year, a peace was concluded between hit^ 
and the Atabek '. 

SoLTAN Togrol died at Hamadin, in the firft month ofTogrol 
lire year 529; lived twenty-five years, and reigned three. ^'"; 
He was juft and valiant, good-natured and liberal. He un-^^J'S^9* 
dcrflood the art of governing, and dM tiothJng unbecoming ■*• "• 
a p^iDce^ "34' 

MASSUD(P), fomamed C'ayatho'ddtn Abi'lfgtah, vns f^i'ih Sel, 
at BaghJM when his brother Togrol died: and while his/««. Maf- 
friends fcnt a conrier to haften him up to Hamaddn, dien*^"^» 
the capital of the Seljikians of Ir^, the court party dif- 
patched another to Da-wd, fon of Togrol, with the lame 
view : but the uncle hap[*mng to get the ftart of the nephew, 
Maffid was unanimoufly fainted Sohan by the grandees, aod 
David no more thought of. 

He was fcarce feated on the throne, before he found him-aiiaehiie 
felf'bbliged to make war on Al M^arfied, twenty-ninth Wa///2i, 

■ Abv'lp. p. i;i. " Ebh Amid. p. 363. ' Abw'lp. 

p. i;i . " KoHD. ubi fupr. p. 1010. Lebtar. p. 44. 

' KoHD. ubi fupr. p. 563, art. MaiTaud. 

grrat cities and the fmalt, >c- lalt a being the Ayn, whicb is a 

cording <o our original propo- guttdral. but melted down into 

fal. (hat the geography ofchere the u, fo as fcarce lo be heard 

countriea may be known to our in the proniirtciatioii ; ox itnia/ 

readers. be faid to foi ve only to give the 

tJ'J MpfuJ, or Mcfmdiiiii # a gntcural fviind. 


iSci itie Selj&b «/ Ma: B. L 

EhaB&h of Baghd&i, of tbe bmily of Al jibbAt. It fecms. 
that, ia the reign of To^rol, Dobays Ein Sadekah, who waj 
governor-general of Irak /fraii for the Khalifah, plotted 
irith that Saltan to furprize hitn in Baghdad. But Togrol 
falling ill of a burning fever, hindered the execudon .■ M 
MoftarJhe^9 army alfo got the better. This war lafted till 
l&aff&d came to the crown ; when the Khalifah, at the in- 
- ttanoe of fome cx>urt lords, had his name fnppreHed in the 
public prayers, and even deprived him of the tide of Sol* 
vA»ii MASSUD, being informed of thu injury, let oat ia- 

dtftMUd, ftantly from Ray, v/hae he refided, at the head of a power* 
fbl army, for ^e Arabian Irii ; from whence the Kbalifah 
advanced, acccmipanied by a great number of his grandees. 
The two armies came to a battle in the fcventh month of the 
year 529 ; when the Khalifah's left wng delerting to the 
Soltan, he was fnrrounded and taken, while his right ^ng, 
after a (light oppofition, Aed. After this defeat, Baghdad 
opened its gates to MaffM, 'mthout oppofition. The Sol- 
tin having had another war in his head, carried M^arjhed 
with him into the province of Adherbijan. Being arrived at 
Mar&gha, the Khali&h was confined in a tent, at a diftance 
bota the army, near tlie gate of that dty : where medcngers 

C between him and tbe Solt&n, relating to peace. At 
it was agreed, that Ai M^arjbed, befides payioff 
yearly 400,000 crowns in gold, Ihould remain la. Baghdm, 
and not raife any other troops befidcs his ordinary guards. 
miejfaf. After this agreement that prelate was fufiered to ride oa 
Jmattd, horfeback with the covering of a faddle (QJ carried before 
him, in token of honour. In Ihort, he was ready to return 
to BaghdM, when news being brought that an ambalHidor 
was arrived from Soltan Sanjar, the people followed Ma0d 
to meet him, and among the refl fome of thofe who had the 
care of the Khalifah. Twenty-four Batanifii took this op- 
pOTtunity to get into lus tent, and murder him, by giring 
him above twenty wounds ; then cutting off his note and 
ears, left him naked, where he remained till the citizens of 
MarAgha buried him. Many believe, with good reafoo, &ys 
Kondamtr, that MaffM was at the bottom of this murder ; 
and talked of an agreement with him, on the terms above* 
mentioned, only to cover his defign. 
Dobayi Not long after this, as Dobays ebn Sadekah was ftooping, 
/«■«. ^»dth his fingers on tbe ground, before his tent, near the dty 
oS Khunej, a young Armenian, employed by the Soltan, cot 

(QJ The hantefs of a horfe. 

3 or 

C. 2. Ninth Saltan, Mafflid. i6i 

off his head : For Majjiid was jealous of his power, and had 
only made ufc of him as an laflrument to oppofe Al Mo- 
fiarlbed ". 

The year following, the kings and lords of the provinces T^'^- 
anembling at BagM^, threw off their obedience to SottAn'"'"""''- 
JUaJSd. On this Daivd (or David), fon of SolUn MahmM'^'': 
(R), marched from Adherbijan, followed hy Qmddo'ddin Zen-^ i.'"" 
^i/, from Mufal to Baghdad, where he was prayed for in ,,',,' 
the pulpits (S). The Solcan on this news haftens to that ''' 
dty, and befi^es it : but finding, after fifty days leaguer, 
that he could do nothing agatnlt it, refolved to return to 
Hamad^a. He was aftually on the road, when Tarent^y, 
lord of Wafet, arriving with a great number of Barks, he 
returned to the ficge. At the lame time, the princes who 
h:^d affemblcd at BaghdM tilBng out among themfelves, 
king DnW returned home, and the reft difperfed. The 
Khalifah Al Rajhed, with a few followers, pafled over to 
Zenghi, who was on the weft fide (of the river), and re- 
tired with him to Mu/ol. 

HeredPon Saltan Ma/iid, entering Baghdad, fixed hisMaflud 
feat there : then, ailembling the judges, witncffes, and thofe""" 
learned in the laws, he laid before them the oath which ytf^*S'"'^d. 
R^fbed had made to him, in his own hand-writing : /, in 
cafe I Jball affembte forces, march out, or put to_ the fword 
any of Soltan Mafsud'j adherents, def<ofe myfelf from the em- 
pire. Accordingly he was,bytheirfentence,depofed; and hisZ)(^D/„/i, ' 
name fupprefled eyery-whcrc tn tfjC pulpits, before he had Khalifah. 
rdgned twelve months. Then the Soltan called another 
council, who, after declaring Al Rdfbed unworthy of the 
Khalifat, ^efXeA Al Moktafi BeamriUah, fon oi Al Mojladher 
(<»■ Al' Moftadhaher), who was his friend. The depofed 
khalifah, leaving Mufol, in 531, went to Hamad^n, whereHej. 531. 
king David then was ; and from thence to Ifpah^, where he ^- ^■ 


■ KowD. &Ebn Shohhah, ap. D'Herb. p. 634, an. Moftar- 
fched. Abd'lf. p. zjz. 

{Rl Kmdannr, in D'HtrliUf, occafioned by the Solian fend- 

CaUi bira the fon oi Mahamtaeil. ing to demand of Al Rnjhed the 

Porall this difagreement, he is film which his father had pro- 

doubtlefi the t>a^-d who is faid mifud to pay yearly, D'tiirli. 

befaieto have been a fon of To- p. 710, arc. Rajched. 

grel, and whom a court party (S) And, according to Ken- 

would have advanced, io oppo- Jamir, had the title bf <So!lan 

fition to MaJJud. According to given hini'by the Khaliuh. 
the fame author, tbii war was 

Mod. Hist. VpL.IV. M was 

L, ,l,z<..:t. Cookie 

i6i The Seljuks cf Iran. B. I. 

was.d^in by fome of his domeftics (T), at noon, while he 
took a nap, after his recovery from a tic of fickiiefs ; being 
forty years of age. He was buried at Sh^refi&n, without 

Agtsimi' MASSUD, underftanding' that the governor of /"irj (or 

nijiir Proper Perfia), made fome difficulty to ackiiowlege Moktafi 

the new Khalifah, he fent his brother SeljUk Shdh, with the 

Jtabek Karafankar, to bring him to his duty. But the jita- 

b:-k had no fooner made one day's march, than he fent the 

, Soltan word, he would proceed no ferther, unlcfs he fent him 

■ Pir Mohammed Khdzen, his prime Wazir, whofe death he 

OTWso_/fl. fought^ This Wazir managed (late affairs very well; but 

crijice. . (Jifgiifled the courtiers by too firm and haughty a carriage. 

Maffiid could not confent at firft to fo unreafonable s de- 

■ mand ; but, as Karafankar had all his forces at his devotion, 

he was obliged at Jaft to fend him the Wazir's head- 

The Atabek being fatisfied, returned to his duty ; but did 
not long enjoy the fruit of hrs revenge ; for he died a few 
days after he had gotten rid of his enemy. The Solian gave 
his command to Ildightz, wth the almofl abfoiute govern- 
ment of Mherbijan (of which he was the firft Atabek (UJ, 
and that of Kurdtjlan. He likewife gave him ift marriage his 
fifler -in-law, who had been promifed formerly to Solian To- 
gfol, his brother and prcdeceHbr. Soon after this, Ahb&s, 
governor of the city Ray, with fome other confpirators, rofe, 
in favour of SoUymin Sh&h, brother of Majfud, and fet him 
on the throne. But this plot was foon quafhed ; after whicK 
the Soltan remained in peaceable pofleffion till his death '. 
ThtAtahtk As this is all we find in our authors relating to the re- 
i^enghi mainder of his reign, we (hall fupply the defeft with the 
aflions of the Atabeks of Ir^, who refided at Mufol, or Mo- 
ful, and are called lords of that city, and of Syria. 
Htj. 532, In the year 532, the Atabek OmMo'ddln Zenghi made a 
-A- D. progrefs into Syria ; and, on his arrival at Ham&h, (ent to 
"37- Slichabd'ddin, lord of Damaflus, defiring that he might marry 
laicWd in '^'^ tnoiher Zamorrod KhatUn, daughter of yil Ja-weli ; the 
tuarriatt. ^^'"^^ '^^X ^^° '"'''' '''^ college out of Damajlus, near the 
' river Barada. By this means Hems, and "its caftle, came into 
bis polTe(!ion. His motive to the marriage was, that as the 
affairs of Damajhus feemed to be under her direftion, he was 

' Abu'lf. p. 2SJ. "KoKD. ap. D'Herb. p- 563, art, 


(T) KonJam'ir, \n V Herbelot , !U)Thisdyna(ty commenced 
fays, he was flain by the Baia- in 555, and ended in 622. 

7 m 

t.i. ' Ninth SoUd», Mafl&d. 163 

in hopes thereby to gain the counrry : but, when he found 
himrdf difappoiated in his cxpeffattons, he went aWay, and 
left her behind. 

Next year, he took Baaibek (X) (in Syria) ; and, the year Taieifi. 
following, Shahrazir, with its territory. In 539, he refcued ftt^pltt^ 
Roha (or Edejfa) ont of the hands of the Franks {Y}; and £"■. 
laid fiege to the ftrong caflic of Sir (Z) ; but when he had "*J- 139' 
near taken it, an exprefa arriving, with an account that Na- ' 
itro'ddin, his deputy io M«^/, was llain, he departed. How- ^^ 
ever, the Franks, fearing his return, fent for Ntjme'ddin (A), 
lord of MJrdin, and delivered it up to him. Next year, 
^ile he waS befieging the caftle of jabar (B), certain flaves-*''^^"'^ 
flew him (C), in the night, and fled to the caftle. The be-A'*^' 
fiegcd on this, rejoicing, called out to let the army know 
their commander was flain ; accordingly, entering his tent, 
they found him breathing liis laft. He was more than fixty 
years old when he died } behaved with great gravity both 
towards his army and his fubjefts ; and was perfeftly flailed 
in the art of governing. The city of Mu/ol (D), before he 
took it, was, ft>r the moft part, deftroyed ; and the adjacent 
country, wWch now abounds with fruits and ordoriferous 
plants, was the moft barren in the world. 

/fUR O'DDIN (E) MahmUd, who was in the camp when Noro'd- 
his father was flain, drawing the ring off his finger, ^^'ent flrait ''"' Mah- 
to ffalfp i and, taking pofTellion of it, remained there; while'"'™- 
hishrothcr SayJh'dJtnGazi, haftening koiaShahrazur, which jj^: . 
bad been alligned him, eav^tA Mufol ; and thus became lord a'd. 
of that city, with ^l Jazireh (or Mefij'Otamia). He died n^n, 
there, aftcn he had rd^ned three years, and was fucceeded 
by his brother Kotho'd^ln Maiidud. His elder brother, NH- Sftilei in 
ro'dSn Mahmid, who polIei%'i !fa!rj> and Mam^j, in Syria, Syria, 
marching into Al Jazireh, took Sinjdr, without any oppoli- 

fX) And gave the command who, io 5JI. took the cafile of 

of it to Nafme'MHjytf;ovjfc{; j^l Hcteih irom the 1 aft of the. 

father of the famous Saluh'ailir, Mri-wan familx. 
vtSaUMn, who recovered Sy;a (K| Hill,a>n of Tjn calls it 

from the Cbrifiitau Abu If. p. Calogtnbar : it (lands on the £«- 

l6j. & feq. pbrutij, between Bir and Rui- 

(Y, William of 7>« fays, i: >oA. 
was by mining ; and that >/- (C) William of Tyrt fays, he 

teiime Toon recovered, but could wa$ drunk when he was II in. 
noE hold it. (OJ Mauftl. or M^ful, m ti> 

(Z) Or Jl Sir, on the Bm- vaiioufly written. 
phraut. L«t.obre-»e.i, 37" 10'. (E) He ia called Horendin, 

(A) He was fuccclinr m Ha- and Nu'el-'m, b> the hatorians 

/an*d£n1aawtifi> tbn llg.-.Ki, of the ciufade. , 

M» ' ,„feoogk' 

164 The Seljuks of Iran. B. I. 

tion, from Kotbo'ddin : but peace afterwards being concluded 
bet\Vten them, N&m'ddm refigned Senj&r, and took in lieu 
of it Hems and Rahaba {I"), in Syria. The fame year, he 
invaded the Franks about Jntiokh, and defeated them, after 
a bloody battle, in which the printS: of that city was flain (G). 
His fon Baymond (Haamund) fucceeding, who being but an 
infant, Iiis mother governed the kingdom during his mi- 
Dffiated In 546, Nuro'ddln invaded the territories of JuJIin {or 
iy Jofce- Jo/celin) (H), which lay to the north oi Halep; and being 
Im. met by that wife and valiant knight (I), was defeated, after 

*^ a*' T\^' ^ *^^''*^^ battle, and his armour-bearer taken ; whom JUJtln 
*■ "■ fent with Nuro'ddin'i arms to king Mafiid Ebn Kelj Arjlhi, 
* ' 5 ' ■ lord of Koniya and Jkfara ; faying, Tiris is your fm-in-k-w't 
armour-bearer : after him, fomething more will cent to you. 
Nuro'ddin, greatly incenfed at this conduft of J«Jiin, refolved 
to be revenged on him. Accordingly, fending for fome of 
the chiefs of the Turkmans, he, by large gifts, engaged them 
to feize Ju/lii/, knowing he was not able to cope with him 
in battle. ' The Turkmans ilierefore keeping a watchful eye 
Crfi h!at upon him, furpri^cd him one day as he was hunting, and 
•Jiixid. J)roughthim bound toAuro'ifdrii (K); who immediately there- 
upon went and took the caftles of Ayn lib, Azhz, Kires, 
M Rihuiindm, Borjo'l -refh (L), Doluk, Marajb, Nahre'l 
Jatur, and others belonging to y»/7/n ''. _. 

Maflud The year following, viz. 54;, Solt&n Maffud "died at 

4ie,. Hamadan, after he had lived forty-five years, and rdgncd 

'eighteen, with fix montlis over 'J. 
Bis cfja- This prince was a great lover of pious and learned men ; 
racier, iiumble and affable : but, for religion, clemency, juftice, and 
bravery, fyperior to all the Setj^kians. He often defeated 
armies at the firfl onfet, and killed lions with one ftrokc. He 
frcqueiUly, when a boy, was in battles, and fought himlelf, 

p Abu'lf. p, 155, & feq. ' D'Herb. p. 563, art. Maf- 

Ibud. Lebtar. p. 44. 

(F) Ot Rabba, on the Eu- (!) Yet If iJHam of Tyre gives 
^ra'es. \ him the cbarafter of a volupiu- 

(G) This wa^ Raymeml, who ous and dilTolute man, and one 
fucceeded Boamend; flain in who rejoiced at the lofs of Jn- 
1130. tiokb. 

(H) He was called earl of (K) ^j7//aJ»of T^r^only fays, 

EdrJJa, and refidcd MTilbajhar, he was taken by the enemy, and 

named lerbexet, and Turbejjel, died Jn the calUeof //<i/a^', or 

by the hillorians of the cru- Halep. 
fade. {L) That is, tbttirxtr ofleed. 

C. 2." Ninfb Saltan, MafTiid. 16^ 

He always came off viflor in the wars with his brothers. 
The people lived in great eafe during his reign ' . He dif- 
regarded treaTures, giving them among his co iniers ; ^vhich 
was the reafon tliat he almoA always %vant:d m mey, and left 
none in rhe treafury. 

MASSJJD was the laft of thefe Solians who had anySeljufcys- 
powcr in the Arabian Irak: for, upon his demilt, Moktafi,"!'/!!'^'' 
tbirty-firft Khalifah of BaghdM, of the family of Abb^, A.t>- 
priv^ the Seljdkiani of all authority in that city. For this 
reafon Ehn Shohnah makes this dynally to end in the year 
547 ; which was alfo fatal to the race of Cazm SokHns '. 

In the time oi Majfud alio a new dynafty of Atabeits ^Mfoi/ «/ 
arole, which carried away part of his dominions: for thcP^"- 
Salgarians, or famijy of Salgar, invading Pars, or Proper 
Perfta, alTumed the title of kings. They began to reign in 
the year 543, fixing their refidence at Shiziz, in that pro-Hej, 543. 
vince'. A.D. 

Wk fhoutd rob this reign of one of its greatcil ornaments, "48. 
ftiould we omit to mention the famous Mo-jjiddo'ddin aiti If- 
ma'il ebn All; furnamed Togray, who was reckoned the nrall 
excellent writer of his time (M), both in verfe or profe. A 
celebrated poem of his, called Lamlyat al Ajem (becaufe the 
lall confouant of each rhime is a Lam, or LJ, has been pub- 
lifhed by Dr. Pococi, wth a Latin tranflation, under the title 
of Carmen Togray. According to Ebn Shohnah, he v/asTbe fa- 
firft employed at court by Saltan Malek Shdh, and Majfud'^"' To- 
made him his Wazir (N) ; but being taken prifbner in theS"/' 
battle which that prince had with his brother MahmUd, in 
513, he loii his head ; the Soltan alleging, that he inev* 
him to b: an infidel, and a -wicked man ". But Ebn Khatikan • 
fays, he was put to death by Mahmad's WazJr (or Vizier) 
yir no other cau/e, but that they feared him an account of his 
dcellent virtues '. 

' D'Hcrb. p. ;6j, art. Maflbud. Lebcar. p. 44. * Id. 

ibid. ' Lebcar. p. 44. D'Herb. p. 748, art. Salgar. 

■ Ebh SuoiiNAH apod D'Heth. p. loa;, an. Thogrul. ■ Pa- 
coCK, notsc in carm. Tograi. p. 5^ & fcq. 

(M) Or the fhanix of the (N) In ihe city of Mau/a/, oc 
agCi as Pecofk has it. Mufit, according to Potcd. 

M 3 SECT. 


i66 fke Scljftks of Irin. p. t 

S E C T. X. 

S'ii reigns ef Maiek Shah //. Mohammed Soleymin 
Shan, Arllan, and Togrol, in whom the dfne^ 

Ttutb lyiALE K Sh4h 11. fnrnamed Afygayaio'Mit (A) was, ac- 

Solian, 4" cording to JCandamir, the fon of Mohammed, fon of 
Malek Malek Sh^h I. But Abulfaraj and the Lektarikh ' lay, that 
Shib II. he y^s thg foQ of jv!(ihmud, fon of Mohammed, and, confc- 
qucntly, great grandfon of the firft Malik UkAh, He fuc- 
ceeded his uncle MaffAd: but his rdgn was of no long con- 
tinuance, as ha\ing Ijeen wholly unworthy of the crown ; . 
for he minded nothing bu: indulging liis appetite (B), and 
left alf»{rs intirely to his miniftcrs. 
hitfiftd KoTwiTHSTANDiNG his incapacity, he grew jealous of 
the authority of A'Ajt/' if*, { Belingh^H, who had been 
in great eftcem with Maj/iid, and jMfied for one of the moft 
raliant men of his time. Malek Shii wanted to have him ar? 
refted : but as the whole court thought fuch a proceeding 
. unjuft, ffajan Kandar, who was one of Khajlek's bed friends, 
^Kalbefc.j-efoivcd to prevent the blow; and, under pretence of giving 
the Soit^n a grand entertainment, kept him three days in a 
continual debauch, in the midft of which he fazed' his per- 
fon, and (hut him up in the caftle of Hamadan, After which 
they fent for his brother MohaTtzmed, who was then in fChu- 
zejiin, and fet him in his place. Some time after, Malek 
Sh&h, Hnding means to efcape out of prifon, fled to the pror- 
vince from whence his brother had been called to the throne; 
where he remained till the death of Mahammed, in the end 
of the year 554 : when, haftening to fJpihAn, he re-afcend- 
ed the throne -, but enjoyed it only a few days, dying in the 
banning of the year 555, at the age of thirty-two ". Ac? " 
cording to the LthtarSkh, he r«gned the firft time fouc 
months, and the fecond no more than nine days. 
KhaMfak It is propei; to take notice here, that as the Ehali&h 
Jh»ies off Mokttfi owed his elevation to the credit and authority of 
MaffM, he had no Ihare la the go^xrDmcnt of his ftate 
during the life of that Soltan ; but, after his death, be re- 
iiim?d the authority, aod ijaite eiduded that of the SeU 

* Abv'lp. p. 2+7. Lebtar. p. 44. y Kond. apud D'Hcrb. 

p. 544, art. Malek Shih, fil. de Moliammed. 

(A) "X^m Lehtarikh futnoins C!)) J>iver£oni and m«iic 


C. 2." Eleventh Seltduy Moiammcd II. 167 

jikians ; for he would not allow MaUk Shih to have any 
power or commaDd in the foltanat of Baghdid; but remained . g,]--!, 
Jble matter in his dominions, which comprehended Babylonijb ,^ J 
Irak (C), aod Jra&ia .■ in (hort, it was under tiiis Khalifah" 
ihat the power of the Seljikians, who had been mailers of 
all the forces and poneffions 1^ the Khalifahs, began to de- 
dine, and, by degrees, became exilaft '. On this occafion 
Abfftfaraj obfervcs, that Al Moktafi was the firft who reigned 
'{p IrAi Araii without a Soltan, and governed his armies, 
as well as fubjcdts, according to his own will (D), fince the 
time that the Mamtuks, or flaves (E), firft- ufurped power 
over the Khalifahs, under Al Mojlanfir '' (F), 

As Klia/hek, who was the chief inlbument of the advance- Elputvth 
ment of Mohammed, fumamed Cayatho'ddin, would needsSeltan, 
have the tntlre government of the Jlate at his own difpofal ; Moham. 
and as that lord's credit, as wel) as riches, rendered him'"^''^^* 
powerful, Mohammed foon perceived that he could never reign 
with authority, fo long as fuch a perfon was alivel For thjs 
reafon he refolved to get rid of him, according t9 the advice , 

o( one of his minifters ; who, alluding to the youth of the 
prince, and age of Khajhck, told him, that no iwvj tranches 
Jbit'from the fool of the vine, till the old ones -xuere cut atuay. 

Upon his death (G) the Soltan became poflefled of all the^/iji 
wealth which he had amailed, during tlic time that he had K.haibek. 
the management of the treafury. It is remarked, as a thing 
extraordinary, that he had Jn his wardrobe an infinite num- 
ber of very preciousmoveables(H), among which were 13,000 
fcarlet and purple vefls. 

However, the death of Khafhek had like to have been 
the ruin of Mohammed : for that gr>;at lord had made pow- 
erful friends at court, who were rtfolved to revenge it. With 

* D'Hbub. p. 591, art. Moktafi. ' Aso'LF.p. zjS. 

(CI Called alfo Arabianhfii, Khrjlik as feizrng Mali:i ShSb 

containing the antientA'^a/ii'rrii. witbout provocation, and fcnd- 

(D) He reigned twenty -fonr ing for MohammcdorAy with de- 
jears; dying in A/yVaA jj;. fign to deftrny him : but that 

(E) Meaning the '^urit. Mehamr:eJ,{ttl\-a%'vitQ his vil- 
(1-) It Jbould hs Al Montaf- laioy. Clfti both him and hit 

_^r. who was the eleventh Kba- armour-bearer two days after, 

lifah of the Aihai family ; un- as they came into his prefence ; 

der whom* the lurkijh militia and call out their heads to be 

began to ufurp authority over eatin by Jogs. Abulf.'p. 2^-. 
iheKhalifahi. (Hi The Ta,Uh KboxiMo 

(G) Abflfertj reprefcots gives a lill of thimalt. 

M 4 tlut 

i68 The St]jtk5 of Uin. B. I. 

that intent the Atabek Ildighiz (I), and Ai/anior, lord of 

Mar^gha, having revolted, depofed Mohammed, and proclaim- 

Ftitifor ed his uncle Soleyman Shih, fon of Mohammed I. The young 

/tar. ynexperienccd Soltan was fo frighted at this news, that not 

knowing whether to fight or accommodate matters, he fied to 

IJpAhm, while Soleyman Shdh took peaceable polTeflion of his 

capital Hamad^n, 

Soleymaa The new prince might have preferved the crown with as 

Shah ad. much eafc as he obtained it, if he had not been intirely de< 

niaaeed. ftitute of counfel, and very unhappy in his conduff. Among 

other indifcrete anions, he tobk the emplojinent of the great 

chamberlain from Mohammed Karazm Shdh (K), and gave it 

to Alp Jrgiln : he likewifc turned out his Wazlr Fakro'ddin 

Kajbi, and put Abu'lnejib in his place. Thefe two grKit (tf- 

ficers, to revenge their difgrace, plotted to rcftore Ahham- 

med: but as that could not be done without depofmg Soley- 

mdri Shdh, and the militia feemed to be attached to him, 

. they contrived a ftraiagem, which fucceeded to a wonder. 

Flitsinbii MOHAMMED Karazm Shah tells his iifter, who was 

turn. the Soltan's wife, as a great fecret, that there was a plot on 

foot to bring back bis nephew, and that her husband's per- , 

fon was to be feized that very night. The too credulous 

and fearful Soltan, without Ilaj'ing to enquire the leaft into 

the matter, immediately mounted horfe, with a few of his 

intimates ; and took the road to Mazanderan, a province on 

the Ca/pian fea. 

Next day every body was ftrangely furprized to hear of 

the titan's flight. The foldiers immediately mutinied, and 

Moham- running to the palace, plundered it. Mohammed no fooncr 

nw4«- received advice of his uncle's flight, which was fo like his 

turni. own, than he made halle to Hamaddn, and re-afcended the 

vacant throne. ' 

SOLEYMAN Shah, perceiving too late that he had been 
duped, refolved to attempt the recovery of his dominions, 
by the alliftaiKe of his friends. The Khalifah Moktqfi, and 
ths Atabek Ildighiz, joined their troops to thofe which he 
' _ D(/l(irt^(i gathered in MazanderJn .- but being met by his nephew on 
mc/e. the banks of the river Arrai, or Araxes, was overthrown, 
and obliged to retire to Mu/oL Mohammed, after this vic- 
tory, was inclined to have attacked the Khalifah, who gave 
protcflion to his uncle -. but confidering that he had another 
enemy, his brother MaUk Shah, to fear, he was obliged to 

(I) Who became afterwards thor, mull be inil)::ktn here } 
firft Atabek of Aitl^ertijan. for it cannot be MabamiHid, but 

(K) D'Htrbfkt, or his aa- AtttK.. 


C. 2. Twelfth SeMn, Soleyman Shah.- 169 

make up matters with Maktafi, who gave him his own dangh- 
' ter in marriage. 

This princefs, named Kerman Khatun, let forward with a Hii Jtaib. 
jplendid equipage, and the Soltan went to meet her ; but aa 
heOic fe\'er which attended him put an end to his life, on 
the road to Hamadan, in the year 554 (L), after a fevea 
years reign, aged no more than thirty-two. 

This Soltan has always pafTed for a moft accompUfhedMif^a- 
prince, who polTefTed all the virtues military and civil, iiera^ir, 
was a great patron of men of learning, piety and merit : in 
which, fay the hiftorians, he was the very reverfe of his bro- 
ther jyialek Shnh. 

\\ is faid that this prince quitted life with much relac- 
tancc ; that, before he expired, he ordered his troops, his 
court, and all his treafures, to pafs before him, as it were 
in review ; and that, after he had confidered all thcfc things, 
he faid, U-jxv is it poffible that a power as great, as mine it 
not abW to Uffen the weight of my iiforier one Jingle graia, 
nor la prohng my tife but for a moment F 

He left his dominioEis to his brother Maiek Shdh, who (va- otiJ fuectf- 
Tivcd him only a few days, as hath been faid befope, H^/""- 
was fuccecded by his uncle Soleyman Shah, the other compe- 
titor of -'t/oiammfrj''. 

SOLETMAN Shih, furnamed Moazoddin Kaffem {lA^riKilftb 
was the fon of Soltan Mohammed, foil of Malek Shah I. Sellan, 
This prince being at Mujol when his two predeceflbrs died, |?'f/™^ 
the great lords, after fomc debate among themfelves, fent for * 
him, and placed him on the throne. But as he gave hipilelf 
up intirely to voluptuoufnefs, and the company of women, 
without minding the aifairs of the Icingdom, they feized and , 
imprifoned him, at the end of (ix months ; advancing, in his 
room, his nephew ^^rjldn, in the year 555. Setting afidc^^-SSf- 
his had conduA, for which he was depofed, he did not want fT' 
ibme good qualities ; he was very familiar with thofe about 
him ; and excdled as to his behaviour, perfon, and eloquence, /j foai 
He died in the fecond month of the year 556, at the age of Jefo/td. 
• forty-five '. This is all the account we have of Soteyman's 
Oiort reign, and taken from the Lebtarikh ,■ for D'Herbelot 
tys nothing of it. As for Abi'Ifaraj, he does not mention 

* RoND. Takikh'Benariti, Tahikh Khozedah, apad De 
Herb. p. 608, & feq. art. Mohammed, fil. de Mohammed. 
'Lebtarilch, p. 4;. ^ 

(L) In Dbu'lbajjab (which is (M) The Lebtarikh calls him 
the laft month), accoiding to the Soltio Meazo'tlJin Ahulhartth 
tiilarikh, Stlr/mon Shdb. 


179 ^' Seljfiks of Iran. B. I. 

tJw Soltans of Person Ir£i, after the death of Mohammed II. 
when the Khalifeh threw off the S^^uk yoke, and refumcd 
the dominion in Irak jirabi. 
Thitmiii ^//SL/4N vasth^fanoi Togretf, (on oi Mohammed, fon 
Si/tdu, of M<i'ei Shhh I, and furnamcd ^bul Modhaffer Zeyno'ddtit, 
Aril^< according to Kondamtr i but the Lebtarikh ftUes him Rokno'd- 
darviUt. He is commonly called by hiftorians TiL-dek Arjidn. 
He was proclaimed Soltan in Hamadan, by the influence of 
the Atabdc //i^f^^z (N) : but from the beginning of his rdgn,, governor of ifpdhan, and Enhanej, or Inanj, ap\'erTior 
Km r ^^ ^''-*'' '^^^*'''*'^ agajnft, him ; fetcing up for Soltan one of 
^Sdien"^^ coufins, named Mohammed SdjUi Shah ; with whom, at 
the head of a great army, they advanced to Hamaddn, Arjlan 
went to meet ^em as far as Kazvin, where he got the vic- 
tory ; for the new Soltan was killed in the battle, and his 
two fupporters fled to^ay, and from thence xa Mazanderan. 
ARSLAN had no fooner put an end to this war, but he 
found himfelf engaged in another ; for the prince of the Ab- 
khaz, fituated between Georgia and Cherkaffla, who a 
Chrillian, entering Adberiijdn, ravaged that province as far 
Jiifiau as ftazvin. The Soltin, turning his viftorious arms on that 
tin ^b- fide, defeated hiin near the fti"p:ig taftle of Ktii, which ho 
W»4i. ■ had taken and fortified ; but, l>elng afterwards forced by the 
SefjUk troops, was deraolifhed. 

Towards the end of the year ss<h So!i4>j Arfl^n mads 
a prt^efs to Ifiihin ; the Atabek kenghi Salgari, who com- 
manded in that dty, went out to meet him, and took the 
oath/)f allf^iance. The Soltan confirmed him in his govern- 
ment, of which he extended the bounds as far as the province 
of Fars, or Pars. 
Enbanej Enbaiuj (O), who ftill ftood ont in Mazanderan, in 561 
M'-niti. made alliaitce with the fCnrazm Shah, by whom being alTiIied 
Hej. ^61. with a great body of troops, he entered Irak, and 
A. D. ravaged the country about Abber and Kazvin ; but ArJlJn, 
* 5- accompanied With the Atabek Jldighiz, coming on him by 
furprize, obliged him to fly to liis old retreat. Two yeara 
after, the time rebel, invading the country about Ray, de« " 
featcd Mohavandd, the fon of iliighz, who was fent againft 
Jiim. Hereupon Ildighiz himfelf matched ; and, being comf 
to that city, made feveral propofitlons to Enbancj, who there- 
upc»i agreed to go with him, and make his fubmilHon ta 

{^) S\t^kts,ht\iofAdhirhi' t3n*/£:aheganhis,'5i"!e. of the 
jflBi'where he began foreign ti'jrah r;^^. 
Ihe iimc year in »vhicb the Sol- (O) Or Inaij. 

C.i: FourfeenthSoUSa, Toffo] II. i^i 

the Sdtin ': but the oight before this ceremony was. to hfHe it 
performed, Enbunej was lulled in his lodgings. The Soltanj/""*- 
OD this news, gave the goverDment of Ray to the fon of lldi- 
ghiz, who foon after marrjcd the only daughter of Enba- 
nej J the fruit of which was Kutluk (P), furnamed Enbaruj. 

In 568 the mother of the Soltan, a princels of great ViX'TbeSoltS^ 
tne, died in the houfe of lldighiz ; and this great man iol'^'"- 
iowed her not long after. The Soltan himfelf, afllifled at 
two fucb great lotles, fell fick of a hnguilhiog iUnefs, Hej. £71. 
which yet held him till the year 571, when he diedj after A- D. 
be had liv^ about forty-three years, and reigned about fif- "7S- 

He was a prince not only valiant and generous, but aHioHiiehti- 
patient, and good-natured to fuch a degree, that he would '■*i<?«". 
' not fuffer any-body to be fpoken ill of in his prefence ^ ; nor 
ever treated any of his doaieftics with feverity or contempt ; 
being eminent for modefty and clemency. He never denied 
any-thing to a man of good addrefs and parts. He was very 
nice in his diet and apparel ; for he had very rich vefts, of 
every kind and colour, wrought with gold, fuch as no king 
before him ever ^yore. His converfaiiou was familiar, and 
perfeflly fmcere *. 

' TOGROL, fon of Soltan ArJIin, called alfo Rokno'ddinFoartitiak 
Kaffem \,K), was the lall Solt:^n of the Sftj£k dynafty of/ran, S"''^'* 
or mher Per/ian Irak, which ended iu him. He fiicceedcd,^°E"4 
and governed his dominions happily enough, under the di- 
reflion of his maternal uncle the valiant Aiohammed (S), foa 
of theAtabek /iWj^A/z. 

At the beginning of his reign Bad^mjar attacked the pror 
TJDCe of Ad/>erbij4ii ; and Aichammtd, fon of Soltan Togrol ebit 
Moitammed, that of Perftan Irdk .- but Mohammtd ebn Ildighlz^ 

s Ko^D. ap. D'Herb. p. 129, art. Arllan ben Thogrul. 
* Lcbtar. p. 45. 

(P) He is called Killgh, \a (R) He is named, in die I^i, 

I)'//«-*a!j/, p.8j6. wiio, p,277, larUb, SoltSn Mog^athe'ddin 

art, Ctilai, gives him the fur- togret. "*» 

tameof J'airoVAi. (S) AhuUfaraj i:.7&\irV\m the 

(Q_) According to the ft'ij- Pahl^anMi,bBiavndA„lUigar, 

hiarijISn, fifteen years eight and fays he was lord^^f Al Jt- 

pontht and fifteen da;g. The ial, at Kilnjlai, pitt^f Pir^tat 

lebtsHib of Gehirn has but ele- Irak-.oiRirf.lJfakdn^birhijia. 

yen vears ; yet places I he be- and^rr^n, wliii:h;1all'is part of 

ctODrDg apd «Dd of his reign as ^mtaia. Abu I/. ^-i«?2, & feq. 
^ the text. ■ " . ■ 

ranily of 

'\yi ^ yiff Seljfilts <?/ Iran, B.I. 

with his brother Kizil Arft&n {T), marchJog againA them 
at the head of a great army, foon obliged them to fue for 
Grandeon- In the tenth year of his reign there was one of thofe great 
jmdien. conjunflions of the feven planets, which very rarely hajipcn. 
Hej. ?8i.i( appeared in the tliird d^rec of Libra; which, according 
c ^"^ * x\^i:% of judicial aftrology, is a very airy fign. All the 
" 5- aftrologers of that time, and among the reft Anv&ri, fur- 
: named Mahtm, or the phihfopher, foretold, from this phaeno- 
menon, that fuch violent winds would blow the foremcn- 
tioned year, and fuch dreadful hurricanes arife, that moft of 
the houfcs in the country would be blown down, and the 
mountains themfelves fhakea. Thefe predidKons had fuch ■ 
an effcft on many people, that they provided places under- 
ground, to retreat from fuch horrible calamities. 

NoTwiTSTANDiNG all ihis, to the Utter confufion of 
the aftrologers, there did not blow, during the wliole time 
afligned by them, any wind to hinder the farmers from 
thrdhing and winnowing thdr com '. Yet the hebtarikb, 
as if to lave the credit of thefe pretenders to foreknowlege, 
would perfuade us, againft the teflimony of other hiflorians, 
tiwt they from thence prt^nofticated the great devanations 
which attended the irruption of the MoguU under Jengh'tz 
Kh3ii, into the coutifries of Tiiran and Irak '", twenty-nine or 
thirty years after : for although he began his conquefts in 
the eaft of Tartary about that time, viz, in 599, yet he 
did not move weftward, to fubdue provinces, till the year 
614, or "that following. Why then might not the phaeno- 
menon in qneftion have related rather to the fall of the SeU 
juk monarchy of Iruk ? Was it too fmall an event for fo 
great a congrefs of the heavenly bodies ? Or could the aftro- 
logers fee the more djftant evil, but not that near at hand ? 
( In the fame year 581, the Atabek MoAamnW, ioaoi Ildi- 
ghh, dying, a breach began beriveen the Soltan and Kizil 
Arjiim Atabck (U), brother of the deceafed ; for this ambi- 
tious lord, taking upon him to difpofe of all things without 
fogrd'% orders, gave great umbrage, both to that prince, 
and his whole court. The Atabek, percei«ng the Soltan to 
be difpleafed with him, to prevent the confcqucnce, mardied 

■D'Herb. p. loaS, art. Thogml ben Arilan. > Lebtar. 

P- 41- 

(T) Or K!ttl Jrjtan. that i>, (U) Third Atabek of ,A(fer- 

tbe red lien. He is called elfe- hijiii. 
where KiUj or Kihj A-jlai:, and 
KsKd Kimt J'-Jieu. 


D, = ,l,z.;^tvG00gIf 

C. 1. Fourteentb Seltdn, Togrpl 11. i;3 

of a fuddca with a great army towards Hamaddn, from 
whence Togrol, having no forces to oppofe him, retired. Ai- 
zil ^rjliin ente.ed the city without refiAance; and, aftCT he- 
had continued there for feme time, content with having given 
Oiis infuU to the So! tan, withdrew home to j^Aifriyin. 

After his return, Togrol re-entered his capital ; but the_/i/«* tbt 
Atatjek did not let him remain long in quiet : for drawing^c/fM ; . 
fevcral difcontented lords of Ir^ to his party, he perfuaded 
them to lend proper perfons to let the Soltan know that they 
were ready to come and a(k hie pardon, if he would have 
the goodnefs to grant it them. Togrol, well pleafed with 
their fubmiffion, appointed a day to receive it, when he was 
to play at mall in tl^e great fquare of the city. The lords 
did not fail to appear there before him ; tut, inftead of aid- 
ing pardon, feized his perfon, and imprifoned him in the 
flrong caftle named Kaldt aJNaju, or the caJiU of refuge. 

As foon as this fchemcwas executed, Kizil Arjlan MtJd-£viJthis 
herbijan, and came to Hamadhn, with delign to fet Sattjar,'/^^«ii»"- 
fon of the late Soleyman Shah, on the throne. But, on re- 
ceiving advice from Baghdad that the Khalifah Ihould fay, the 
j4tahek had a good pretence to become Soltan bimfelf, he re- 
folved to alTume that title, and ordered money to be coined 
in his own name. This proceeding changed the face erf af- 
feirs : for Fakro'ddin Kutluk, (X), his nephew, and feveral 
other great lords, who thought thcmfelves his equals, enter- 
ing into a confpiracy, flew him, and divided To^ro/'s domi- ' 
nions among them. 

At this junflure the Soltan efcaped from his confinement, /fc retf 
by the intrigues of Hoffamo'dd)n, general of his troops ; "vtri them. 
among whom there were many attached to his intereft. As 
foon as he *as at liberty, he raifed an army; and defeating 
the rebels, puniflied them as they deferved. 

Yet did not this put an end to their treafons ; for, in 588,Kutluk 
Firmah, widow of the Atabek Mohammed, fon of lldighiz,'''l>'^ ' 
who lived in the Nur am, among the Soltan's women, was, '"■^• 
prevailed on by her fon Kutluk Enbanej to poifon the Soltan, "9*" 
But that prince having notice thereof, prevented the blow, by 
making her take the dofe which fhe had prepared for him. 
After this, he ordered Kutluk to be feized ; and would have ' 
fecured his own life, if he had not rellored him to his li- 
beny ; wliieh was the caufe of all the evils that afterwards 
befel Wm. 

{X) Surnaroed Enhanij, be- Atabek of Mhtrlijan, twenty 
fore mentiontd. He was fifth yean after. 


. L,0.>^[C 

1^4 1%e Seljfiks of Irani, .' B. 1 

jaintdby In fliort, this ungrateful wretch wa^ no (boner rdeafed 
Takafii : out of priibn, than he fent to fierfuade Takajb, fifth king 
of Kdrazm, to conquer Per/urn Jr4k. Takafb came ; and, 
joining his forces, went: and took the cafUe of Thabrek (Y) ; 
but, Ster remaining for fome time about Ray, retired on thi 
Soltan's approach, leaving Tafaj to take care of his new con- 
quells (Z). But next' year Togrol recoveral all, and puniihcd 
7'afaj, whoui he took prifoncr. 
dath lie- In 590 KiStliik, afting in concert ^frith Taiajh, marched 
/eateJ. with a powerful 4rmy into Per/tan IrBk ; but being defeated 
Hej. 590. by Togro!, was obliged to fly into Karazm to his afliftance. 
^- "■ The Soltan, after this, thinking he was delivered Jrorn all 
*'93- his enemies, abandoned himfelf to women and wine, with 
boundlefs excefs. And though he was told, that Taia/J was 
railing a formidable army to invade his dominidns, yet in- 
toxicated with his fuccefs and delights, he continued his de- 
bauches, and neglefled affairs to fuch a degree, that th« 
grandees of the court wrote thcmfelves to Takafb, to njake 
hade, afliiring him that he rilight eafily furprize 7'ogrol in the 
midft of his revels. 
Togtol ,7a*ii/!', following their advice, made fuch expedition, that 
J^i* he arrived at the gates of Ray, while the Soltan was dill bu- 
ried in' liquor. However, he put himfelf at the head of his 
troops, and marched to^vards the enemy, repeating certaiil 
verfes out of the ShAfi Nameb (A), fpoken by fome warrica*, 
boafting of what he would do ; but raifing his mace, as if he 
was going to ftrike, in conformity to the words he had pro^ 
nounced, he difcharged fuch a blow on one of the fore legs 
of his horfe, that the bead fell under him, and he was throwd 
himfdf by the fall. Kuthik, feeing him on the ground, im- 
mediately ran, and, with one blow of his fcymitar, put aa 
end to his life, and the power of the Seljuks in IrSb '. 
MJictaf 7JK/1SH, not content with the downfal of this prince, 
Takalh, whofe dominions he joined to his own, fent his head to the 
KhalJfah at BaghJ^J, atid had his body faftened to a gibbet 
at Ray ■». It is furprizing, that neither of thele two remark- 

' D'Hero. ubi fopr. p. 10:9, & feq. " Lebtar. p. 4J; 

' Di LA C«oix hift. de Genghis, p. 131. 

{Y)'rairai,0'cTabarak,TMv containing tlie hiflory of thtf 

Raj. anlicn kings of Pr /a. Itcon- 

(2) This affaT is fomewh>t fills cf f 0000 diftichs -, which 

differer.ily related eirchere. (be author. Trrdufi, was thircjr 

SieD'Hi:ri.p. 834, art Tecaju. jtirsin compofing, at the com- 

(Aj Thatii, the royal hock; mand of Mahm d Gaxxl, often 

it U a famout PtrJiaM f oem, mcBUOQ«d before^ 


L „...M=.L,OOQlC 

C. 2. Fourteenth Saltan, Togrol II. lye 

able circum fiances, which are related by the Lebtartkh, are 
mentioned by D'Herbeht, in either the article of Togrollim 
Arjldtty or Takaj'b,-w)\evt\n the death of that prince is fpoken 
of; and yet, if we miitake not, he takes notice of them in 
fome other place : on which occafion he obferves, that fomo 
of the Perfian hiflorians afcribe the ruin of the Karazmian revngrJ 
empire, not many years after, by Jenghiz Klhn, under Soijha^M: 
tSn MohammeJ, fon and fuccelTor of Takajh, as a judgment 
on that family, for their ingratitude to the Stljukitins, to 
whom they owed all their fortune. 

According to Kondamfr, Soltan Togrol reigned eighteen 
years ten months and a halt ". The Lebtartkh has twenty- 
nine years, by millake for nineteen ; as appears by collating 
the year of his death with that of his predeceflbr, marked by 
the fame author. What children he left (B) docs not ap- 

This prince had a great many noble qualities ; for he vrasCiaraSir 
not only remarkable for his courage, which made them com-«/"Tho. 
pare him to Ro^am and Isfandhr {C), bat alfo for his witgcoli 
and knowlege. He excelled fo much in poetry, that fome 
compare him to Anvari and Dhahir °. He often dtfputcd 
with the learned ; had a majeflic mren ; and was very hand- 
ftfme. He furpaflcd all the Seljukians in goodnefs and juftice, 
as well as ia managing his arms both on foot and on horfe- 
back '. ■ 

The Seljikiani of Irak were, for the general, a race of Of tie 
very accomplifhed princes, eminent for their good-naiure, 5'e//«»/ 
courage, liberality, juftice, and other virtues, both civil and'" f™"'*'- 
military. They owed their ruin chiefly to their too great 
bounty, and indulgence to their favourites; particularly in 
velting governors with fo much dignity and power, as the 
Kdrazm Shihs and Atabeks, by whom their own was at length , 

extingu idled. 

Thds wc have completed the hiftory of the firft and prin-D^^j^ 
dpal Selj.ikian dynafty, compiled almoll wholly from thcori-Greek 
cntal hiftorians : on which occafion it may be proper to ob-' 
fcrvc, that, (A the fourteen Soltans whereof this monarchy 

■ D'HiKB. an. Seiginkioun. « Ibifl. p. ioi3, art.Tho- 

ffv\. > Lebtar. p. 4;. 

(B) Wc only find an account the bloody Tarkan Kka'rm, wi- 

of one fon, wh6, on. the irrup- dow of Taia/^, who had fo un- 

rion of the A%o/j into Karazm, worthily treated his father. De , 

in the year 1 tta, was put to ia Crei- hift. G"'!ih. p. 242. 
death, with eLven other chil- (C) Two Perjlan heroes of 

drca of fovcrcign princM, by aatitiuity, 



f}S The Seljiiks of Iran. B. L 

■ confiAs, none but the two firft are mentioned (under the cor- 
rupt names ot TangroUpix and AXan) by any of the Byzan- 
tine hiftorians, excepting Anna Comnena, who fptaks of the 
two next, Maiek Shih and Barkiarok, but names only the 
latter ; after which they 'pafs to the Seljikian princes, who 
fettled in JJia minor ; feeming to confound the two dynafties 
Mni other ATTON, or Hay ton, the Armenian, whofe memoirs, in 
iifiariaMt ; conjunftion with thofe of the Greeks, the other European hj- 
florians have hitherto made ufe of, does much the fame thing. 
He gives fome account of the four firft Soltans ; after which 
he fays, the Turks c\n to pieces the brother of Barkiarok, wh<J 
attempted to afcend the throne ; and then falling out among 
themlelves about (he choice of a fucceflbr, the Georgians, and 
Greater Armenians jnvaik 1, and drove them out of, Perjta, 
That hereupon they removed, with their families, 'into the 
kingdom of Turky [meaning Ikoniuni] ; and thus Increafed 
the power of the Soltan, fo that he became the moft potent 
of all the Soltans''. 
ititthat This falfe information, or dcfeft in the before-mentioned 
f^Jit authors, is doubtlefs owing to the grants made by Malek 
Shdf) I. of the countries weft of Perjian Irak ; which thus 
becoming in a manner independent, under their own princes, 
the Greeks heard no more of the great Soltan, as they called 
him, of Perjia, or of his commanding in Afa minor ; and 
therefore concluded the empire of the eaftern Mjiks was at 
an end. It muft likewife be confldered, that, by this aliena- 
tion of the provinces, the iotercourfe with Perjia was much 
interrupted ; which might be one rcafon why Hayton, though 
living in the very midft bet^veen thofe two monarchies of the 
Turks, appears to be fo utterly ignorant of the atFairs of 
. Perfta, from the time oi Barkiarok, to that of JenghSz 

*ahe -.To this caufe may be added his want of reading, and 

mfcrihtd. being of a different language, as well as religion, from the 
7urks \ which might have hindered him from converfing 
with. his neighbours, or confuiting their hiftories. .It is true, 
Abu'lfaraj, as having had the advantage of [ht-Araiic, and 
more erudition [han his countryman Haytm, carries down 
the Iriik dynafty through a fuccelTion of eight Soltuns more: 
but alter Iriik Arahi conies to be fevered from the Srljiik do-" 
. millions, by the Khaiifah Mokt:!fi, on the death of Moham' 

t Haith. dc Tart cap. \j, p. 378, & feq. ap. Grymi, nov. 


D,a,i, Google 

C J. W* Scljiiks p/Kcrmiri. 177 

med II. in the year 554, as if that diftnemberinent had cut 
off all correfpoDdence with Perfia, he fpcake 00 more of the 
fuccceding Soltans of the Selj&k race. 

C H A P. III. 

The SoU&ni of the fecond branchy br dynafly, af 
the Scljukians, called that of Kerman. 

"tyES-MAN, the country from whence this race of Sol- itermln 
_/\_ tins takes its denomination, is a province of' Iran, (ximnanhj. 

Perfia at large, the fame with ancient Karamania, 
It has on the weft Pdrs, or proper Perfia ; on the north Se- 
jeft&n, QvSiftan \ on the eaft Mekr&n, and on the Ibuth the 
ftraits of HarmCiz or Ormis. The principal city is called 
Kermjtr, or Siiyan, fituatc near the borders of Pars. Be-* 
fides which, we meet with feveral others, as Tuierin, Cab- 
bts, Bartir, or Berdastr, Majkih, or Mafrih, Bemnasfr, or 
Kermasin, Bartt, Ciroft, or Sireft, i!c. To which may be 
added the ports of Jajies, Mina, and O'omr&n, or Bander 
Mbifi; with the illands of Harmuz 2.aA Ke/hom, which lie 
off the fouthcrn part of h, at prefent called Mogofian. 

This dynafty takes the name of Kerman, becaufe it vzs fti exftxt 
founded in that province : bnt the power of its princes was 
Hot confined within the bounds of that fingle country; foi* 
they enlarged tlieir" dominions not only by the acquifition of 
FJrs, on the weft, but of the countries eaftward, as far as 
the river Send, or Induj ' ; comprizing, as it fliould feem, the 
provmce of MekrdH, c» Makr^n, with part <£SajeJiSn, and 
Sablejldn, and polGbly fo much c^ India as lay between thote 
provinces and the Indus. 

All the oriental hlftorians agree, that this dynafty zom'andJura- 
menced in the year 433 of the Hejrah, and ended in 583, //oji. 
fubftfting 1 50 years, under eleven Soltans, viz. i . Kaderd. 
a. Saltan ShAh. 3. Turin Shdh. 4. Ir in Shah. $. /Irjlin 
Sh&h. 6. Mohammed, y. Togrol Shdh. %. Arfan Shahll. 
9. Baharim Shih. i O. Turan ShJh II. II. Mohammed Shah. 
Of whom, from the fcantinefs of the extra^s given by D'Her' 
Mot, who is our only afliftant as to the hift<u7 of this 
branch of -the Selj&kians, it appears that the orientals them- 
(elves have fpokcn very litdc. 

Kaderd, or Kadherd, the firft, and founder of this rao: o(Firfi$oI- 
Soltans, who, from himy arc, by way of diftinftion, called ean, Ka- 

■ KoND.ap. D'Herb. p. 801, art. Selgiukian Kerman. 

JtfoD.HisT. VoL.IV. N Kadtrdkns, 


jjS Thi Sdjftks e/KaoiW. Ik t 

. Kkder£ans, was the fofl of Da-wd, or Ji^^ SA, iMolMt- 

A. D. ^i^H fon of 5^^'^. In the year 433, his Mods Tagnl Bii, 

1041. founder of the dynafty of /ran, made hint ganrttes of the 

■province of Kermin, the Perjian Karamania of the Cwrfi, 

where he became fo powerful, that be aJlumed the aotboriiy 

of a fovereign prince, and added to his new /dominion di 

' province oi F4rs, or Pars (A), adjoining to it on tbevefl; 

A.D, So that, in the year 455, he had formed aconfiderablelbit, 

1063. \y\i:\i which he might liave been fadsfied ; but the defire rf 

poflefling more, which generally increafes with many ac^ 

Hii ojnlii- fidons, having pufhed Wm on to attack the dominioni of hi 

tim fatal, ncphevf Maiek ShB I. third Soltan of the Seljiki of trh, 

j). Di he was defeated at Gurj, in the year 465 ; and, being ukca 

1072. prifoner, was confined in a caftLe m Khorafdn ; where, not ioog 

after, he was poifoned, by order of Ma}ek Sbih ", U bull 

been already related '. This prince reigned thirty-two jats, 

and left for his fucceflbr a fon named Saltan Sbeh. 

Sternd MaUk Sh^, on the death of his tincle Kaderd, refbred hii 

Se/tair, dominions to his coufin-german SoltAn SkiA, foa of KaJirJ, 

Sohan who re^ed there under his authority. But he enjoyed (be 

Shah. throne no more than two years, according to KemiaMir.i^ 

A. D. places his death in 467 ; although the Tarikh /CioiiJebffn 

1074. him a reign of twelve years, which ends in 477 ■■. 

7/,irJ TUR^N Sh&h ebn Kaderd fucceeded his brother Sikk 

Soltdt, Shah, under the authority likewife of Malek Shah. Hereifp- 

TurSn ed with the reputation of a very juft and wife prince, a^>^- 

Shah, ing himfelf folcly to repair the inins made in his domimou 

A. D. by the former wars. He died in the year 489, after be hid 

<o9S' reigned thirteen years-, and left for his fuccefTbr his {bo, 

Tourth IRAN Sh^h, who had not the good qualities of bis t- 

Soltan, ther ; beftdes, his cruelty was fo great, that bis fubjefb, bo 

IraaShah. longer able to endure it, in general confpired a^uofl and He* 

A. D. him, in the year 494, and fifth of his reign. He was (ac- 

1 1 00. ceeded by /frjlan Skdi, fon of Kerman Shah ebn Xadtrd '. 

FiftbSol- ARShAN Shah, during tlie life of hU unde Iran Sh^, 

tun, Ar- kept himfelf concealed in a fliocmaker's ibop, for fear d 

ilan Shah, falling into his hands : tmt as loon as he heard of his death, 

he made himfelf known, and was proclaimed Septan the iux 

year, by the unanimous confent of the grandees of the kii^- 

dcon. So that the Se§iiiaitt of Pars, his relation^ whs had 

•• Konn. ap. D'Hcrb, p. 225, tthq. . ' P. 119. 

*■ D'Herb. p. 826. art. Soithaa Schah. 'Ibid, p. 498, ait- 

Irdn Shah. 

tA) The Ardi write Ta.t, die Pirjia%f Tan. 

7 fw" 

C. ^.* 5& Sejjflks tf/ EciwUnr ty^^ 

given much uneafinefs to his predeceffors, durft not attack 
him. By this meaM he reigned in peace for forty-two years, 
and left the crown to bis Ton Mohammad '. 

Mohammed, fumamed Jlfe^aya^Ao'iif/n, fucceeded his feflifcr^'*'* Sot' 
Arflan Shah, \a the year 536 ; and, the better to feclare hiiti-'^"- Mo- 
feif in the throne, put out the cycs of all his brothers. AUj'?™"'"'- 
that Kondamtr relates of him is, that he was much addiflcd }' Si** 
to judicial aflrology,.and wai very fond of hnilding. He ' * 
teigned, fourteen years, and died In the 551ft year df the A-D^ 
itgrah P. Seme call this prince Turin Shah ^, j i'^* 

rOGROL Shah, {uxvavixi. Pihhm'dMn (B), fucceeded hiS .T^^ „fi 
&d>er Mithammed, and died after reigning twelve years. HiSa/ia)*, 
left three fons, Jrjljbi Shdb, Seharam Shdi, and Turan Sh^ Togrol" 
who made war on each other for twenty years together, wiitShM. 
kkemUc advantages ; fo that he who gainied a viftory was *^^i' 5^}*" 
adOKnrii^ed for Soltln, till foch time as he was driven ont- R" 
hf <Mie of his two brother^ i', Thefe fueceeded one anochef, " *" 
u iet fbrtfi in the liA of Soltdns, at the beginding of this 
dtapto- : bar the duration of their reigns is fo uncertain, that 
•o^ors have marked only that of 7ur&n ShSh, to which they 
ipve oght years. ' 

He was fueceeded by his nephew Mohammed Shah, Ton d^Elrwnti 
his brother BaharSm, or Beherdm Shdh, who was the eleventh*"'''^''. 
kod laft Solcin of this fecond branch of SeljtSdns .■ for MaUk ^^^^^Jt 
AoMT, a defcgidant of AH, fon-in-Iawof the prophet m~"*'^^^*^ 
Imuudy having conquered Ar,*r»w« in the year 583, this dy-Hcj. c8j. , 
arfly, according to Ktmdantlr, ind the Tarlkh Khzldeh, \x'- A. D. 
Om^ exdnA. But the relglis of the four laft Soltans are »i8^. 
fo anfoondcd one with the other, that the TarM al Ta-wa- 
*9h redLODs no more than nine princes in this Ktrm&n fuc^ 

" • K"iiD. ap. D'Herbi p. 1 j6, art, Ardtn ScUh, fil. de Kei-; 
hfaiScbii). > Ibid, p- 609. art. Mohammed, liU d'Attlin 

Scfcai. ■ D'Hkrb. p. 800. ' Kond ub' fupr. p, 

j^, art. Thogrul Sch&h. ^ Ibid. p. 540, & Soo, att. Ma-' 

IckAtoar, & Sdgiukian Kerman. 

(B> Thatii, tbenprtr ofrihg^m^ 

q HA p. 

L I,.,. t.L.OO'^iC 

, 1 So fif SeQaks ef RAm. $. L 

C H A P. IV. 

Hifiory of the third dynafty of the Scljukians, 
called that of Rum. 

'' SEC T. I. 

^btir dominioHSt conqtteft^ eftabtiflment, and fut- 

Daum!-- r"|~^HIS dynafty of the SeljUkiani takes its name of XiSm 
ntuim ef I from their having Mgned in the country of /ISm, 
M&m, -M. that is, of the Romans, or rather of the Greeks ; 

whofe emperors, being the fuccefR)rs of the Roman empenws, 
preferved the title of emperors of the Romans, although they 
had changed the feat of their empire from Rmte K> Confian- 
tinople; and confequently were more properly or immcdiatdf 
foverdgns of the Greeks ; who betides, at this time, of the two 
nations were only fubjcA to them ; Italy, and the weftem 
provinces, having been torn oS from their -dominions many 
ages before. 
j^xfcnf ef Vt is not to be prefumed, from the denomination which 
■Axdmea. this dynafty or race of Soltans bears, that they were lords of 
all the. then Roman empire, or country of the Romans. No : 
that was a glory referved for the Othm&n or OzmJn Turks, 
who rofe out of the ruins of thcfe SeljUkians ; and fiicceeded 
them firft in their dominions, which were conlined for the ge- 
neral to j4Jia minor, or rather a part of it, during the reigns 
of all the Soltans of the Selj&k race, excepting two. or three 
of them, who extended their conquefts beyond its bounds, 
to the eaft and fouth, which yet continued as part (^ the 
RAmeati monarchy, .Ijut little longer than their, refpeflive 
Araba, - The Arabs, who were the great reigning power before 
their Je. the Turks, had wrefled from the Roman emperors all thdr 
(lint- dominions in Africa and Afia, excepting Afia minor ; the eaft- 
em parts of which, towards the Euphrates, had been in thdr 
hands for the fpace of more than 1 50 years : but, for fome 
time before the appearance of the Seljiikiaiis, the' emperors 
had recovered from them moft of the cities they were pof- 
felled of within that province, befides fomepart of theCr«fCT- 
Armenia ; which, however, they fooQ loft again ; beii^ taken 
irom them by thole new invadcm 


C. 4.' Their CmqtUj9 and Sett Umerit. iSi- 

j4S1A Minor, called more commonly by the latter Greeh Alia nri- 
JaatoH (A), that is, the eaft, is a large peninfula in the weft- "or- 
em part of Afia. It is bounded on the north by the Euxine ^"if*' 
tok and Profionth, on the weft by the Archipelago, on the 
ibpth by the Mtditerranean fea and Syria, on the eaft b; 
the coBOtry of the Luzi at Karti, and the river Euphratet. 
It is fitnated between the 3tith and 42d d^ees of lati- 
tude, and (jetween the 44th and 56th degrees of longitude, 
reckooing from Ferro ; bdi^ in length, friun wefl to eaft, 
abont 640 miles, and in breadth, from fouth to north, 360 

At the time whco the Seljih Turks firft invaded j4/a vu-Pmintm 
mor, it was divided much in the fame manner as in former 
times, into twelve large provinces : all thefe, excepting four, 
are maritime ; and, b^inniog with the moft eaftern, lie round 
the petunfula in the following order : Potitut, Paphlagonia, 
and Biihynia, along the Euxine lea : Myfia, in wluch is Eoiis\ 
Ipnia and Carta are walhed by the Archipelago : Lycia (con- 
talniiig Mylia), Pt/tdia (including PamphiUa), and Cilicikt 
by the Mediterranean. Tbe four inland provinces are Ly£a, 
Phry^ (ccMitaioing Lycaonia and Ifauria) ; Cappadocia (in- 
cludii^ Armenia minor and Cataonia) ; and Calatia : the three 
firft run eaftward, in the fame parallel, from Ionia to the ri- 
»er Euphrates ; and the fourth lies to the north of Pbrygia 
and part of Cappadocia. 

Frou the account which has been ^ven, the reader m^ their fiht- 
fcara an idea of the manner in which the provinces are fitu- «"'Mfi 
ated, in refpcA of one another : but, to make it ftill more 
dear, it may be proper to obferve, thai Cappadocia, which 
extends from Phrygia, eaftward, to the Euphrates, lies be- 
tw<Bcn Pontus on the north, and Cilicia, with part of Syria, 
on the fouth -, Gaiatia has on the north Paphlagonia and Bi- 
ihynia ; Phrygia, which is the middle province of all, aid 
whofe north-weft comer is covered by a fltirt of Byihinia, is 
bonnded on thewefl by Myfia, Lydia, and Carta ; aad on the- 
fouth by Lycia, Pifidia, and part of Cilicia. 

Of thefe provinces, Pontus, Phrygia, and Cappadbcia, ax^miiJ»a^ 
very large ; Paphlagonia, Bithynia, Myfia, Pifidia^ Cilicia, and ■'""'*• 
Calatia, c^ a middle fize ; Lydia, Caria, and Lyda, ftili lefs ; 
and loraa leaft of all. It is not neceflary to give a dcfcrip- ■ 
t(Oa of thefe provinces, according to the ftate they th«i were 
in ; for that will appear fufBciently from the hlftory of the 
3oltans, wherdn we fhall have fret^u^nt occafioB to.lfeak of 
the principal cities and pla^ in each. 

(A) And conuf tly, by the Turks and oiheri, Kaselin. 

N 3 Thb» 

iSs The Sd]<Aa of VAm: B. I. 

Sdjfllcun There is fcarce any piece of hiftory among Bvrofnaru in 
a/eri I greater coafiilion thai^ this of the Sf^Mum SolUos of R4nt ; 
or any which defnveE more to be fet In a clear light, oa 
account of the great conne^oa which there is between the 
a0irs of thofe Soltaos, and th<^e of the latter Roman or Crerk 
emperors, as well as the Othman Turks, thdr lucceflbrs, reigo- 
JBg at preient. TWs is owing kj the imperfs6Uon of -die Greek 
account of their alTairs, full of charms Mid errors ; from 
whence alone Ltunclaviui, JCnawlts, and all other wefterd 
writers hitherto, have complied their hiHories oi tiiisdynafty. 
itth^i It may be prefumed, that the defefts of the Greek authon- 

jfyife. might be'fnpplicd, and theirerrors correfted, fromtheorl- 
cnal, elixs;ialiy thofe of Jfim, or the conntrics fubjeft to' 
Qus third branch of the Selj4kiani, if any <rf them yet remun. 
But the misfortiine 4s, that very few particular hiflories of 
the eaitern moo^rchies have as yet come to onr hands ; and 
fewer Itill of the general ones be«i traonated. 
IFamtef WiTH refpeft to thefe latter, no tranHation has been pob- 
ielfs, ■ Uflied which treats of the Soltans of this dynaily, excepting 
that of the compendium of jibii'liaraj, who fpeaks only of 
the firft eleven, and mentions no more than the names of 
fomc of them. For this author, digefling his materials by 
way erf annals, gives no complete or connected account of any 
pf them^ flowaver.fomuch as we fin'i in him has been of great 
ufe to lis, in compiling our hiftorv of this third branch of 
the Seljikims ; nor could we pofGbly have cleared up the 
fbief difficulties, and fettled fomc oS the moA important ii&i, 
without h|s aini^ance. 
jb-^tri- . As to the extracts from the oriental authors which D^Her-' 
tvtui au- ifht forniftied, they are very inconfiderable ; for though in 
tffrj. tjjg articles, under the names of the refpeflite Soltans, he 
cites Koadamir, elm Shonab, and other Perjian hifhirians, and . 
has gt>'en a table of thofe princes, from one or more of them ; 
yet the account he gives of the tirll Soitln is copied almoft 
■^riioliy. from ^k^'lfaraj ,- as if the other authors had inferted 
nothing relating to them, but their names ; \^ich, in fuch 
cafe, he <ought to have acquainted his readers wFfi, in order, 
to account for To (Irange an impcrfcfHon, and, prevent thdr. 
imputiag it to his own oef^e.^. 
pi'eck The Byzanfine hiflorians aifbrl no fmall fund of mate- 

mitiien, rials : but then they relate al'noft In'irely to fuch princes as 
they had wars Cff other tranf^otioos with ; and extend very 
liltlc beyond tboie afTairs, in which th^mfelves were concern- 
ed : fo that you' neither find in them a regular feries of the 
{((dtias, DOT often the true names, if the names it sU, even 

■ <)i 

, „.. , L.OOQIC 

C.4' Their Ccnqaeft and Settlement. 183 

of thofe ViFh whom they had to do. In Ihort, they have ihir Ji. 
idated matters very Imperfe^y. ofcco erroncoufly, and \aJtSt. 
great confufion, both ia point of hUtory.and chronology ; 
nor bare the orieDtals beeD tree irom the fame faults, whicti 
we ftnU point out as we go along. However, as fcanty as 
ottr raemcMn are on every iidc, yet the authors often fupply 
the defeats of one another : and if, froip the oriental Writers, 
we have received a more complete fucceffion of the Soltans, 
ud better account of their tranfaftions of the eaA, yet we 
fluuld be at almoft an entire lofs for their conqucfts ip the 
wefi, but for the Gr*ek hiilorians. 

It has been already ronarkcd from thofe writers. In theKotol- 
rdgn of Ti^roi Bek, firft Soltwi of the Seljukian dynafty of '»'*'> '■-. 
Jrin, that the Turks penetrated very early into the Soman"""^" 
empire. They teU us, that Tagroli^x (B), fo they call To- ^ 
grtl Bek, kiring Itain Pifarei, or Bafaftri, and fubdued the 
BmbykmaTit, that is, the people of Ir^ Jrahi, oamed alfo 
iSakfli, fern his oophew Kuttu AU/et (C) againft the ^ra- 
hant ; but, beiiig defeated, he Bed into Baas, or Baa/prakan^ 
iaPsr/krmtoiit, and, forcing hie pallage through the country', 
returned into Pnfia ; where, for fear of the Soltio, who was 
enraged at his bad fuccefs, he retired to the city of P^^ar, 
and rdxUed agaioA him, while he wae La ao expedition againft 
(he ^ahs. 

7'^6'*(3i/i' /A" having finifhcd that war, marched agsdnft rifRoman 
Kuttu Mufes ; and while he held him befieged in Pafar, feiit""/'*'-'- 
part of his arhiy, under the conunand of Affan, or Haffan, fur- 
temcd the deaf, another of his nephews, to fubdue Perfar- 
wuxiA i but he mifcarrytng in that ddlgn, the Soltan dif- 
potched his half-brother Airaham Mm, or Halm, with a 
peat force, 00 the fame expedition, which fucceeded better 
than the former : for Ahrafram burned Artze, or Arzer&m, 
and loolc the Raman general prifoner. Tagrolipix genetouAy 
gave the gdieral his liberty ; and, fome time after, fent aii 
ambaHador to fiimmon the emperor Monomakhus to become 
his tribotary. The emperor, for this inful^ treaiflig the am-, 
ballador ill, the Soltan in^-aded Iberia, at a time when the 
Pamnns were at wai- with the Pataiaaia Scythiatu, whi^h tiap> 
pcned in the year of Chrift 1050, 

Not long after, difcord arifing between the Statin and Rdeh 
Ahi'aham Mm, the latter fled to Kutlti Mufes, and jcMiied in"^"'*,* 
the rcbcllioa: but the Soltan defeated them both near Pafir '• ogrol 
be£3re-mention^d ; and Abraham being taken piifoner, was '^'=''- 

(B) Or Taagrolhix, ai fome. write ; Bryeaniiu.niore correflly 

(C) Or Kkltk Mufti, ai fame KMluma, for Kutianu^i, 

N 4 put 

iS\ TbeStijdksefRiim. B. I. 

put to death. Kutlu Mufti, with his c6ufin MaUk, ftn of 
j^braham, followed by 6000 men, fled to the borders of the 
Romiin emi^, from whence he fcnt for proteftion to Mo* • 
nomakhus, a little before his death, which happened in io;4i 
but Inftcad of waiting for an anfwer, he marched into Perfar- 
men'ta, and took Karfe, now K&n \ when hearing that 7a~ 
groHpix was advancing towards him, he fled to the Arab), 
who were the Saltan's enemies. 
Canjuifis H^RE KutlaMufes remained durii^ the life cXTagrohpix i 
0i»iJeati,bxtt as Toon as.4xan, fo xheCreeki call Alp Jrjl&n {X>), had 
atcended the throne, he returned from Arabia with confide^ 
rable forces ; and advancing to Re (E), laid claim to the fo- 
vereignty. Bat while the two armies were on the point of 
engaging, the Khallfiih of Jaftji/on (F) of a fudden appeared, 
and, Interpofing his authority, which he ftill retained in fpi» 
rlcuais, brought the contending parties to this agreement i 
that the Soltan (hould hold Perfta ; and that Kutlu Mu/es, and 
his children, who were live in number, thongh not parttcu-^ 
larly named, Ihould pofTefs all the countries' which they were 
able to take from the Roman emperor 1 and that Axon Ibould 
allift them wtK troops for that purpofe. 
McarJiag THE Solian having, in performance of thi* agreement, 
to tbi furniflied Kutlu Mu/es with forces, that prince, and his fivB 
Greeks, fons, invaded the Roman empire ; and, in the reign of 3fi* 
chael Ducas and liis fucceflbr, made himfelf mailer of ailP^/y^ 
armenia, Lycaonia, Cappadocia, and Bithynia. 

According to Cedrenus omA Zmaras, who have been fol- 
lowed by all the weflern hiftorians, Kuth Mufes lived at leuft 
lixteen years after that battle j for they fay that he actually • 
commatidcd a body of troops which came to the alTiftance 
of Botuniates, when he ufarped the empire » in the year 
Tielrer- This account, given by the Greekt, of the conquefts 
ftr/raiv^.made in Afia tmmr by the Seljiiklaii Turki, under the com» 

■ CkdrE^. ZoKAK. &uiiiv. hiA. vol. xvii. p. 134, tcfeq. 

(D) Knavjlfi boldly denies accoant of the four fifft Sokiai 

Ax«* and A/fafahta, or Alf Ar- to bi falfe. 
/in, to be the Tune {Ui which (E} Thacis^^, or A-?, the 

is mor^ than LeuiKlauiui, whofc northern capital of Per^an fydi. 
plagiary he is, would veniDre to (F) Thus the Greet writer^ 

do ; though relying too much confound BahyhH, which was 

on the autnoKty oiCedremus, he on the E»pbratis, with Bagbiii, 

lopked on Hapten the Armtnian't which is on the TVfrti. 

fi) lOnnki't ^, ^thitnth, f 9. edit, IHttuf. 

C. 4- ^lair Coi^uefi and Settlement. iZq 

waaA of Kntlu Mmfet, it raiiA be confefled, contaiDs ferersl 
arors ; which having remarked el&vherc ",- we /hell not re 
peat h«re. It will be fufficient for our purpofe to take no* 
tice, in this place, that thofe writers were mifinformed as 
to the event of that battle; which, according to the oriental 
biftorians, was fought in the year of the Hejrah 455; andHej. 4J5. 
proved fatal to Kutht Mufes, who was killed by a fall from A-D. 
his horfe, as he was going to engage Alp Arjl^, againft whom ■°'^2- 
herebclled, in the province erf Damii^on', inPerfia. ■ " 

Now this bong fuppofed to be faiS (and the authority i^ff^f^g**^' 
hiftoriiuu ought to be allowed, when (peaking of an affiir^"'^0^' 
which concerned themfelves, and happened in their own 
country), all which the before-oKntioiiied Greek authors re 
late, poncerniDg the anions of Kvtlu Mufes after that batcloj 
' mnft be Mfe : and this feems, in good meafure, coofiraed 
by Nicephcnts Bryennitu, a more correA hiftorian than thd 
former, who rela^, that the emperor Michael Tent an ambaf< . 
fador to Soleyman, ion of Kutubtus (G), in the year 1074, 
defiring his afTiAance againft Botaniattf * : which implies thac 
his father was then dead. And this may explain what he 
lays afterwards ; that, in 1078, the lame ufurper y^n/ /o at- 
mand fuccoun ^Mafur (H)- one/ Soleyman, y^»/ ^JCuCulmes, 
prince of Nice ", that is, late prince of Nice. 

The iingle remark touching the death of Ketolml/h Is ailEnfiary 
which has been yet tranfmitted to us from the eaflem vriter&iate 
oooceming that prince (I), corruptly called Kut/u Mufes by 
the Greets ; excepting another, which feema to bo taken fronl 
them, made by a late author, who informs us, that he cfta- 
blifhed himfelf in Afia minor, about the year of the HtjnA 
442, (of Chrift lojo) ' ; which is not at all improbable; 
iince, according to Cedrenus, the Greeks became acquainted 
with the Turks ^bout th? y^ar 1 040 ; and ten years was time 
faffideot for making confiderable cotiquefts in that country. 

HowEVBH that be, the C/-«* hiftory fe«ns to clafh again'£<ri<M 
wth the oriental in this article : for if Kolelmi/h had fetded '■"^'^ 
himfdf in Afia fiinor fa early as th« year of Chrift 1050, 

*■ See before, p. 108. * See before, p. 107. 'Ni* 

c|rH. Bkyen. in Micb. Ducam, c 15. * Id. in Botaniac 

c. t. ^De LA Croix hift. Genghis Can. p. 127. ' 

(G) Which it near«r the trm (I) D'Herhtlot has given ni 

name Ji^a/i^&, than AJi//» JI/iF- no article under his name, in 

/ti. his bihliatbeque trienlali ; and 

(H) A miftake, we prefume, AiuW/araj only mentions him 

for Ma/Sf, or nther JUi^iUi sod his fon Stltyman . 


^86 theSe\jtknf Mtn. b.t. 

boor can it be'tnu^Md thftt be Ihokld mpfeiF two or diree 
ymn sfwr to tbe -heiien of (be Arm empire, fuing for 
mwBttm, IS ibc <?Matj lelate die cafe ? for this {^fpeSa 
nm cither to hare bocR drivca out 4^ his new pensions 'a 
that am aaj , almoft u iooa as lie acquired ihem, whk^ 
we bar Nodung of &om ddxt quarter ; or elie that be had 
BOt as yeujnade any ccxiqiidU there, which is coatrary to the 
Mthvit^H the caAcm l^oiiaiu. 
Eoul- It wenld be in vain to pretend to {btre the above d^itsl* 

"^M' tics, titi *e are fuffidcntiy fumilhcd with memoirs from the 
*^ cafiern writers, rdating to fCotcbnyb. In the n»ean time it muA 

be AbftiTtd, in behaU of the accoant gtreo by De la Crvix, 
which -«« only fappofe to haw been taken from Ibme c»ieiitd 
nuhor or antbor s, that there is an error in the Greek relation, 
which fcettu «> leHen its authority, fw the application madft 
bjr that Seljttkian prince to Mommnxhus, is laid to have been 
nude after tbe battle agaioft T^gr^ Bek, wherein Ikrahim, 
his conflu, and par«>er in the rebeWoii, was taken and 
ftrangied. Now this couM aot poffiUy be the cafe ; fince 
that battle, by the Kflimony of the oriental writers, ww 
foaght in the year to;9, wMch was five years afrer that em- 
peror s death ; and if the Byzantine hiflorians have miftaken 
in One clrcumflaDoe, they might in another ; efpedal}y wheA 
it relates to an event which happened at fo great a diftance 
• from the cajxtal of tbe empire. 
jk Afia Om a prefumptioa therefore that Kttolm'Jh had eftaUithed 

mi&oi. lumfelf in ^n miiur aboat the year 1050, he will have a 
kiad of dtmiinion in that country f«r ^e fpace of thirteert 
yeart. However, it is not this prinoe, but his Ion Sokypt^ 
who was the firft <rf tpe SeljMitn Soltans of /lOm .- oordott 
it appear that Sofeyman, who did not begin his rogn till niiM 
years afrer his father's death, derived any title to thofe ter- 
ritories from him. 

BtfT before weenteropcwthehiftoryof that prince and his 
descendants, it will be proper to fettle the niamber gf them, 
with the b«f;inning5 and len^hs of their reipe^ive rei^iit 1 
about which there is no finall difagreement, as well between 
the oriental aiithors and the Grecian, as among the oriental 
authors themfelves. 
SoItSns Iv order to do this the more cffcftnally, and to the 6tif- 
j^ Rum. fa-rtion of «ur readers, we fhiU infert two tables, or lifts, 
of the Soltdns of the Sum dynafty : the firft according to the 
pdrJii\D authors, as communicated by D'Herbelot, with our 
re narks thereon ; the (econd as reftified by the afllftance of 
other oricnul authorsj compared will^ the Greeki- 

- * Soltanv. 


Thar Qm^^Md Statmeni. 



Reign began 

TqttS Kr/?M 




J. s*>»a» - -. - - 




2. DaW, or KiUj MUti 




3. MffU .... 


i|. Kilij Arflin II. - 





«. Azto-iSn Kilii Arfli, 




J. G,.yMkMn Kv Xi^tw ■ 




8. Jzzo'ddin Kaykavii 




). Ma-iUl, K,yiMd - . ■ 




10. G^^Uma Kty KUfi-^ n. 




U. RdmfiUnSakymlttU. 




t1. lUy Kkfra-^ 




13. G^ytWMn M^U - 




14. KiyMU - . . . 




SMn .... 



Thi( table is wken from D'Herhelot, -who, m his ardde<«uS£»f« 
of the Seljikian dynafly, has given a lift of the Sol tans, with /fli(<». 
^ length of dieir rdgns ; and ve have added the yetrs ia 
n4uch they afcradcd the throne, from the partiailar artklef 
loJaied in' his bibliothetjue, under their refpeflive names. 
The fignres i*ith5n hooks, rcTultlng from the other niimberSj 
have been infected by ns, to fiD up the \'acailcie$ ; that our 
readers may bettetyjudge of its real imperfe^ions. 

Those which occur upon the face of the table are two Itt imftr- 
fwy material ones, Firft, the fum of the years which all thc/i^ww 
princes rdgned amounts only to i8p, being 31 Ihort of. the 
dnratioo of the dynafty (reckoning from its commencehienf 
io 490, to ITS conclufion in 700), which makes 220 years. 
The fcoood apparent defcA is in the interval between the fe- 
cmd and fiirfa Soltan : for, as that interval appears to be S6 
yews, and the years of the rdgns.of the three SoltSnswith-"'-'^''' 
in that period make but 47,>which ^1 43 fhort ; cither thofe 
reigns muft have been conHderably longer than they are re- 
prefented by the table, or elfe there muft be an omiifton be- 
tween Datvd and RtAno'ddin of one or two princes, whofe 
S' ^ns are necedary to fill up the vacancy. 6e£des thefe great 
efts, you find that the number of years reigned dp not 
always tally with the years when the rei^ b^n : thus Rgkni 
n'ddin, tbe iifth Soltan, \i madf to feign ?4 years ; yet the 
dUbace betw^t the bc^nning of his reigq and that of hit bu- 22 years. 8y the fame rule Gayatho'd^n, 
^ iirnttth, ought to bAT£ 8 yevs te^ reign in^eftd of 6, 


i83 ne Seljflks efR&ni: B. I. 

vhtht-j^o'ddin, the ninth, has 2 more ffvca l&iA than come 

to his fliare. 

Di/apvf In effcft, D'Herbelot acknpwieges there is a great differ- 

«w ence between Kontkmlr, whom he fcems to follow, and the 

amtn^tbe author of the Mghiarijdn, as to the length of the reigns; 

though he only mentions two inftances, which r^rd the fc- 

cxjod and fourdi Soltans ; the NighiarifiAn allowing the firft 

bnt four years to his reign, and giving '20 to the. Utter; 

which widens the gap, taken notice of above, between the 

fecond and fifth Soltin, by four years. 

With regard to this chafm, as it is evident, from what 
hat been laid, that there is fome defeat in the numbers, lb 
D' Herbert gives us room to believe thei:e may b» a Soltan 
wanting to coroptctc the IIA : for this author father informs 
US, that Aoni^ffiir and x\^cNighiariftSn^1Sa alfo in the nameS| 
fuccellion, and number, of the Soltans. 
, trientai As to the number (which is the article of the three at 
Ufiarimi pTcfent moft to our purpofc), he fays, that the Nighiariftin 
, . mal^eB thefe Soltans the t4th and t5th, whom Kondamir 
reckons the 13th and 14th ^, as in the table. Hence it ap- 
pears, that, according to the firll author, there were fifteen 
Soltins in the dynafty of S6m, or Jfia minor. 

D'HERBELOT, indeed, has not told us other the name 
of the additional Soltan, nor his rank in tJie fucceflion ; but, 
with regard to the latter, where is his reign more likely to 
come in, than in the interval or chafm betbre-mentioned i 
Nay, that author feems to point out the .very place ; for 
though in the table he reckons Majfud the third Soltin, 1* 
(he article of Majfud, he makes him the fourth (K). 
fmrtj Nqw this being fuppofed, we have found out a Soltan to 

$»ttd. fupply the place of tlie third; which, by his fetrii^ Maff«d 
a defcent lowert becomes vacant. And there is the more resuba 
to believe that there oughf to be more Soltans than three 
Within the- interval in quellion ; becanfc, according to our 

sD'Herb. ubirupr. 

(K) Accordingly, Alau^iiia, bic, is only the feventb in the 

who in the table is the ninth, in article under bis name. But it 

the attide of CalMad is faid muft he obfcrved, that O'flw- 

10 be the tenth. It Is true, he is htht not only oiade ufe of au- 

not uniform in this terpeft; for thors who diTagreedon this fub- 

GayalhaMn, the feventh in the jeft, but alfo that his Hblie- 

table. is made the fifrh or fixth theque is very incorrefl ; he not 

in the article : in like maniicr living either to fit the work for 

Kayia^s, the eighth »n the la- the prefs, or to fee it printed. 1 

' 3 computatioB, 

L ,„ .=,l.,otwlc 

C.4^ Their Conquejl aaJ Settlement. if^ 

compQtatioii, that interval is lai^er by twelve jeun than vhat 
the foregoing table makes it. 

As to the difagreement which D'Herbtht fays riiere is ' 
amcmg the orienul hlftorians, with refpeA to the names of 
the Sdtans of R&n, he has furnilhed us with no inAance 
thereof: but wc (hall mention fome hereafter, particularly ia 
the hiftory of Azzo'dtHa, our twelfth Soltan ; and perhaps 
fbme authors put his name In the fucceflion tnAead a Roht' 
»'ddin% as we ourTelves have done. 

. In thefe remarlcs on the foregoing . ubie, the reader iceaRMfiJi 
the grounds for the alterations which are made in that whichyw* tbt 
follows ; the particular proofs in fupport of which wU be 
produced,, as we go along, in the hiftory of the Soltans. It 
may be fufficient to intimate here, that, as the dufm before- 
(neotioDcd has been fupplied from certain occafional remarks 
left us by the Byzantine hiflorians and j^bu'lfaraj ; fo, in fet- 
tling the chronology, we have been chiefly oblig^ to the laft , 
author, who has inierted in his annals the deaths of three ok 
four of the Soltins: which ferveas (b many fixed pcnnts to 
guide us in our enquiries, and juftify our diJIenting from the 
authority of other oriental writers. 


Reign began 

Years SmmJ 




\l, Soliymn_ - - - - 









2. David, or Ki/ij Arjl^ 




3- ^^J-/"" - - - - 



4. MaffHd .- . - 



5. Kiiij ArpnW, - 



6. Gayatho'Mn Kay Khafraw - 


1 191 


7. Roino'ddin SoUym&n - - - 



8. Kilij Arfldnlll. - - - 



A'cy Khe/raiu rettOTed - 




.9. j4zzoddin Kayka-ut 




to.' jilao'ddin Kaykobad 




11. Cayatho'ddin K^y KhofrawW. 


■ 23« 


la. Azzo'Mm . - - - 




13. Kay Khofravi 




Interregnum - - - 


14. Gayatho'ddm Maffud - 




le. Kayioiad - - - - 




Slain - - . - 




1^6 ' ^ Se^&lu of Rfini. B. t 

De/iat «f Thi i-Vaet of ths k^s, ^urtiidi sre infoted only accord' 
Greek jng to the years of Chrtji, are computed the bell wc omikl 
*«/^iir/ A-omiJie Itnle ^^t given by the ByzaMiat hiflorians, whd 
laldam nark the time' of aifHoiu ; which is an ahnoft inex- 
cqfable faaltf zt it git^es gieat perplexity to a compiler, aad 
nabu it very difficult to conncA the tuAory of me Cretis ' 
vAtik- that of other nadoos. -> 

It bos been already obferred, that 00 complete' feries of 
Soltans, or condaued account of thar tranfatftions, much 
1«6 the dates of than, is to be gathorod' frwn thofe writers. 
iJtmohvms, milled by Ctdremu and Zanarasi makes ttrd 
dyitafties of Soltoiu ; one zt Nice, which lafted only during 
ferm'deui ^^ retgns of Kiitlu Mufei and his foQ SoJtymin ShAh, as they 
M hijtary. obU hina : the other, at Jceniam, which commences \ri(b 
AlM'Mn, whom he mates to be the'lbn cpf one JCm Kofroeti 
bat df a diflerent &mily from that of Kutlu Mujes, and 
IkiVfif come out of Perjia, from whence he was expelled by 
Ibe Tartars \ Aod tho' the defefl of tbe^Solt^ns, hetwetA 
S»Uym6n and AUa'ddin, may b& fuppUcd in forae meafunf 
from' other fJrffJthiftoriBoe, who had better opportunities of 
being acquainted with al^rs thiui the two abore-mentioacd f 
yet, \rith regard to the Soltans who fucceeded Alao'dtUn, yon 
meet «ith fcarce any thing bclidcs their diftorted names, ac- 
CM^ the corrupt cuftom of the Greciant. What little 
there is of hiftory is very erroneous, and ddivetwl id great 


Reign of SoMn Soleym^fii 

Pirjt^,!. ■\T^HATEVER conquefts A(*>*ii(/J made in i^r ^^ 

idn Sole/' " or whatever power and anthwlty he exerdled thert 

min during his life; yet the Perfian hiflorians, who make his foo 

SoUymdn the founder of this SeljUkian dynaflyi are fo far 

froa deriving any right of pofleHion to him frtMa his father, 

that they {ixak as if the Turht had no dominions in /^ 

tnimr for him to reign over, till they were conquet^ by his 

uncle, 'Hamdailah al Meji£fi, author of thtTafk KhaziJefn. 

fianditht fays, \!b3XM<ilckSh^, thioi Soltin of .the &^'tf*ian/ of frAe 

(WMrr^. (or PerfM at large], on advice that the Gredt empefor (A) 

was- dead, lent SeUjimen, Ibn of Ketflml/hi td aaJ»- wac od' 

^ I.BUNCI.. hill. MoAilm. Turc^ p. 78^^ feq. 

(A] Thismaft be the emperor Dhgenft, vi\io di«dia 1071. 


•- ^'""Si^' 

C.4> ivj? S»itdn, Sf^mlb: i^k 

the Gretlu in j^ ninor i aad that this prince> haiingmade 
oonqudb there, fettled, himiclfeiuirely in the year 480. ■ Ain- Hej. 480. 
tttinir mart particularly informs us, that Ma/ei Sh^ gave to A. I>. 
lia couiiB Soif)im4a the countsy of Sam, or what he had* 1067. 
tKkea from the Cr^ei emperor, extending irom the Euphratet 
^ffOX vay iaco Jfiartmner, of which part Jrztr&m was the 

- It i» not laid when this conqueA or grant was made ; hmCemqmJi tf 
it may be preTuioed to have been done three or four years Rum -, 
sitxt his accdlioa to throne, when he began to carry liis arms 
vcftwnrd d that river : and we meet with a pallags, taken 
fiuri'thfe fame hiAorian, which helps to countenance this 
(qnoioo, nune^, tha.t in the year467, MalekHhah fent his Hej. 467. 
coufin SoUym^n into Syria, with an army fudicient to reduce A. D, 
that province; and that, in a ihort time, r.e fubdued the lor^* 
vb(^ country as far as Anthkh % It is true, Syria is the 
country laid In this paOage to be conquered, and not Afia 
mimir; but that might have happened through a miflake in 
Kmdavtir, or his tranllator D Herbelot, both of whom are 
pretty (tibjcA to fuch failings : and thei£ is the more reafon 
to bdicve fo; becaiUe, firft, we find SoUymi.i in that very 
year 467 , or of Chriji 1 074, aftually at the head of the ieA 
jik forces about Nici, when Botaniates the Roman emperor 
&i)t to him for fuccours("). Secondly, It appears from two™*** 
other oriental authors, of equal credit with Kondam r, and, "•^'• 
U our opinion, more accuracy, that the conqucft of Hyria 
WM not undertaken till the year following, viz. 46S, when Hej. 468. 
Milt, Qt Atkfii, was feat by ihe fame Sol[:in to conquer that A. D. 
province -, and accordingly did conquer it, and fettled there''. 1075* 
Nor do the- fame authors fpeak of Soleymaii'% entering Syria to 
aaJR any oonqueil, till about the year 477, when he took j/m- 
iiaW from the Romans or Gretks ; which was the only city he 
Oct po^feiTed in Syria, and which he did not long hold, as 
vUi be related hereafter. 

Ebou. hence wa think it highly probfiblc, that the begin- FjV^ji^w 
nti^ of Soleytn^'i rstgn ought to be placed much earlier^/* 
tbui the year 4S0 of the M^jrah ; altho' D'Nerbuht affirms 
tbex all the oneotial hiAorians unaQimoufly agree to fix it to 
that year, eiccspting one, who pais it three years higher*. 

* D'HsmsL. p. Szz. art. Soliman ben Cootoulmifch. 
^ KoiD. ap. D'Herb. p. 542, art. Maklc. Sdiah. ' Kons. 

vbi fopra. [•) See lower down. ^ Vid. E^n Amid. 

pi j^o. Abui.>, p. z57.alfo before, p. iifl- " D'Hsrb. 

p. Sai. an. Sdjiukian. 



i^i ■ the Seljfiks of R6m. B. t. 

But whether the iirft be the true comracncemcni of- the dy- 
naily or not, we may venture to affirm, that the latter muft 
beerroncons, bedufc we have proof that Soleymin died in 
478, which was two years before: and, indeed, from the 
difegreement which D'Herbelot confe/Tes there is among the 
his nign Oriental authors, concerning the number and re^ns of thefc 
/*■*/. Soltins, as well as from his giving little or no account, from 
them, of the aflions of cither Sol^mdn or feveral of his fuc"- 
ceflbrs, it appears! that the hiAorians he made ufe of (who 
ieem to be chiefly, if not folely the Perjian, excepting Abi'U 
faraj), had, in their hands, very few memoirs relating to the 
Selj&kian. princes of Rim, at lealV the BrU of them; which 
might have happened thro' ihe diHance of place and confu/ioa 
of affairs during thofe times. 
St/iJiJij However that be, on a fnppofition tliat Soltymia began 
grant, his reign in the year 467, it will be a farther coniirmadon 
that he derived nothing in fnccelTion from his father, u^o, in 
that cafe, died nine years before {and twenty-two, according 
to tiie account which puts the commencement of the dynaAy 
in 480); whence it may be prefumed, that wliatever terri- 
tories Kotolmijb might have beeij poflefled of In jljia minor 
tnt fttc- at ills death, whether by ufurpation, or grant from 7ogrol- 
ttjfian. bek, they fell into the hands of his nephew Alp ArJlAn, 
againft whom he had rel>elled ; nor did his fon SoUymAn. en- 
joy any part of them during the life of that SoltSn, a^ 
cording to the oriental hiftorians, who affirm, that the 
countries which he poflelled were conquered from the Romans, 
and given to him by Ma\ek Sh^, who fucceeded Alp ArflSn 
in the year of l^icHejrah 464,and of Chrift 1073. 
Earli trt-' The Creek writers are not acquainted with this grant, or 
grtfi the Soltan who made it : but the bcft of them agree very 
well with the account of this conquell, and the commence- 
ment of the reign of Soleym&n, as delivered by the oriental 
authors whom we follow : for they tell us, that, foon after' 
the death of the emperor Romanut Diogenes, the Taris 
broke into the territories of the empire. Michael Ducas, 
j^_ J) his fucceilbr, being alarmed at this irruption, fent agaiuft 
1071. then] JJaac Comnenus ; who, after gaining a few advantages, 
was defeated, and taken prifoner on the frontiers qf Capfa- 
Hcj, 466. (/of'n, not far from Cafarea. His brother Alexis, on his re- 
A. D. turn, having patled the river Sangarius, was attacked by a 
1073. party of Turks, who had already made incuriions thro' Bi- 
thynia. as far as Nice, 
gf ,i,f Anothi:r army was foon difpatched ^ainft them under 

Turjcs. the command of John Ducas, the emperor's uncle, and Cttfar; 
but, while he ftrove to reduce Vrfcl^ who had revolted, the 

rar A* 

Tmikf vxk ttrt opportunity to pnrTue their cooqittfh. He 

Jaiinfidf was aftcnvar^s taken t^ Ur/ei ; aad both of thm 

fey ^trtui (C) (who then cooiim^ded the Tvrkf/h fcricca) at 

TWiniat, near the above-mentioasd river. About tbeliunc time 

a new anny came &om i'n;;^!! under Tu/oit, who r&va^ the 

country about JiHofia. To him Ur/ei, after bcii^ dilinil^ 

ky jtrtuk, applied ior aiCAance ; but TWoA betnynd him, tbr 

a iiuB of ni<Miey, to AUxis Camiuvut, who liftd bcsn ap^ 

pmnted gensnal in J0a. In hie tctum, ^xh wu attsckei » 

near HfrakUa in Bitbynia by h party of Tar*;, hut efcapei 

by Iu3 counts and addrofs. About the fame time Uaac Cmte 

lunut, newly made governor of ^ntiokh, vat flain in an ea- 

gagement with a party of Turkt, which had made an iirup- 

tioo into Syria '. ' .1 

Aftbk this, fi:vcral pcrfons a^iring to the emfure, ifficiju/SoleymSii 
ScDX an afflbaflador to SoUymda, Ion of Huttjmet (or KotelriMfi' 
mifb), dcJiring his ailiftanc^ againft Nicephoms Sotaniatei, ^ 
' gmeral of the anrnes of the esll, wlio had revolted ; and 
being jconcd by Khryf^ulei, a Tttrkijb commander, who itt '^* 
the retgD of Diogenes bad taken part with the Rvtums, had 
aiarcfaed from Phry^ into Bitiynin, \rith a deijga to get 
into Mcf . Sokymin, being gained by the emperor, Itaud Nic^ho- 
all the palGiges, and watched the modons of Batarmttt ; ■'^^ Boo- 
who, having but three hundred followers, took the by-roads, ■•'''**■ 
Bod travelled by night to avoid the Turks, and reach thtt 
city before tbey knew c^ hit march : but th^, getting in- 
telligence of it, fent a party of horfe to hairafs bk men. 
Thefe, however, he repulfed ; but, fcariDg to be fuirounded, 
lent KbryJbJkuUs, who for a fmall fuco of lOMiey prevailed . • 

on them to withdraw, and leave die way to Nict opea. 
When he came near to that aty, to his great furprize hi 
found a numerous army drawn up in order before the fub- 
nrbt, whom be took to be enemies ; but, to hi» greater fur- 
prize, he found they had proclaimed him emperor «. 

It appears from this pajtage, that Soleym^ was in jffia 
vtttior in the j-ear 1074, which we fappofe to be the firfl of 
tiis' rdgn ; and the abrupt manner, in which Nkephonu Bry 
mmvts here fpeaks of him for the firft time, fflves room Kr , 
coi^eAiire that he had been in die country for uxne confider- 
ad>tc time before, which farther fuppoits our hypothefis. 
What fii^ows, from the fiune author, feems to confirm it ftill 

' NiciPH. BaiEN. in Mich. Ducam, cap. i — %. ' Idem 
{bid. cap. 15. 

^C) Inf.ri.AO'-*^ 
Mop.Hi*T.Vol.IV. O more: 

194 ' tke Seijtila of mm. B.I. 

Phrygia more, ' Sotaniates, being in poflelBon of the empire, raifcd 

«»i/Gala- forces to oppok NicepMriit Bryemiius, who afpired to the 

tia throDC ; and having demaoded fuccour of Ma/ur (D) and So- 

teymJin, fons (rf Kutlumes, prince of Me*. in Bithynia, they 

A. D. fcnt him 2000 men, and promlfed more. Bnt after he had, 

io;8. \yy thg conduft of jilexis Comm-nus, who fucCeedeji hhni 

quaihed the rebellions of Bryennitu and Bafilacius, he hai 

likcwife that ai Nicephorui Melijfcnui to fupprefs. This lord, 

during the two fonner rebellions in Europe, fetting up for 

emperor, had gotten together fomc Turkijb troops in /i/ta ■ 

minor, with which he overran the country ; putting ail the 

g!<ven h > towns which he took into the hands of the Turks. By this 

Mcliffe- means, in a little time, they became mafters of all Phrygix 

BUS. and Galatia : in Ihort, he reduced- A7cf in Bithynia, and 

ftruck terror through the empire''. And thus, probably, that 

femouscity came to be pofleHed by Soleym^ (E), who after- ■ 

wirds made it the feat of his new empire. 

' BQTANIATES, greatly alarmed at thefe Aiccefles, 

fent an army againA the enemy under the command of 

John, an eunuch, who went and encamped near Fort Baji- 

learn, about forty ftadla from Nice ; and marching along * 

lake (F) came to Fort St. George, and took it. It was thea 

debated if they Ihould befiege that city, or go to Doryleum (G) 

and fight the Soitan (H). The former being refolved on, 

they fat down before it ; bu( hearing of the Sottan's approach 

■to relieve the place, the eunuch retired for fear, wtule the 

Turks purfued and'harrafled them eicu^mely '. 

Turkifh . We are informed by the princefs Anna Comnena. (I), that 

•fajffjjiam. when BmaniaUs obtained the empire, the Turks were polTeHed 

of the tountfles between the Euxine fca and the Helkjpcnt, 

between tht'Egtan fea and fea of Syria, and between the 

' Nic.&BTtH. Nic. Botan. ' Idem ib. cap. i — 4, & ;. 

(D) Rather Mafil \ as the This would have helped to 

'Crftki'fitittMaiuJ,OT Mi0ud. clearup fome doubtful points: 

- (E) This muft have hap- But focli perpkjcing omifTions 
"peoed between the years 1074 frequently occur in the Byzati' 

. »nJ 1078; perhaps in ) 076. line hiftorians, who too often 

- [F) Uonbilefs the take of attend more to the perfcftion of 
their ftile than their hifiory. 

The regal feat of StUj- However, from what follow^ 

;cms, from this circum* the Sohan here meant mull be 

fianccr to have been at Hary- Saieymaa. 

hum. (I) She was daughter of the 

(H) The author Oionld have emperor Jlcxis (*ho fUcccedej 

(nid us who the Soltan was, Beianialei), and wrote his iil'e. 
wljcthet i'e/ymnn or Kmohajj, 


gul& which are along the coaAs of Pamphilia and Cilicia. As 
he had gaioed the empire by help of the Turks, (b, h« 
nJed their aid to overcome Nicephorus Bryennius, who afpred 
to the throne^. But thofe advcDturers, who were ready to . ^ 

jmn ^th any party to ferve their owa turns, afterwards af- ■ 
fifted his competitors Milejfemis and Alexis to dethrow him. ' 

At lei^h he refigned the crown to Alexis, in 1081. Dur- 
ing thefc difputes, the Turks made ufe of thdr opportnniry," 
took Cyzicum, and ranged the country of Anatolia \ 

At the time when Alexis afcondcd the throne, as aBij«-;"Nicf tt*., 
meniioned, SoleymSn, who commanded in Anatolia, had fixed rayid fimit 
Vis^eM-axNicexxi Bithynia, and daily made im'oads with his 
TuMj as for as the S^iurwj, then called ZJama/u (K) ; 6uc ^■^; . 
Alexis, by ordering armed barks, to fcour the coaft, obliged ^^'V 
them foon to abandon it. Purfuing his advantage by land, 
he retiok Bofphomi, Thynia, and Bithynia ; whereupon the' 
Scdtan fued for peace ; which was granted the Turks, on con-' 
didon that they kept on the banks of the river DracB, without 
ever paffing the borders of Bitfynia "". ' , ■ ' - 

BoT wmic Ateifis -was eriga^d in war with niiert and 
Us fon Boemond \fv RIyrium, ,ApeHaJpm'(XJ), gtv^emor of 
Kce in the Abfence of Soleym^, ravaged the call, with the 
tfoaft of Propefitis, and the fea, 

■ The occafion of SouymBnh leaving Nice' was this : one Soleymii 
Filaretus, an Armeniau, who for his courage aniJconduft'?^" An- 
had been made grand domeftic by Diogenes, Was fo touched''"''*'* 

at his maftcr'B ■hard fete, that'he refqlved to be revenged ;^ 
Ind, in order thereto; fdzcd Antiokfr; but riot being able- ta 
live In quiet for die ifontinual inroads of thcT'H/i-ij he cm'- , 
hhts:cA Mahammedijm. Hehada fin, who, bcciut^Tie -rroul^ ' ■ .-'v 
not dirert him frbm his defign, rode in eight dlj-s tij ^fice,- '" ■' 
abd pcifuaded AtiHr Solejman (MJ to come and takC'-AffSSA.' 
&ieyTH^t lavrng' -ApelkaHem to goi-^rn in his aMenci^ fet 
fcrward, and tntwctve nights,- ■vrfilch, fie chofeto'niar^h in 
lb prevent difcowfy,' arrived at'iliat city, and took it."b^af* 
firalt ; at thc'fainc time that Kai^tiie Ki\idei Sindpii- -orlierc^ 
he was tddthcri-*crc great riche^".' '■"''.. 

■ Th.e precifc. time of' this event is ri6t to be cSlWfled'iFfo^'ani/ti/raia. 
the Gre^ hiftoriaa; altho' -we' kso^ It muft have Jiappenctl 

- * Ann. CouNENA in,A1tx. I. i.c, 3,* ' *'Ibidr I."!. 

c. 2. $, &8. '" rtitl.J; ». e. 7. » Ibid.'l.'fl. c.7. * 

_(K) Or •'Hutari. ' Solian, which is ctjuivaJcnt to 

(L) P^hapg it comiption.of King ; fometiinM y//«V-, which 

Atu'l Ka£nr:. " fienities only -a limple com- 

(,M) Sometimci he U called n^nder or general of troops. - 

O a befveca 

St« S«l»lB V R6m, B-S 

"I; 4? 



iriiic^ is twmy-one or tweaty-two years latei ; and fAn- 
hiia j^ rciga of cweaty y^kr;, in confequeace of fixing the qcn 

• SbK Amid. hift. Swcen. p. 351. ' Ibid. p. 353. 

5 AHif.eoMMBii.ri Al«. 1. 6. C.7. ' D'HpiB.p. 8#a, 

art. Solinun ben Coutolmifch tt p. 801. ait. Selgiukian. 

(N) Hie wai die broker of . (O) A nifiake perhspi for 
JUaUi Shib, third Soliaa of Dtmmjku*. 


L ., ,=,l.,otwlc 

^4^ INTERREGNUM. tfff 

ginakig dF It In 480. Thb h a ^de difiotncc, sad ifal 
■CPR incconcilable, as Kouhndr he^as his rngn two fetn 
ifwr hb death, as rdated bj £^n JlMi/', and if wc fedk^vdn'my^ 
the coffiptitktion of Mmdallah al MrfHfi, who [lats tben^'A/. 
ennetKcmeat in 477 of the /T^^ro^ thai (Ute vill iiukeA A. D. 
coiackle ^di &e years of Sobym^^ i&t, b«t «iU iil^rfl lotv 
him only abont one year of rc^, tf we fix his death te- 
offdtog to £^ y^tw/; tho' It extends the &&e to tvedtf- 
tbcB ojr the ffftem of the other erie&lU ^niters, la 
ten, Cedremti, Zonaras, and other 'weftera liiftoriaia, cekf 
faa tfae fappntadon of Koadaihir, ttc. agdhift &n jfhSif 
r ^ ^wUciog (^ SokymM (P) as makii^ con^efts, ilnd ^^-' 
i^ battles, many years after the year 10S5 ». The Jeni' 
jUm Cbronicm, in panicular, recites the words iH a letter 
festtn Saleymin in the year 1098 I0 theSoltln dOChotaffht, ■ 
to dtfrt Jkccours againfi the Franks, luha had taken from Urn 
moe Mtd Romania ; meanhig Ac country of SUm, or Jfia 

BpT aoni^thftanding the majority is agalnft 115 in diis-pofaM^'' MT 4*^ 
Jet we have very good reafon to firfpeft thdr authority ioi/W* 
■iuui df Bhtt j^maand jfntia CbtnntHa, if tt be only ctxi&ieitd 
^ Ac Uftorbns whtuft D'Htrhetbt conAiItod, fecm to hami 
iHen Mty litUc acquainted «1th the 's^an ai dte Se^&a&rit 
Mft, for die reaiiuis Wore oflered ; and that ail %lilcfa 
te has prodnced fr6m them, rdating to the de&th in qtieflkm, 
fe k n^d dale, without any concurreot circnmtbDc^ TOt^A iu. 
Alport it ; whereas Bbn Amid, and Jnna CemtUita, not toAf 
Awe dte m^ner (^ SoUymSh's Atsoh, Inn tfakt ave&t is ccini 
deOed with 'foitigo tranfafHons; wiiich is (he ftrofigeft 
pnf tint the date cf it, given by the fdimer cf them, Oitlft 
IbeAA. As to the otha Greek hiftorians, ;jfter what hU 
IMh fUd, it is enough to (ay, ttat they could not Ittire Ja 
fltod n Apporranlty d* Ijeing rightly faiforflod ^tboot ft^ 
"' , as a princefe of the imperial tkmily. 


TOi t TMAN, according to Kondamir^ and the other Per-Vfiafatim^ 

fian hifkmans confultetf by D'Rerhekt, left for fncceflbr t/gavur- 
• fiv awwf (or Z><n»i/^ fnnamed KOgArJlin (QJ, wlMtt»-*«-*. 

■ SeeuniT. hift. vol. nii.p. 149, & feq. 

. (P) Tfcey call hito 5«KaM (Q.) That is the fviard »f 

Q .3^ ' fceodeA 

19' ^i>e Selj^ks cf Rflm. fi. I.' 

fcended the throne in the vcar 500, immediattly after his fa- 
ther's deceafe '. Bui it appears, from the hlflory of Anna 
Comnena, that the fudden and violent death of SoieytnSti waa 
. attended with an intccregnum, or ufnrpation of the gover- 
nors in the dominions of R£m ; and that Khlizii^ian fas 
the Greeks corruptly name Kilij (R) Ar/J^J, was in Perfia 
till about the year 1093, when he returned to Nice, which 
will make a vacancy in the throoe of nine years. 

As there has been nothing tranfmitted to us from ^e eaft. 
relating to the alFairs of the SeljiAiahs in ^ih», from the death 
pf Soleymdn to the death of this warlike Soltan, excepting hU 
lall expedition, in which he died, our fole recourfe muft be ta 
the Greek hiftorians, particularly the princefs before-men- 
tioned -, who has given a pretty full account of the proceed- 
ing* of the Turks againft the Roman empire during that pe- 
Apelkaf- When the news of Jmtr SoleymAn'i death reached the 
ftiu/.^-.-jears of his governors in AJiaminor, they divided his terri- 
I^jce. tories among thcmfelves. Apclkaffem by this means became' 
- lord of Nice, famous for the palace of the Soltans. He had 
before given Caftjtadocia to his brother Pulkas ; but, being 
naturally a.&\vt, he thonght it unbecoming the digpity of 
Soltan to lit idle, and made Incurfions into Bithynia as far as 
the ProPontis. The emperor, finding he could not bo 
brought to a treaty, fent a powerful army, under the com- 
. mand of Taticius, (o befiege Nicf, which encamped at a 
place twelve ftades diftant. 

The night following a pcafaoi brought advice, that Pro- 
ja, fent by a new Soltan called Barhin- ok, approached at the 
head of 50,000 men. Taticius, not ab'e to cope with fuch 
3 force, retired towards Nikomedia. A} -'taffem purfucd and 
attacked him at Prencfie ; but the French, whcwere iu the 
ftrmy headed by Taticius, couching their lances with their 
ufual alertnefs, fell on them like Itghtping, and, defeating 
them, gave Taticius leifure to retire. 
nfiis the APELK ASSEM, with a defign to conquer the iflands, 
tmferor. built (hips, .intending to talte the city of Scio (S), Jeated on 
the fea fide : but the emperor fent smA burnt them in the 
harbour. At the fame time Taticius fell on the Turks at Aly- 
kas, called alfo Cypariffium ; and after Jkirmiihing with them 
lor fifteep days, at length routed them^ The ?mperor on 

' See D'KsRB. ubl fupra. 

(R) This word may be pro- (S) Or Cium, in the bay of 
nounccd Kiljt Ht Kilj, KJij, or Maudana^miicaWt^Maitanea,* 
aifj- port of Kkt. 


L „.. ..L.OLV^lC 


this wrote an obliging letter to APelkaffem, defiring him to 
dcHA from hl&fruitleB attempts, and iavited hUn to come to 
CanJfaHtinopie. That prince, underilandicg that Pro/uk had 
taken many leOei towns, and intended to beCege Nifg, ac- 
cepted of die invitation, and was received with extraordinary 

The politic emperor took the opportunity, while J^el- fh» a- 
• haffem was at Confiantinople, to build a fort by the fca fide to""!^'' *'«• 
fecure Nikomedia^ the capital of Bithynia (T) ; making the 
Turks, who would have oppofed that defign, beUeve that he 
had their Soltan's order for it, whom all the while he amufed 
with diverfions. When thcfortrcfs was finilhed, he loaded 
faim with prefents, gave him the title of Moll AuguA, con- 
cluded a peace with him, and fent him home by fea. The 
light of that iabrick in his paflage gave him much difplea- 
ftire ; but he thought it better to dUTemble his refcntment 
than complain, 

PJO^f/ATfoon after befiegediVjc.;; and, having attacked Nice it- 
it vigoroully for three months, Ape\kaffem fent for niccoar xafitg'd. 
the emperor, who fent him the flower of his troops, but 
with orders to aft for his intcrefl ; both parties being in effeft 
his enemies. The Roman troops, having taken the city of 
St. George, were admitted into Nice, and difplaid their ftan- 
dards : hereupon Pro/uk, believing the emperor had entered 
the city, raifed the fiege, and retired". 

It will be proper to obferve in this place, that as loon as Alex's, tj 
the great Soltan (U) (who reigned in KhoraJjAn), was m-ariifce, 
formed of the fuccefs of Tutus agaiiift Soicymdn (as has been 
related in the life of that prince), he was alarmed ; and fear- 
ing he might grow too powerful, fent a Chaufli (X) to the . 
emperor /tlexis, to propofe an alliance with him by way of 
marriage; offering, on that otcafion, to withdraw the 7i/r^j 
fettled Qcar the fea-coafts ; to abandon a certain number of 
fmall towns, and furnifh iiim with troops, in cafe of need. 

The emperor, defirous to recover the places without the 
marriage, prevailed on the clwnfl\ to turn chrillian: after 
which, as he had a written order from the Soltan, for the 
Turkijh ^i.rr\^oa% to quit all the maritime places as foon mneo'vert 
the. marriage wa» agreed on, he went to Siiiopc, and (hewiiigmay "- 
the order to Karatik the governor, obliged him to dcpai't"'-'* 

• Ann. Aiex, ].6. c. 7.-^10. 

(Tl It became (b after Nici the father and predeceflbr of 
wa) taken by the Turks. Barkiank. 

(U) This wa& hlalti Sbeh, (X) Chaui, or Chaujh, is a 
mefienger of Hate, 
O 4 without 

L ,„..=, l.,oo;(lc ' 

SOD fhi Sc^ks iff KAm.' M.X. 

wtbotit tdcttgwiy thing xvaiy (t). and left 'h k die bandk 

of Didt^etui fer the emperor. HJmng by the like artifice 

gottea l^e Turks ont c£ other towiiS) aad put in Roman gar- 

rifons, he returned to CanfiOntinopIt, vhere he was baptboed, 

and rectared the title of doke cf Jakhiahut with «her grev 

rewards ", 

Nice j>- The Soltia 'wu extremely fexed 'when he csni? to bear 

fi^d a- how the -chaufh bad Served him. NotvithAaading this, be 

gaia; lent a letter to tlie emperor, afiiiring him, that, prorided hs 

gave his daughter in marrl^e to his fon. he woold afli0 him 

with troops to prerent Aptikt^mC^ incurno&s, and take Ans 

fioii (Z) from him : At the ^e time he fent Pti/an witb 

fbrces agaiuft Ape&^em. the emperor wrote an anfwer, 

which, without granting his demand, flattered his hopes, and 

fent it away. Mean .time Pt^an attacked Nice feveral times ; 

but beii^ reptiUed by means of the emperor's fnccbon, drew 

Hilifved off to Lopadwn (A), on the river Lampe. As fooo as he wst 

afiani {[ooe, j^(«^!t<^^flft, loadii^ fourteen mules mth gold, fetoutfor 

Aw,- Ptrfia to obtain the Soltan's confirmadoD in the government : 

but the Soltan, who was then at Spaka (B), reAiiii^ to fee 

him, ordered him to gt) ba<± to Pufan ; faying, he would 

confirm whatever the other agreed to. After a long and fruit- 

lefi folidtation he fet out to return, but was not gotten far, 

before he was met by 200 men, who, by ±c Soltan's order, 

Aranglcd him. The ambailador, who carried the emperor's ' 

letter, proceeded on his journey ; but hear!^, before h^goc 

to KhoraJJht, that the Soltan hjmfdf wae aflaffinated (C), bd 

rccurtied to ConftantimpU. 

HtfM-tdia After Aptlkafftm had fet ont for Khora0n, as ^xwe-. 

(dated, Puiksi, his brother, took poOefficm of Ntcti which 

" Ann. Comn. I. 6. c 8. 

(Yl The Grtth fay, Karaiik (A) Now called Uhat, or 

wat p.-ireired by tlie devil. Tor hupad. 

having plundered the church (B) Qoubtlefs JJ^ahAi. 

<>f the thrice pqre Mother of (C) This was Maltk Shib, aa 

God when he toolc the city. appears from the courfe of time, 

(Z) This mull be Antinkb in a* well as the miftaken account 

Sjria; whence it appears, not of his dead), ^ven in chik place 

only that Antteiii did not fall by our killoriu, as we have 

iiito (he hands of fM/u {orTa- effewhere obferred (i}i altho'. 

lajb). on the defeat of Sa/eymmii ; by fome Dverfight in ranging her 

bui alfo thujft/ih/iin {or Jiul material!, ibelc fafts may 

Kajltm) WIS in poUelTion of the to belong to the Tergn of ha. 

greater par( of his domiDions. artkh, hta fon and (ucceffin*. 


C 4. Sieaid^okiM, XiBj Allien. ^ 

Aeotaperor, bykrge«ffcrs, toBptcd bhn to dtfivh- il^ : bcR 
Ik ftill pat hbn cM, ander p ic Mnoe (X txpsQUag (in icmni 
of bb brother. While this nmta- wb in ■^tadon, the nra 
fixu of .>4Mr Sv^yaUbtt ekspag an the demi «f th« m«r< 
dered Soltin, by whom they were detained in prifon, drrivttd 
wt/i/ke; whocthqr were rectived by diofe who had noRiUjimif' 
power with the people, and acfcnov^i^^ by PaOuis, vAa de-Soliiif- ' 
Uvtred Dp the city into thtir handB. F^mb dtis rev<olatiOD orini"- 
ttftoratioa (which, ftccordiag to tjie couife oflheGrM W- 
tory, huppaed iiboat the you: 1093], we date Aft CtemUiOt*' 
nMatafthe i%n <£ Kihj Ar^l. 

SECT. ni. 
Reipi ef Svtldn Kffij AriHn L 

^ICE having thns, after an nfiirpation rf fevertd fW*,Stf9iiJM. 
■*■ V bcCQ rdlorcd to the hek-s of Sakyman ; Ai^, or Kli} fSn KiliJ 
y^nflk the eldeft, wbon the Greekt caH KhKzii^tttHt Ot-AriUnl. 
Kuxu^lan, alTamed the runs of govensneat His firft care 
■was to repeoj^ the dty, by calling \icmt the wives Jtnd cbil- ■*- D; 
dren of the old inhaUtaots, as he defigned Bo honour it Vrcih *°9!i' 
the ordinary refideoce of the S<rftaoB. Then, difplading Pirf- 
kmt, he made Mahomet (A) governor ; aftO' which he niarcbed 
towteds MeUcme. What was the occafioa of his departure, 
wliat'put of his domimons he went to, or what he did for 
ibme time after, we are intirely ftrangers to ; tfce Gta^ - 
irriters, ,xa whom we are obliged for aU this Soltah's hinory, 
ewepdng the laft tranfiiAion <A his re^, treating no .brther 
of the Tvrkyb aflJurs than as they concerned tbanfdves ; for 
this reafon the reader will not be fnrprized if he meets &ei 
qoently with chafins In the hiftory, and fpnietimes the mat- 
ters abirupdy introdnced. 

The emperor Alexis, haring been informed that Efi4)i,&kta 
princeof the5afrf)^(B), had taken Apoloniadetai.Cyziatm,ulumfri- 
maritime dtics, and ravaged the Tea cooft ; fent Euphtrbaujitier, 
who befi^ed Apohniade, and reduced the exopolis, or oat- 
bnrn. The Turks defended the citadel vigixoully till fuccours 
afrived ; 00 which the Roman general 'mthdrew, and put hie 
men on board the flups : Bot Elkin having fdzcd the month 
of die river and the bridge, they were forced to re-land, and 

(A) Fcrliaps the nune of the (B) Or TtiriiSi govcmon.j 
Soltin's brother, which t> nq^ perbapi a $*g/trfeg, 
etpreSy meDtioDe4< 

JKCtt ne Sdj6ks «/ RAoi. B. i; 

fDdft o£ thetn cut Off in battle After this. Opus, bang 
ieut ag^nft him, took Cyzicum and Poemanema hj allault ; 
then bciieging <4{^oJiia&u£r, forced f/iin to furjeodcr; wh(^ 
bong ieot to the empecor, was very kmdly received, and 
turned chrifHaa*. 
KJi af VluiLBijlUxis wai ii^ged in -war with the Patzina.- 
"Jtaku, tiaaj (C), he rccdved adrice that the (on of Jpelkaffem,- go- 
vernor oF Nke (called Satrt^ by the oM, and Atmral, by the 
modern Perfiant (D), was iodiDed to bell^ Nikomedia. At 
the fame time TzojIiw, a Tur/^, refolnng to fet np a naval fbrc^ 
employed a native of Smyrna for that purpofei^ who having 
built liim feveral veiTels, and forty barks, he went and looic 
Clazomene and Phocea wthout much reiiHance ; then fending 
a threatenir^ meflage to Mapius, governor of Mitylene, he fled s 
but Tz^fU, finding the inhabiunts of ^/«i^.>mA^, adtyc^the 
ifle featcd very high, prepared to receive him, he palled on to 
the illand <£ Khio, which he took by force. 
Hi iefeati The emperor, on this news, fent a fleet agaioil him, 
.... which was deieated : then he lent soother under Conftantina 
Belaffenus, hift relation ; who, defirous to retake Khio while 
7zakai was abfent, made a breach in the wall, which obliged 
the Turki to implore mercy: but while the general delayed 
t^ng polTcfiion, to prevent the foldiers from puuing than 
to-the fword,' the befieged repaired the breach in the night. 
Tzakas arrii-ed from Smyrna at the fame jundlure on the other 
!idc of the ille, and marched at the head of 8000 men, fol- 
lowed along the coaft by his fleet ; then,, going on board, he 
encountered the Greek fhips in the night; his o\im bdog 
joined tt^ether by chains, fo that they could not be feparated. 
opus, who commanded the Grecian fleet, furprized 9t this 
new fort of difpofition, durft not advance. 
**/Ro. 7ZAKAS followed hiin llowly, and at le:^th landing, 
juans : began the attack. The French, on their approach, marched 
brjfldy againft tUcm with their lances : but the Turks, ha\-ing 
djfchargtd arrows at their hOTfcs, obliged them to retire in 
difordcr to the camp, and thonce openly to the Ihips. The 
Ramans, dif;nayed by this defi.-at, fled likewife, and ranged 
tbcmfelvi;s along the walls of the town. This emboldened the 
Turks to goand ftize fome vcnils : biw ihe f-iilors, cutting the 
cables, went and anchored with the reft at fome diilance from 
the fhorc. Mean \\meDelaffmus retired to Baliffus^ a lowa 

* Ann. CoMNtN.1.6. c. 11 & iz. 

fCr A &r-il,;nn nstion. who ' (D) Rather Amir, whence 
iiiiii-.bitcd fc .c.'.'a i-^d hUUai-ia. comes our amiral, wd admiral. 


L ,„.=,l.,otwlc 

C. 4^ Second ScltSnt Kilij Arfl^.' *o$ 

fituated on a cape of the iQe ; and Tzakat, knowing hb t**- 
kmr, fcnt to propofe an accommodation. ■* ■ ■ ' 

Next day they met j 3>ndTzaiat demanded, that -what?/"^?^ 
Aeeittpcror Botaniat^ had given him fhouU be delivered into/***"' 
his hinds, and a marrtagc take place between his fon and i 
daughter of the emperor ; in which cafe he prcmired to le- 
ilore all the iflands he had conquered. It feeins this Turk 
had been taken prifoner when young in j^Jia, and prefented 
toifofaft/fi/»,whohoaourcd him with the tide c^ Moll Nsbl^ 
and with rich prefents ; on which he took an oath of fidelity 
to him, but thought himfelf not bound by it to Ahxit. De- 
lafftnui referred him for an anfwer to John, the emperor'9 
brother-in-law, who was expeflcd with forces in a few days: 
but Tzekas, not caring^ to wait his comiug, returned in the 
night with his fieet to Smyrna, tn order to ralfe new forces 
for the conqueA of the illand. After which Delaffenus took 
Solijfui, and the city of Khio Itfetf ". 

Mean time Tj^akas, while the emperor was at war yi'ahJugmntt 
the Scythians, iucreafed his fleet with an extraordinary nam- bhfetH 
beroffhips, gathered from feveral ports, wherewith he rc- 
folved to plunder all the ines which refuted to fubmit, and 
ravage all the weflern coafls. He endeavoured to excite the 
Seythiant to fubdue the Kherfonefus, and to oblige the fuc- 
cours to return which came icom the eaA ; making -great of- 
fers to draw the Turks to efpoufe his caufe^ After this he 
sfllimed the name of lung at Smyrna, which he made tus re- 
gal feat ; and fittid out a fleet to ravage the ifles, and pene- 
trate as ^ as the very capital of the empire. 

At the be^nning of fprin^{E) the emperor fent an army SurrenJiri 
and a fleet to /WiYy/m/ ; the former under the condufttrf'/'^Sn'*^")''*''*: 
Dukas, and the latter of Conftaiitine Delaffeitus. The place 
was coqjmanded by Galabatzes, brother ot Tzakas, who came 
sllb in perfon to defend it. Dukas battered the place for 
three months, and often fought the enemy from morning till . , 
night without any advantage ; but at laft 'tzakas thought fit 
to furrender the city, on condition that he might ha\e liberty 
to return to Smyrna, This was granted him : but as he ea- 
deavoured to carry off the inhabitants of Mitylene, contrary to 
the treaty, Delaffenvs attacked him by fea, and took fcveral 
barks ; Tzakat hunfelf with difficulty efcaping in one of the 

* Ann. CoHitiK. 1. 7. c. 5 & 6. * Ibid. 1. 8. c. s. 

(E) You find mention often fuafons of the year, but not of 
ip the Grtii hiftorians of the the year itfclf. 


finfidftv^l^ After thbJ>i/i(wr«tdDk£afflC^ud the otber 
tfles which that Turk had lazed. 
&Ufrtt» *tZAKAS, at fooa as he returned to Sinyrna, OcA^tA. 
birkt to be bi^t, and g&Ueys of two aiul three tire <A cati, 
befides Other light veflcls, with a defiga to ftnd them out fei 
eorfi^i. Hereupon the empCTor difpasched Dilaffeftiu with 
'fc puilEtat fleet, and at the fame time wrote to flir up flic Sol- 
tfia (F) ^^nfb his {bii4ii-l3W, whom he reprefented as iifpirit!^ 
u (he Anjnre of the TurAj. The Soltibt immediatdy fe fw- 
•Ward *ith his forces, and was at Avido, which TzaMat had 
befiegtid, almcA as foou as Delajfmus. Tzakeu having tA 
Sapt wjth )um (for his fleet was not yet equlj^ied], Md find- 
big Ummf uo^ to oppofe both the Anpercn- and the Sol- 
tut, refolved to go meet the latter, not Imagining fiow fnadi 
ff /jk &/-)>£ ^'^ inccnfed ag^nfl him. The Soltin received hiCn with 
Ma. a g^t fhew of fnend(hlp, sndkept him to dinewth Inffl] 

but as fooR as he found him oTercome with fiquor, drew hit 
fward, and killed him with a ftrokc on hia fide'|. 
C»rw of The empcrtM- Was fcarcdy delivered from this enemy, b&- 
Al"" fiire he found himfelf ob%ed to march ^nft the JCwhfer, 
#ho continned to make Incuritons into his territories i mean 
while the Turks lock, that opportunity to ravage BtthyiHIt, 
When the war therefore Was over, he applied himfelf to fts- 
cure the country inclined by the fea between the river Sangi- 
ritts and a pkce called Celt, which was expofcd to th^ n^ 
itfimrt tptnt incnrfions. Having found a deep canal, which hail 
Xithynia. been formerly dug by the emperor Anafi^us to dr^ ^ 
marih <^ Baanom, he ordered it to be clmfiiM and csttefufSd : 
bat onliderii^ that in time it might triKome fordab^ ho 
built on the fide of it an exceeding fh-oAg dc^d> thfchdS 
called the Iran CafiU, which fcrved for the ddfenn of -Mjfo- 
itieeEa. , 

Cm/MJerti T^K ttnperor had fcarce refted from this fatigue, ■<rtife 
their cru- Pftfr the hermit, author of the crufade, or holy war, ar- 
tlitfi- rived at ConJIantinople at the head of 80,000 men, devoted to 
the recovery of Jenifaiem from the Turks. The emperor ad- 
(inrt "*^ ^^^ '° ^™''' ^'" ^'^''^ °f Balfoin, and the other prinoeS, 
'°9"- arrived: hat Peter, confident of Ms own fticcefs, p^Ied ihi^ 
fea, and encamped near a fmall city called Helenopolii. From 
bence ten thoufand Normans-, w^o were among them, madp 
an incurfion as far as Nice, committing the moA horrible 
^uelties ; but the gatrifon of that dty Tallying out upon theltn, 
lh?y were obliged to retreat. After this they took Kmgiltda,;^ 

^ Ann. Comnen. 1. 9. c. i & }. 

(F) Kilij ArJIdu, &BOf&P%|l»)^ 



^ ^ Semi SoitdM; KiHj AriUn.' 995 

(at Siian (G). being &nt 'with fome troops ty the ScAi$*, k-. 
covered that place. 

That general, kaamag the Franis to be TCiy covetous^'*^^ *>• 
cpntfived di^ way how to ruin them. He firft l^d hi^ am-^ifii/i 
butcadc ; and then comnui&oned two artful pcricHis to givi 
gut in Pettr'a army, that the Normant had taken Nice, anc) 
^pud an immeiiie booty- On this report they laa withom 
aia order toward that city; and &Uing into the amlfulcad^ 
voicb. bftd been lw4 for them near Dr^goit, were cut ia 
j^ocea. The numher fiain on both fides vas 63 great, that 
lf)£ir bodies bdpg laid together made a monntain. Ptter re> 
tiled with a inmi numbo' of his men to HeUnt^olU, whcrf 
^ Turkf besieged, and would have taicea him, bad not tbO; 
eo^teror lent fomc npops to relieve the place *. ' 

. Soon after the idl of the wcftcrn princes amviog, allT'/wr/^ 
apQcd the Of ait to CivHi^, e^pt Boaaond, who marcjud,^i^t 
xptSMSJ^ Bithyiiia. towards NUe, which the confederate ^* a n 
i(g£ledr The Sohftji fenl fome troqps to annoy the chriftiaaa ; *• ''• 
bit tbey wu« defeated, as waa the next day the ScJtaa him- "S'' 
i^; wno) feeing Eh4 multitude of enemies he had to ^eaX 
"•^^t gave leave to the ii^bltants of Nke to afl juft ^ ^j, 
^Qght beft for tf^frnfelves. The emperor JlexU, wl^p van 
atcfHOped at MdampeU, near, the town of Pelekam (for Ik ' 
^ not care to yc^a the Franks, whofu h^ bolted upon aa a, 
^■cachttous faithlels people^, finding that the Scjtan fi)pplifi4 
4w city with both mep and provUions by means of the lake{I|^ 
1^ ad,nl£d theqi to «Ua£k it on tha^ Cde : apd having oro* 
i^dqd pcgpet vdllels fen- the purpofe, the lake not being aetf. 
Gied theqi with men under the ctHcmand of Bitvmitet, a^ 
ifl (^ £iom the Gde oppolite to the iHe of K/no. 

Th^ Turki/h commanders were fo alarmed at thb uq^j^«f /W 
pefted fight, and the Franks making a general aiTault af..^xtS»lt&it 
Umetimc, that, on Bitumites' mami£mg a general pardoii, 
<^tb faonQUra to the Soltdn's filter and his wife (&i4 to be 
^ daughter of Tzakas), they delivered the city up to him ;^ 
vho (ent oiT the ganilon, by way of the lake, to the eo^'' 

Prbs£ntlt after the army fct forward for /^atioki i% - 
Syria ; with whom the emperor fcnt a body of troops comr. 
manded by Taticiui. Bdng arrived in two days at a place 

* Ann. CowN|v. L 10. c. 4—7. 

Lthe fame £/• Kiee and the fft 
fort (of old the Qt-x 

(HJ Which lici between it emptiei by a li 

(G) Probably the fame £/• Kift and the ffiU of MeuJani*. 
i«» mentioned before. (of old the GiJr- ' ■ :-"•"■»«;-»■ 


ftoff 3^ Seljflks of Rdtti; B. V. 

Call a! Infill, they thought fit to (eparate, and let Somond go 
A. D. before, as he defired. The Turit difcovering him in ^e 
logy. plain of t)orylawn, fell upon him vigoronlly, and killed 
- forty of his beft men ; whereupon, being alfo himfelf dan-' 
geroufly Wounded,' he retreated to the army. As ttey ad- 
vanced in companies, they met, near a place called Ebratk, the 
SoXtiaTaniJhtan {\) za& h^an,v/)\o alone was at the head of 
8o,Qoo men. The battle was very obflinate, when BoemanJ, 
perceiving the Turii fought «idi more vigour than thdr ene- 
mies, fell with the right wing like a lion 'on the Sohiai^zi- 
d/ll^^K), or Kilij Arjlhn, and put them to flight. Soon 
after they met the 7urks near AugufiofioUi, and defeated them 
a fccond time. After which they futfered them to continue 
_liieir march to Antiakh, without daring to appear. 
Tleempe-; TfTE emperor thought this a good opportunity to recover 
romeg. Other- places from the Turks. 7zahas had (fAud Smyrna; 
vttf Hangripermes Was \a. polftiTion of Epb(fut : Other robbers 

were mailers of different places : Kho, Ifhodei, and fcveral 
Other iflands were in their hands, from whence they fcoorof 
all the adjacent fcas. To prevent thefe tiepredations, he £tRd' 
out a large fleet, under the command of Jolm Duias,-vho car- 
ried -witli hltn the daughter of Tzakas, to convince the pi- 
A. D. rstes that the city was taken; Being come to Avu/o, he gave 
1097. ^e command of the fleet to Kafpucei, in order to attadc 
Smyrna, Smyrna by fea, while he befieged it by land. The inhabi- 
tants, terrified, immediately furrendered -updn terms, and Kt^- 
faci* was made governor, but did not long enjoy his port : 
fcr having ordered a Turk before him, who had Aolen a fiun^ 
of money ; the fellow, thinking they were carrying him to exe-" 
cntion, in defpair drew his fword, and Habbcd the govemot 
■ ' ■ iti'the beUy, mixing Mmfelf at the fame time with the croud. 
' TheToldiers and feamen were fo enraged at this mnrder, that 
tficy put 10,000 inlmbiiants to the fwprd. 
Ephefus, ■ Frpm Smyrna Dukas marched to Ephefus, where, after'a' 
«nd bloody battle which lafted near tlie whole day, he defeated 

Tongripcrmes and Maraces. The remainder of the Turkijh 
' forces fled up ijie Maander to Polybotum. Dukas purfned 
them ; and in the way took Scirdcs and Phlladrlphia by af- 
fiinlt : Laodicsa. fubmittcd to him. Then, pallitig by Komv, 

(I) The Greet hiftorians give crufade make Selijman the Sol- 

. the name orSoItaR often with- tan of Kin at this time 1 but 

out dilHnftion to all generals or we have already [hewn, bfjth 

gK u cominanders, as well as lo from (he C«fi and oriental au- 

ttie brother, of the SoliSti. thors, that he was dead fome 

(K) Ihe^a/i'nwriictsof the ycanbefote. 
' - he 

^ 3 ^ „...=. L.OO'^IC 

■kt forced Lampe. He found at Polybotum a great maltltudi 
of Tarib, but defeiied them intirely, carrying off mucd 
plooder and many prifoners. 

Mean time the emperor Alexis prepared to fuccour the«/j/r 
FrdnA/, who were befi^edb^ the Tarij in vAi?wW; and fodng^/ncn- 
srriTBd atFUomeSm, cut in pieces a great number ot their 
, troops; and recovered feveral places out of their hands. Bot "■ ^- ' 
hekring that I/maei (L), fon of the Soltan of Korajan, was '°9"- 
advancing at the head of a vaA army; he thought it moft 
prudent to return with his prifoners and plunder, after he , 
bad given notice to the inhabitants in and about Pafyioltmt 
to provide for their fafety. IJmael, advancing, laid fiege to th6 
fort of Paipert,vih\chthefamo'asTf'eodartuCaunis had raken 
but a IJtde wiiife betiwe, with a defign to obferve the paP 
^geof the Turkx, and m^ke incurfions upon them. 

About that time there arrived at Cfrtjiantinc^ie Aa army^^j^ ^r 
of Normans, 100,000 foot and 50,000 horfe, commanded by Kgrmaiw 
the two brothers of Flanders. The emperor would haVe had 
them taken the lame road which the other Franks had'foji 
lijwed ; but their ddigfl Wtis not, it feflns, to jdn th* cbn- 
ftderates of the cmfttle, but to march into thcetfft, and'cdS- '-" 
quer Khorafin itfelf. Having pafftd the ftraits ot'GWfrf, 
they went and took Ancyra. After they had crofled the ffalys-y 
they came toa little city belonging to the Romans ; where the 
priefls coming 6ut to meet them, with the-'crofs afld golpel 
in their hands, tiiey were fo barbarous as to put 'them i(li;;rt 
the fwol-d. The Tvriis, who are very fkiiful warriors,* hl^ 
care to carry off al) the pro^fions la the coilntry thro' "whkS 
they paffed; and being near Amafia, aftet defeating, hemmed 
ri»m in fodofdythat they liad nO opportunity to pafture 
their horlcs. " 

The Na'rmam in defpnir ralhed-upon their enemy : h\iXjfa;nhj4\ 
die Turks, inftead of eBgagirig them at-a diftante with theTuiki. ' 
bo\v or lance, came to clofe tight with their fwordii'lnd 
knade a dreadful (lau^ter. Upon this,' tliey diked tKe'tdurtt 
oi St-Ciles unA Tzitas, whom the emperor had fciit with 
them for their affiflance, if there was not fomc country be- 
longing to the empire near at hand, Mhich they might ffy to ; 
and boing informed that ^ he re was, imin<diately abandoned 
their camp and baggage, flying to the maricimt; parts of Jr- 
vunia and Pauraca. Tliehorle ifor hsfte leaving the infantry 
behind, they were all Haifl by the Turks, excepting a tt^, 
whom they refeiued m it wero to Ihew in KkQrajJhi. The 

■ (L) B/rriiaroi wa! thcti Soltin ; but we meet no ftn of 
bis who bati titat uanie. 

Coimt-Md TzUat named, with At borfe wludi efcaped, t9 

CeaJlanfinofiU ; from w^^^ the cmpcFor fent the oaaox \ff 

fea to Tripofy io 5^m, where be propofed to ooatlntte ihf 

Cege, but died fooa after he lauded, kaidi^ his po^elSaw to 

bis Dcphsw ffUliam '. 

JUhillion In the fourteenth uidi£tion, Gregory, governor of Trtbir 

»f. Gn- zem^i who had rcTolted two years before, intended to duit 

%oty' biiorelf up in the caftle of JColmia, which was reckoned nir 

J. yj pFOgDidife, uid to im^ore the proteftioo of Taiu^pian tba 

. ^^' Turk b^QEe-meationed ; but bang purfued by John Comnenuf 

tbs emperw's ne[diew, and his conGn, was ukai, and foot to 

W& muA new quit the^z-^i biftwian, to doje this rdgB 
intb u accojiuit of^thv laft a^ion and death of Kilij AT_pAn^ 
which A<tGr«ekt were ftraogere to \ and altho' it is the only 
patter relating to this Soltan which has been cnnmiuuc^ted 
to lit irtHn the oriental authors, yet it ierves to giye us a 
greater- idea of hip power than all the tranikAioBs already re* 

SidtSm T^R: i^aabitantt O^Mufol (MM^ti, m- M^} having bees 

tahi Mu-bfi^^ by.V/74wWi(M), who lud taken tfaqr priocc Ja- 

^ * gstMl/b prifoner, fent to ofier Kilij Arjlin, lord of KotuAp 

<^- m^tyttpt {U) an4.^<^r4) the poOeflipn of their city, in 

cafe- ]ii<p would cc»qe to their relief. Hereupon Xiia Arjla)i, 

t^i^le^iqg with hiji forces, took pojiefiion of Mujoi, JavitH 

Qttijrgig on his sHtroadi. He [»tclwd his camp in a place 

^f/iJltd.M Msgreka, where Zenji, fon of Jagarmijb, widi blf 

f('V^fi&i, reptuiing to him, he honoured them all with kaftans 

fif va(^ Then fitting in a throne, he ordered the iwne cA 

''^\>t^M«havaned{0) tp be fupprefl«d in the pulpits, aatt 

his own mentioned in place of it. 

^ 4WX This done, he marched againA Al Ja-wtU, who was at 

tJ. ^m but beiog met by him at t^ river Khobar (P), wai 

gut to flight. KUii Ar/Un plunged into the river, with an in* 

teat v> crofs it ; but| while he defended hlmfelf with his bow 

jtg^inft the eneo^y, hfs horfe carrying lum out of his depth, 

f Ann. CouitiM. 1. ti. c. I — 7. • Ibid. 1. 11. c. ;. 

(M) Javjth, or Jariwiali, and the latter Grah Ksgni, «r 

lord of Xel>!a, or Orfa, in Mfji- Kaftni. 

ptama. See before, p. 143, (O) Son of Mn/ri 5iifA, and 

tt feq. fifth Soltin of Irak, tn Ttrfia. 

(N) Hence it appean, that (P) It ri&i in Mefipatami* 

after the lofj of HUe, he tranf- from a foontsin called Rai al 

iekiii the royal featio Kmiyah ; Apt, and falls ipto the Eafhra' 

lb the oticatili call Ihniym, Ut near Kfriijia. 


C 4I ^fd SoUdMy SsfUml 209 

he was drowiied. Some daye after, his bodjr was found float- 
ing oa the water, and buried aty^/SAu^Sniu (P). This erenc 
is placed, by our uithor, in the year 500 cf the Hejrah ^ 
which anfwcrs to that of Chriji 1 106. 

It is remarkable that D'Htrbtbt, ondcr the name of this i^^A^' »f 
Soltiu, has given only an abftraA of the fwc^ing tranlac-o''^'> 
tion fixMn AMl^arc^ ' ; which Teems to fliew, tfwt thcrC is no- 
tbing to t>e found in Komimir, and the other auth(H-s whom he 
made ufe of, concerning that prince. But in fupplyiog their 
defcA from the Syrian annalill, he has alTo ad<^ted bis chro- 
nology, which contradiAs theirs ; iavjIbA'yara} makes the rdgn . , 
oSKilij Arjlan to end in the fiune yew that they will have 't^lf*^'' 
commence ; and we prefer his authority to theirs^ for the fame *^ 
realbn which induced us to give the [n^erence to Ehn Amtd, 
with regard to the year of the death of his bther Soleyman, 

According to their reckooii:^ Ki&j Arjlan reigned dghteea 
years ; according to ours, fourteen : but the Nighiarifi^ gives 
him only four years to his rdgn. The fame authors aUb 
make his fon Majfiid to have been his immediate fucceJIbr ; 
whereas we have taken the liberty, on what we judge to be 
fu£deat authority, to put in one between them. 


^he Reign e/Sohan Sayfan. 

THERE is no mention of a Soltin with the name oE-TtirJSai- 
Sayfan, among the oriental hiAorians; but we have '^'i Say- ' 
already fhcwn, from their inaccuracy, and other imperfeftions''"* » 
vitb regard to this dyoaily, that there are fuflicient grounds 
to believe, that there were more princes in the fucceffion than 
thofe of whom they give us the names. It is confelTed alfo, 
dut fome of them reckon fifteen Soltans ; aad ti fo, the 
chronological chaiin, which has been remarked between the 
j«gn of KiSj Arjldn I. and Rokm'ddin Soleym&n, leaves room 
JOT introducing one here. Although Abu'lfara} agrees with 
KondanAr in naming the firft ten Sohans, yet, as he docs not*"'"''"*"' 
t^ll their number or rank in the fucceffioo, and but barely*"^' J* 
mentions fome, and that only occalionally ; fo he may pofli- 
bly have omitted the name of one or more, efpecially in this 
interval we are fpeaking of; which appears, from his dates of 
ia^, to be very wide, at the fame time tluit they help to fill 

* Abv'lfaka], hift. dynafl. p. 14;. ' See D'Herb. p. 

■ oo4t ait Kilig Arflan ben Soliman. 

(P) OtAlSbamBH^mb. 

tAtya. Hist. Vol. IV, P up 

3IO 9^ Selj{ikso/ R&n). B. I. 

up the <;hafm, by giving a much greater length of r^B to 
the princes he mentions, than the other orieotal authors have 
afligned them. In this he agrees with thofe Greek hl&rians 
whom we h&ve chofcn to follow in our account of the Sol- 
tans: In Ihort, as the ealtern hillomns afford us fcarce say 
memcnrs relating to the firft Scltini of thit dynafty, it is but 
juft that we Jbould be governed by the authority of the By' 
zantine writers, to whom we are almc^ wlioUy beholdca for 
our materials. 
the Greek It Is true, we find Khiiziafilan, or KUij ArJUn, fpokcn of 
•tnrittn, by Anna Comnena, as Soltan of Kogni, or Ikmiwn, till the 
very laft action of this rdgn ; but wsa the fudden tranfition, 
in the account of that a^ion, from KhKxiaftUn to Sayfan, 
as Soltan of Kogni, Ihcws that the hiAoiian was all the while 
fpeaking of one and the fame perfon ; for there could not be 
two Soltans of Kogni at the iame time ; nor do we tind any 
farther meDtiOu <A Khlizi&Jilan. It cannot be thought thatby 
•n'io*r iu» this latter is meant Kilij ArJUn, the former Soltan, accxcd- 
Jollevi. i,ig tQ t|,e Greek cuftom of [w^olonging- tho ragos tjS princes ; 
becaufe he is faid to be in the vigoar trf lus youth ; and 
as the fame quality is afcribed to Sayfan; it is a farther proof 
that thofe two names are given to die fame perfon. Howe- 
ver tharwas, Sny/an muft have been the fon <rf the formn- 
Soltan, fincc he is called the brother of Maf^, or MaJSJ; 
who was the fon of KiliJ Ar/Wj, according to the unanimous 
confent of the oriental hifVcn'ians. 

Having premifed thefe few remarks, which are neceflary 
both tojultify the innovation we have introduced^ and ob- 
viate what at Rrit fight appears to be a very n-eat difficolty, if 
not a fort of contradiftion, we /hall prowM TO the hiftay. 
Greeks, The coaft of Afia having, by the late wars, been ruined, 
their bar- from Smyrna to Atialia, and thofe once populous and ftaicly 
bant J I cities become heaps of rubbifh, the emperor fent FUekales to 
'*■ ^- reftorethcm. That nobleman firft rebuilt JrufroMiV, or ^aira-, 
*'°''-' miiium (which had been fo totally deflroyed by Tzatd/, thai 
there remained no figna of it habitations), and peof^d it with 
the peiifants and ftrangers (A). After this, being informed 
that the Turks were gathering near Lampis, he fcnt thither 
fome troops, who cut part of them in pieces, and td&k a 
great number prifoners, ufing ihdr victory fo cruelly, that 
they boiled children to death. The Tttrks wbo rara'ned 
put on mourning clothes, and went over the country, to ex- 
cite their companions to vengeance. 

(A) The date of aftions in hook, denote) being fet at a 
the margin, when placed in a venture, or by guefs. 

7 ■ ' At 

C.4'; Third SoM»i Sar&i; 911 

- At the fiune time FUekaiei ibjuced PhihJtlpfna vH<Axm.l''it Phi* 
< any trouble : bnt iocm after Haffan, one of the prime com- ladclf lua. 
manders, \riio goremed almoft abfglutclj in CappadgciA, hsar- 
Ii^ of the barl»rities exerdfcd by the Romans, came at th« 
head of 34,000 mea, and bcfi^ed the plaee. FiltkaUs, who 
was a man of ftratagem, not haTing ica^s to take the Sd4> 
forbad the inhaMtajits cither to open the gates, appear ca 
Uie walls, or make the leaA noife. Uaffam having been be> 
fore the town three days, and fcen 00 perfon appear, coo-, 
daded that the befi^ed had nather forces nor courage enoagh 
ts make {allies : hereupon he divided his at-my ; fending 
to,ooo mfen to Kelbiana, another party toward Smyrna, and 
a-tfaird towards £'/t(ir<i and Pergamus, Wth orders to ravage 
the country ; and followed with another party hlmfelf. Ad 
foon as FileiaUi faw the Turks ported into bodies, he lent 
troops to ittack them one by one : they accordli^ly came np 
With, dnd defeated, the two firfl: detachments, killing a. great 
nnmber of the men ; but could not overtake either tn the 
otban, who were^tten too far before. 

SoUb time after, Amir Say/an marched &om the eaft, with Sayfalk 
a delign to ravage Philade^hia, and the maritlm« cities. Thsmaiiit 
etoperor, on this advice, lent a (inaU body of troops up the/ '"^'* 
river Skanandtr to Bndromit wid 7hrakefKn, to wait his or- ^'^\ 
dts%. Cditras commanded at that time at Philadelphia, with ' "^'■^ 
ft ftrong garrifon, and Ma/tq/lras at Pergamus. The anpy 
feat by the Soltin of Khwafin advanced in two bodies ; one 
c£ them crolled mount Siiut, and the other marched into 
^JU minor. Ganrat werit out to meet thefe latter ] and 
Coming np with them at KelhianA, routed diem. Wjien the 
Soltin (B), who had lent than, heard of this defeat, he dif- 
toched ambftlladors to the emperor ; who, after he had put 
leveral qucAions to them eoncaning their mailer (C), con- . 
duded a peace with them. 

He had not been long at reftj before he Was alarmed with Turfci 
a new irruption of 50,000 Turks, come from /Inatoiia, and nrv)irr»p^ 
even from KhoraJHi The emperor, on this news, paflM the"""- - 
ftrait from CanfiantinopU to DamaJis (-):) ; and though in ^- ^' ' 
^e gout, got into a chariot, which he drove himfcl^ In "°9J 
three days he arrived at Aigyla, where he embarked for Civi-, 

(B) In the title of the chap- (C) Yet the hiftorian gives no 

ter he iscalled Soltin Saj/an; account of this Soltin, noreven, 

bnt be wet not Soltin of Xba- his nam^. 
raJSn: and juft before he is (1) The r.^i^rw wBSC.ilhd 

Called only an Annr, or com- Damalii from ihcnce. li i: the 

— '- , fame with ^i<Mi.r, 01 «<"«'!. 

Pa M 

412 The Seljfiks ef RAm. B. I. 

fat (t>). As foon as he landed, he was iofonned that the com- 
manders of the enemy had divided tbdr forces into feparate bo- 
dies ; one was to fcour the country about Met ; and MonoHkus 
to ravage the fea-coaft : other parties had done the like aboot 
Pru/a, Jpolleniiule and Lopadion ; and had taken Cyzicus by af- 
fault ; the governor making no refiilance. The two princi- 
pal Soltacs, Kontogma and jimir Mahomet, were gone to Pa- 
manme, by the country of the LencioHS, with infinite wo- 
men and children (E), whofe lives they had faved : and Mo' 
Mslikui, having crofled Barene (which like the Skamtmder, the 
JugUocimetes, the AmpeUe,' and many other rivers, delcends 
from the mountain IbiieiJ, was turned towards Parem, hav- 
. ing pafled by Avido, Endromit, and Cliara, with a great num- 

ber of Ilaves, but without {bedding blood. 
jfttAtitd Hereupon Alexit ordered K^tzes, governor of Nut, 
fyS-uayura follow the Turks, with joo men, to watch thdr modoos, 
■'*• bnt to avtrid fighting. The governor came up with all the 

Soltlns (F), and, fot^tting his orders, attacked them biilk- 
ly. The enemy having h^rd of the emperor's nutrch, and 
concluding that he was fillen upon them with all bis forces, 
betook themfclves to flight ; but l>eing made fenfible of thdr 
miflake by a prifoner they took, rallied thm farces ; and 
having met with Kamytzes, who lUyed to diride the lp(»l, 
jnftead of getting into Pcermmene, attacked him at break of 
day : his fiudiers all fled, excepting the Scythians, th& French, 
and a few Romans, who fou^t valiantly: but mofi of them 
Mil b«ng at length Ilain, and his hoHe killed, he fet Ms back 

iraviry. ^ainA an oak, and laid about him inceflantly with bis po- 
niard, killing or wounding all who came within his reach. 
The Turks, furprized at lb much valour, and being defirous 
to preferve him, Jmtr Mohammed alighted olF his horfe, and 
putting afide thofe who fought with him, laid. Give meyoar 
hand, and prefer life to death. Kamitzes, unable to refift 
fuch a multitude, gave his liand to Mohammed, who order- 
ed him to be tied on horfeback, that he might not efcape. 
DtftmtiJ The emperor miftrufting the road which the Turks had 
^ Alexit. tsken, took another. He pailed by Nice; then crofli»l Ma' 

(D) Or GwwandQ'BiVa, the the cruelties coinmicted before 
port of Nice, widi a cattle, by the Grtth. 

which commanded that city, of' (F) As if there were manj' 
ten mentioned by the crufade Solifina at thii time in Jfia mi-. 
Writer) ; but they do not mark nor. But we have already ob- 
its fituation ; perhaps near Kbi- ferved that the Gr«*j made no 
M, Kim, or Kia, navrJemlH, oa diftinAion htweea Stiian andL 
the gulf of Mtudania, or JMiw- jfmlr, king and eimmender ; for 
iarna. they oftej mircalormiAakeono 

(E) Thcfc were rcprizali, foj for the other, 

7 /ifna 

C.4> IthirdStUSHy Sayfkn; 213 

tagna and BaJtHcut, two very narrow pafles cJ the raemnfctln 
Olympus. After this he inarched to Aletmes, and thence to 
jicrocuj, with dcTign to get before the enemy. There being 
ioftM-med that they were incamped tn a valley fiiU of reeds, 
vhoe they thought themfelves in no danger from him, he 
fell upon them mth his forces, killed a great number, and 
took a great number prifoners. The reft thought to clcape, 
by lying concealed among the thick reeds •■ not could the 
Iblttiers come at them for that reafon, and the marfhioefs of 
the place : but jlUxts havii^ onkred the reeds at one end to be 
fired, ihe7urkt flew from the flames into the hands of the Ro- 
mans, who killed one part of them, and carried eff the other. 

AMIR Mohammed, having been joined by the Turitm^/, AmirMo. 
and feme other people of Afia minor, appeared at the fame hammed 
inftant to give the emperor battle ; and though Alexis open- 'w«i^*/. 
cd a way for htmfelf, by defeating thofe he purfued, yet 
Mohammed came up with the rear, commanded by Ampelat 
and Tzifiurehs, who running full fpeed againA the Turks, 
Mohammed, who well knew how td make ufe of an advan- 
tage, finding them at a diftance from their fotdiers, Jhot not 
at them but their hories ; which bringing them down, they 
were furrounded and flain. For all this, his troops were put 
to flight by thole left to guard the ba^age and the horfes; 
iQ wMch confulion Kamitzes made his efcape *. 

Not long after this, Soltin SoleymAn ordered his troo^<^Stitertef 
KhorafAn and HaUp to over-run and plunder all Afia minor, lif Turks, 
The emperor, to prevent him, intended to carry the war to 
the gates of Kogni, or Koniyah, where KhHzia/ilan (G) com- A. D. 
manded : but while forces were raifing, he was feizcd vio- '"4-1 , 
lently with the gout, which hindered his deTign. Mean time 
KMiziaftlan ravaged the country feven times over. The 
Turks, who judged the emperor's diforder to be only a pre- 
tence, to cover his want of courage, made game of him over 
their cups, and aAed comedies^ wherein they reprefented 
Atexit lying in his bed, fuirounded with phyficians, Vihoi'potnh§ 
Ibmetimes confulted, and fometimes went about togivebim""/'"'". 
eafe ; after which they fet up a horfe-langh. The emperor 
»t length, landing at Civttot, came to Fort St. George, near ■ 

* Ann. Comh. in Alex, l.xiv. c. i — S. 

(G) By Khimaftlan is to be or general ; whileS<j//)iW«,wlio 

nnderAood Say/an, or the Ton ot wa.5 only a commander, it call- 

KiiijArJtan, the former SohSn. edSoltan. Ordid5»j!fWfl«,calK 

It IS obfervable here, that he ed thefonof oldS</yi«7flH,by tlie 

who waa aAually Sohin is Ailed crufade writers, reign at the fame 

only a commander, governor, time in thewcA, atoot AW? 
p 3 the 

ftf4 fit Seljftkt «/ RAm: B. I, 

the 1^ of ffice ; then proceeding three <Iays BUicb, he en- 
camped near the bridge of L^miion, on the rivolet of Kary- 
ceum. The 'Turks, who had nfva^ the pMn which is at 
the foot of the Leudennian moaatains and fCoUrecia, oa the 
newi of his approach, retired with their plund^. The em- 
peror followed them to- Poemtfnene, and then Tent fome light 
troops after them i thefe overtaking them at Kfilia, killsd ouH 
ny, and recovered part of the fpoil. 
T^rf .1LEXIS returning, went to take the air at the pals c^ 
rtw Maiagna, on the top of mount Olympus, whither the cmprelii 

came :o him from the prince's ijle (-f-) .- there being informed 
that ttie Turks were at hand, he marched towards Nut ; but 
the enemy, without waiting for him, fled. However, being 
overtaken by two of his generals, who from the top of the C^r-: 
minian mountains obferved their motions, they were defeated. 

The einptror being arrived at Fort St. George, paJTed oo 
to the town of Stt^ydeum, and thence to Helenopelis, where 
the emprcfs waited for a wind to return to Conjlantinapte^ 
PrefenUy news bring brought of another iiruption of the 
#Wr ie- Turks, AUxh marched to Lopadian, and thence to Khio f 
nrjions. where being informed that the enemy were at Nice, he re^ 
tired to Mijhtra : but underftandiog afterwards that they 
were only flying parties, who appeared about that city and 
DaryUum to obferve his motiuDs, and not thinking himfclf 
yet fufficicntlv llrcMig to follow them to Kogni, he torned to- 
waiAs Nicome^ia. The enemy this motion, that 
he had no de/ign to attack them, took thdr former pofts, 
and rciievved their incariions ; vl liich was what the emperoc 
had in view; however,ii pve [xrcafion to his enemies at court 
to reproach him with doing nothing, after raiiiug fo confide- 
rable an army. 

When the fprii^w^s paft, ^/cxiV judged it rime to pot 
dUawir t/iis Brk deli^ in execution, and march to fCagni ; from Met 
ffbtiag. he palled to Gaita, and the bridge of Pithicus ; then haring 
in iluce days ai^ ancud to Armenocaftra and Leucas, he ar- 
rived in the vaft plain of Dory/etitn, where he reviewed his 
army, atid contrived a new mcthqd pf drawing up his force^ 
in battle. He found that the Turks did not fight like other 
peop'^. juinin^ *l',eir bi:cklers and bodice clofe together ; but 
dinded their troops into a main body and two wings, like 
three di^rent ar lies : that whto one was attacked, the 
ptiicrs nn to i's afTiflanct with extreme ardor : that they ditf 
pot miite u*e cr" larn.^, like the Fre.uh, but endeavoured tc) 
yadoit their enemies, aiid kill thetn with vrows : that their 

(t) iNear Cb^tdoa, in ttic Prtpeniii, or fea oi Marmora. 


L ,„ .=,l.,otwlc 

C. 4. TUrdSoUdn, Sayfan. 215 

nfaal vnj of fighting was at a diftancc ; and, whether parTu- 
ing or purfued, they made ufc only of the bow, which they 
diw with fuch force, that, even though they fliot when fly- 
ing, they never failed to pierce either the man who followed 
them, or his horfe. 

FoH this realbn the einper<N' ordered his army to be drawn Alexis'/ 
np in Oich a. manner, that his foldicrs nioutd oppole ihaituwdi/- 
bncklers to the fide from whence the Turki Ihot j and that cifline. 
others fhould flioot on that fide which the Turks laid open 
to them in (hooting. Having arrived at Santaharis in this 
new difpofition, he divided his forces, in order to execute fe- 
veral different defigns. He fent Kamytzes, with one party, to 
Polybote and Kedreum, where Pvlkheai was governor ; and 
StyPmtes with another, to attack ^merion (H). When Ai*. 
tnytzes arrived at Kedrtum, Pulkheai and his foldiers were 
fled ; then marching to Polyhtum, he flew the garrifon, and 
retook tlie fpwl. Stypeotes had the like fuccefs at Pvnmnene. 

The emperor, being ready to fet out from Cedrewn to Po-Hai rt- 
lybote and Kogiti, was informed that Soltan Sokymdn had fetnwr^ 
fire R> all the forage through Jfa minor; and that another 
irmy of Turks was coming to oppofe him : he confulted God, 
to kaow whether he fhould march towards Kogni, or give 
battle to die Turks, who were coming from Filomition. Hav- 
ing written thcfe two qucflions on two pieces of paper, he 
laid them in the evenii^ on the ^tar, and fpent the night In ts diinna' 
prayer. In the monui^ the bi/hop entered, and taking up''*'*- 
thc firft paper which came to hand (1), unfolded it, and read 
it aloud, whereby he was determined to go to Filomilion. 
Mean time Bardas, having pafled the bridge of Zompi, defeat- 
ed a large body of Turks in the plain of Omorian ; while an- 
other pillaged his camp. Being preflcd hard afterwards by 
a third party, the emperor came up timely to refcue htm, 
Alexis, haWng ytStAMefonaSie, near the lakcof/orty martyrs, 
arrived at Fihmilion, which he took by force. From hence 
he detached divers parties to ravage the towns and villages 
about Kpgni ; which they did, brining away vaft multitudes 
of Turks, and a prodi^ous quantity of plunder .■ they were 
followed by infioite crouds of pcafants, who came to take re^ 
fiige in the emperor's dominions. ^ 

The emperor returning by the feme road he went, in or- Turfcs^N 
der f^battie, for a long time met with no 7«r*f, althptigh '«'* *' »■ 
Mmolykus kept on one ^de of him with fome troops, But 

(H) The Cune, we conceive, Ihop in earnell, or wai it a con- 
wich Amnriuja, or Amnrium. trivance to reconcile the anny 

(I) Were the emperor and bi- to bis mcafuret ? 

P4 being 

tti6 rft* Seljftks 0/ Rftm; B.I. 

being come to the plain between Polybete aod the zbore-men; 
tioD^ lake, the enemy appeared. Monolylms (K), who was 
a man in years, and of great experience, begui thf atiaclc, 
and continuod it all the day, without making any impreSioa 
on the Roman ranks. Next day Soltan Kblizia/iLn arrived ; 
and though he was no Icfs furprized at the new dlTpofition 
of the Roman army than Monolykui, yel bdng in the heat <rf 
.. youth, he reproached that old man wth fear, for not giving 
them battle. At the fame inftant the Solt&n attacked the 
rear, aod fent two bodies to faM on the ran, and one of the 
£»ItSni The Turks fought bravely. Jndromcus Porphyrogenetus^ 
narronu the cmperor's fon, who commanded the left wing, was kil> 
tjfope. Jed. Nycfphonu Bryennius (L), who was at the head of the 
right, fearing the ran would be defeated, ran to its alHtance : 
upon which the Turks, with Soltan Khliamfllan, turned their 
backs, and re-afcended the hills. As thofc who efcaped fled 
different ways, the Soltan, with his cup-bearer, got into a 
chapel, upon a mount planted with cyprefs, where they were 
followed by throe Scythians and a Creek, who took the cup- 
bearer ; but Khlizi^lan, not being known to thpm, had the 
good fortune to efcape. The night being- comc^- the Turks 
allembled on the tops of hills, lighted a great number of 
fires, and barked like dc^ (M). 
Profit a Next day the baggage, women, and children, being pla- 
irttuy. ced in the middle, the army marched towards Amprut ; 
but on the way, the Soltan, havii^ afTembled all his forces, 
indofed and attacked them courageouHy : however, he could 
noc break thdr ranks, which flood as firm as a wall of ada- 
mant, fidng vexed and afliamed that he was not able to 
get any advantage againft the emperor, he held a council ia 
the night ; and at break of day fent to treat of peace. 
Ptatt em- ALEXIS, who was then in the plain between Augufta- 
dndtd, polis and Aoronium, oiufed his army to halt, in the order diey 
then were, aod went to the place of interview, with his re- 
lations and chief officers, guarded by fome foldiers. The 
Soltan came prefently after, accompanied by all his officers, 
with Mmofykus at their head ; who, as foon as they came in 
iigbt, alighted and laluted the emperor. The Saltan would 

(K) He is ^ere called the life, from whence thii accontt 

great .SoltSn, by which miiil be of the Turit is taken, 

nnderftood commantler only. (M) The author often throwa 

(L) Hufband lo Ansa Cvnuu- refleflions of this kind oq tha 

, the einperor"i daughter, an Turii. 

aotboi who wrote her father's 



C."4" ^^^ Splldn, Say&n. tif . 

liave done the fame, but Alexis hindered him ; bowerer, 
when he was near, he alighted, and killed the foot of that 
{>rince, vho prefented him his hand, and ord^ed a horie to 
be brought for him. Then taking oiT his mantle, he put it 
on the Soltan. After this, entering on the fubjeft of peace, 
^Uxii agreed that he ftiould remain in pofleflion of aJl the 
taritories which the Turks were maAers of before the rd^ 
of Diogenes, and the battle in which he was taken prifoner. 
Next day the Soltan and his ofHcers figacd the treaty ; after 
which the emperor made them rich prefents 

While this aiFdir was tranfaiting, Alexis having difco- MiAild 
Fcrcd that Majut had confpired to aflaflinate Soltan Say-f'^t''''' 
fan (N), his brother, he advifed him to ftay with him till 
the plot was blown over : but trufting in his own power, he j^ j)_ 
refolved to return; nor would fo much as accept of a guard 1 1 16.] 
to cfcort him to Kogni \ although he had a dreara the night 
before which might have made him IcTs ra(h. He thought 
a great fwarm of flies furrouhdcd him while at dinner, and 
fnatched the bread out of his hand ; and that, when be went 
to drive them away, they changed into lions. Next moiHT 
ing he aflecd a Raman fbldier the meaning of his dream ; yho 
told him, that the infults of the flies and lions fccmed to 
denote a confpiracy of enemies. For all this, the Soltan 
Would believe nothing, but continued his journey with more 
obAioacy than before. 

However, he fent his f[nc3 abroad, who indeed met with "fi'ii^ bh_ 
MaJut at the head of an army : but having efpoufed his \si..hraibtr i 
tereft, they went back, and told Sayfan that they had feeq 
nobody on the road ; fo that the Soltan, proceeding forward 
-\rithout any miArun,feIl into the fnare. As foon as he came 
in fight, Gazi, fon of the commander Haffan Katuk, whom 
Sayfan had put to death, fet fpiirs to his horfe, and gave 
him a ftroke with his lance ; which Sayfan fiutching out of 
his hands, faid, with an air of contempt, / did not know that 
wcm^n carried arms. Pulkheas, who was in his train, and 
held a correfpondehce with his brother Mufut, pretending 
great zeal for his fervice, advifed him to retire to Tyganion, 
^0} a linall city near FilmUioa, where he was very kindly re- 


(N) Here is a fuddeo tranfi> that, it Grd light, he (etau to 
tioo from KbU^eftldH to So)- . be a different Soli&o. 
fan; whom, for the reafons aU (O) Where was his .arm)' f 
ready al'eged.we take tobethe wh^re was Mamljiiu, the great 
fame perlon. Although he it Soltan fas he is called), and the 
introduced in fach a manner, other Soltaat, who were with 


til fie ScJjflks */ RGm." B. t 

oeivcd by the Inhabitants, who knew he had made peace 
(P) with the emperor, under whofe obedience they were. 

wh ts h- MASUTasat prdfcntly after, and inverted the place ; on 

tr^td, the walla of which Sayfan appeared, and reproached his fub- 
jefts with their perfitioufnels ; threatening them with the 
coming of (he Romans, and a panifhrncnt fuitabie to thdr 
crime. Thefc menaces were fnpported by the vigorous re- 
iiAance made by the bcfieged. It was then that Pulkkeat 
dlfcovered his treachery : for, coming down fr<Hn the wall, 
as if with detign to encourage the inhaUtants to defend the 
place, be aflurcd than, that there was a powerful army on 
the road to aflift the beft^ers ; and that they iiad no other' 
way to prevent being plundered, than to fiirrender st difcre- 
tion.' The citizens, following his counfel, delivered 5<i)yiir? up 
to his enemies ; who having had iio inftrument with them 
fit for putting put his eyes, made u(e of a candleftick (<>), 
which the emperor had given him, to deprive him of his 
fight. When he was brought to Kognt, he declared to his 
foftcr-fether that he could fee. The fofter-father told this 
to his wife, who kept the fecret fo well, that it became pub- 
lic in a few days : fo that coming to the ears of Majit, it 
put him in fuch a rage, that he forthwith ordered Elgam, 

fmifiran- one of his Commanders, to go and ftrangle his unhappy bro- 

l^d^ ther b, 

Althouch this account of Sayfan is but lamely intro- 
duced, and, for want of fome identical marks, he may leem 
to be a ditFcrent peribn from Khliziaji'im, yet, from the cir- 
cumflances of the who'e, we prefume, they appear clearly 
enough to be the fame Soltan, under two different names : 
or rather that, through inadvertence in compiling from' two 
diiftrent memoirs, tlw name of IChliz'iafilan has been put, in 
fome places, for that of Sny/an. 

This event happened about the year of CSr^ iii6{R], 
which gives a reign of tea years to this Soltan. 

*■ Anh.Comh. in Alex. I. xv. c. 1—7. 

him the day before f did they (Q_ ) By making it red hot, 

all dc'^rt him in this time of and holding it before his eyes. 
danperf or did he put mtrr? {R)This dateuegatherfrom 

ci>r(id<.-nce in Piiikkeai than any the death of the cmfeiar Ahxis. 

of them i For we are told by hit daughter 

(Pj This is a farther argu- andhiftoTtan,^maC(i»n(f»a (i), 

ment that Sayfan it the fame that, a year and a half after his 

vnhmaiJii/ildii, ' return from the ^ove-men- 

C-^ Fourth SoUinj MallM. 219 

S E C T V. 

The Reiga ef Soltaij MallQd, 

A LTHOUGH D'Herbeht, in his table of Soltans, taken?«r«ft 
** from Kondamir, ^h,ccs Moffud as tKe third Soltan, jetSe/ten, 
in the article nnder his oajne, or rather another prince of the™*'wa» 
fame name*, he lays he was the fourth. This is conform- 
able to the author of the Nighiarijfin, who makes the num- 
ber of the Soltans to be fifteen, contrary to the general opi- 
nion of the Perfinn hiftorJans ; thefe hiAorians connefl the 
beginning of Majfud's reign, as the third Soltan, with the 
year of the HfjraJ} 500, or of Chrifi i io6 : but ii) cafe he 
was the fourth, it muft fall lower of courie : and on a fup- 
pofition that he fucceeded his brother Say/an, after putting&p^,>j bit 
him to death, according to the teftimony of Jnna Comnma,rtigii,H^, 
his reign vnW con^mence in the year of Chrifi 1116. 61). 

D' H E R B E LOT has imparted notUng more from the -^ 

.oriental authors (if they allbrd any-thing more) than the 
fingic drcumftance infcrtcd above, which ferves only to con- 
tradift the fyftem he has adopted, and fupport ours. Nor 
has jih&'lfaraj mentioned more than t%vo fafts relating to this 
prince : but the Byzantine hiflorians, as hitherto, have fup- 
plied ns pretty wdl on their fide, with materials for a hillory 
of his reign. 

The emperor John Comnenui, who fucceeded j41exis, find-fw^^rfr 
ing that die TurAi (A), inflead of keeping their treaties ma.d^tai$i5o-- 
with his father, facked fevcral cities of Phrygia, about the "opo'i*! 
Meander, marched agalnft, and defeated them ; after which ^- ^■ 
he took Laodicea, and inclofed it with walls ; then returned "*0' 
to Conftantinopte ; but foon after departed, in order to reco- 
ver Sozopofii, in the fame country. As the city was defend- 
ed by a flrong garrifon, and furrounded with precipices, he 
ordered feme troops to hover at a diftancc, and Ihoot at the 
inhabitants. This drawing them into the plain, as the em- 

* DTIbkb. p. 563, art. M^oud, fit. de Mohammed, at th« 

tioned eipedition againft the (A) Oar inthor Mrtfw calls 

Turii of Sugni, he WJU feizcd them Ptr/tam here, and gene- 

srifh a gnevooi difteniper, rally ellewhqre f eicher be- 

brought OD by a wrong treat- aafttije Turks came origin all jr 

■DCDt of the guilt, which bdd into the empire from Ptrfta, or - 

)iim fix month}, U the end imagining that they fiill cams 

whereof he died. from thence. 


ftio J** Seljftfa tf/ RfliriT B.I. 

peror expe£led, and while they purfucd the Romans who 
fled, they were cut off by an ambufcade ; by which flrata- 
gcm the city fdl into his hands. He reduced likcwife a fort 
called the Spar-haivk, and feveral other lefler places, wMch 
the enemy had maAered ''. 
■{ft Kaf- Some time after this he marched into /'n^Ai^RiE^ <ad 
Umona ; took Kaftamona : but, upon his return to Cori/lantin^U, To* 
■*■ ^- nifman, a 7urk di Armenia, mentioned in the former reign, 
*'**■ who command^ed in Cafipadocia, recovered it, and put the 
- garrifon to the fword. On this advice the emperor fet 
A. D. lorward the fecond time : and when he came before the city, 
ti3t>] was informed that Tanifinan was dead, and that Mohairmtd, 
who was at variance with Maf&t, governor of Kogni (B), was 
in pofle/Tion of it. Hereupon he made an alltaDce with Ma^ 
Jilt, and having received a rdnforcement from him, marched 
againft Mohanmed: but the latter, by his perfuaiions, pre- 
vailed on the Soltan to withdraw his troops ; fo that the em- 
peror was obliged to make ufe of his own forces. With 
aWGan- thefc he retook Kajlamona, and then belicged Gangra, a 
8"' very powerful city of. Pontui, which had been fubducd not 

long before by the enemy. Having battered the walls fof 
fome time in vain with his engines, he removed them to a 
Gtile eminence, which commanded the place : and, by beating 
down the houfes about their cars, obliged the Inhabitants to 
furrender : then leanng 2000 men in garrifon, returned witl^ 
many prifoners to his capital. 
hroaiti He had not been long at home, before he marched againft 
Armenia, l^^^^ j^ng of Lejjer Armenia (C), who had taken feveral pla- 
ces, and belied Seleuda. The emperor gained the pafs in- 
*'3°] to that country without oppofition-, and not ccmteni with 
redudng Adana and Tarfus, refolved to conquer the whole 
kingdom. He took, either by force or capitulation, a great 
many forts ; and, among the relV, B^a, Arongly fituated on 
a fleep rock. Then he proceeded to Anazarba, a verr po- 
pulous city, Handing on a deep rock, and indofed with ftrong 
walls. After battering the firft wall, and entering by the 
breaches, much Uood was fpilt, in forcing the fecond wall ; 
the principal Armenians, who had fled there for refuge, mak< 
ing a very brave defence : but the place was taken at laA, 

^ NicBTAS in John Comnen. c. 3. 

(Bl Here Mafit, or Maffad, part of Cilicia, joining upon 

who was Soltan, is called only Syria, with Tome pan, perhaps, 

governor of the place. afCeffaJma. 

(C) It con[Bin;.d the caftern 


„.,„,. Coiwlc 

C.4^ Ftmrtb SoUSn^ Mafl^id. t2i 

After this he marched into Syria, where he took Pifa,atiJSynM 
OQ the Eu^hratet, Serep, Kaferda, and Ifiria ; but was obliged 
to raife the ficge of Sezer (D), and fo returned to Jnfhkh, "3'*J 
From thence he marched back, in order of battle ; and, in 
the way, fent part of his anny to ravage the country about 
Kogni, in reprjlal for invading his territories during Ms ab- 
fence *. 

SouE little time after, the emperor crofled over into jljia, D^tatt 
to difperie the Turks, who laid walle the country adjoining fi" TuHcs 
to the rirer Sangariiu, This done, he marched into Armt' ^ q. ' 
Toa, to pnt a Hop to their incurfions in that province, and |,'~.'i 
cori) the infolence of Confitmtine Cauras, who had fcized on 
Treiizond, and cre£ted a kind of tyranny. Mohammed, be- 
fore-meationed, at that time commanded at Cafarea ; and, 
having reduced Iberia, with part of Mefopotamia, was grown 
very rich. He boafted of being defcended from Arfaces, and 
the modem family of the Tani/mAm, who were the greateA iafitttr^ 
enemies the Remans h»A in the caft in that age. The erape-A«//A*. 
ror fnfiered great inconveniecdes in the enemies conntry, from 
the fevere cold, and want of proviiions, which deftroyed moft 
- of tlie horfes in his armyi Of this the Turks took fome ad- 
vantage ; but being at length repulfed, the emperor returned A. D. 
to Ntocefarta (E), where hehad feveral fldrmifhcs with them, i ' 38. 
but did not recover that city ; which was owing, in great 
meafore, to John Ccmmenm, his brother Ifa^c'i fon : who re- 
fentii^ that his uncle Ihould order Mm to give one of his 
hiHfes to an Italitm, who had loft his own, went over to the 
Turks, and cbangii^ his rehgion, married, as it was fald, the 
daughter cXMafnt, at Kogni. 

The lame year he marched into Phrygia, to AttoHa, uRseavers 
famous dty (F), In order to reprefs the incurfions of the^**** 
Turks, who had, amongft the reft, feized the Palus Pugufia.-P"^"' 
nus. This is a lakec^ vaft extent, with many iftes in it; 
whole inhabitants, by trading with the enemy, had become 
io much their friends, that they joined in oppofing the em< 
peror. But by means of vcllels, and engines, with which he 
battered the ides, he reduced them at iaft, though not with- 
out the lols of fome barks and men J. 

* Id. ibid. 

c. 9 

(D) Rather ShajT^i calted (E) Called Nii/mri, by th« 
by moll of the crufadc hiUo 7ttrkt. 

tiau Cx/arsa. (F) On the COaS of Pamphi- 



121 the Sclj6ks of Hm: 6. t* 

Mafl^ While thefe things vkk doing in the'treft, it may be 

lakes Ma- prefuraed that MaffM vas exteaduig bis dominions in the 

Uti}rah. eaft ; but we arc informed of none of his exploits on that 

fide, but one, by Ab&'lfara^, who tells us, that, in the year 

Hq. 537- of the//<7>ai 537, Mo/nmmed, ion<:£ Daniflmand, Iwd of 

A. D. Malatiyab, and (^ the borders, dying, king Majfud, lord of 

114Z. Kmiya ii\A Akfara, took pofieffion of his territories'. 

tmftrtr ^ow let US return to the ai&irs of the Gretki : John Com- 

Mitniiel ntnus dying in 1143, his Ton Manuel liicceeded him. Oni 

,A. D. of his Hrft cares was to march againft the Turks, who ra- 

*I43- vaged Thrace, and attempted to take the fort of Pithecanai 

Having put them to flight, he crofled Lydia, and freed th.6 

cities M Phrygia, near the Meander, from thdr fears. Neai* 

Filomehon he esg^ed the enemy, and was wounded in thct 

heel by a foldier whom he had pierced with his lana ;"f6r 

he expofed himfelf to danger even more than his father. From 

thence he pufhed on diredUy for ^0^', at which time Ma-- 

fit was gone to encamp at Taxara, formerly called ColoniA 

invtfij'Ko' (G). Bang fet down before the city, the -wife o£jofin Com- 

ni/ah. r^nifi, before-mentioned, fpoke very notably from the wall, 

A. D. ia behalf of her father Ma/St. The cibperor reared, aftei* 

' *^' going round the town ; ami was forced to fight feveral bat- 

. . ties oa the road, to open a way back for his tcmf. 

Nil foil : In the year 1 146, Cahrade, emperor of Germany, and othei' 

JtaJing Chrifiian princes who bad taken the crofs, came to Cmfian- 

tiitopie, in the way (by land) to Syria, intending to pals 

tiirough LeJJer Afia. The Greeks were In fach hafte to get 

rid of them, that the whole marine was emfdoyed to Ihip 

them over. The emperor Manuel took fome care about thdi'- 

fubfiflence : but, at the lame'cime, ordered fnares to be laid. 

for them in the difficult pai&gcs ; by wMch means a great 

Mwardt number of them periihed. The inhabitants of ddes in thdf 

the cru- march, infleod of receiving and fupplying tbem freely wdth 

f"^'- la'ovifions, from the top of the walls drew up their money 

in haflcets, and then let down as much brexd for It as they 

thought fit themfelves : there were even fome, who fpoiled 

the flour, and mixed it with lime. But oor author is not 

fure that all jhis was done by the emperor's order, as was 

given out ; although it was certain that he had ordered baie 

Jllver to be coined, wherewith to pay them for the goods they 

fold. In a word, there is no mifchief which Manuel did 

not contrive, or caufe to be contrived, againA them ; that 

• Abu'lf. bill, dynafi. p. zjj, 

{Gl To the nonh-eaft of Unium, or Ktgid, 



C 4; Fourth SoMH,.MiS&d* 213 

their poAenty might, by the misfortune, of iheir aoceAors, be 
deterred from ever fetcing foot on Roman ground. 

The Germam and French had not mardicd far into j4Jia, Ti^Turk* 
before they were met by the Turkijh army, commanJed \i^Jlaughttr- 
oite PampLtn ; who, excited by the letters of Manuel, and a. D. 
aolouted by his example, fought and defeated them. They 1147^ 
afterwards appeared at the Meand^-r, to oppofe their paflage : 
but Conrade fpurring his horfe into the rivefj liis army fol- 
lowed ; and getting over, fell on the Turki with fuch fujy, 
that fcarce any efcaped. The fiaughter might be judged by 
the vaft mountains of bones in that place, which our author 
Nicettu had himfelf beheld ■^:ith aftoaifhmetit. The fame 
faillorian tells US, that, after this femous vidlory, the Germant 
met with no enemy to oppofe them, during the remainder t^ 
than march. But we are informed by the weflern writers, 
who Ihoald know bell, that the difappearanoe of theenemf 
bAed only till the Franks came to Ikmuum, the capital of thfe ' 
7urkifl> dominions in Lejfer Afia. This city they clofcly in-Koniyab 
vefted: bat it was fo ilrongly fortified bo^ by nature and^^'^'^- 
art, as well as t»avely defended by the Turki, that though 
tbey had lain a Iccg time before the place, they made no 
progrefs in taking it. At length provilions falling in their 
omp, foch a mortality enfued anwog the foldiers, that the 
cjuperor Conrade was glad to raife the ftege, and return home. Conrads 
The cuife >A this mtx'tality, and overthrow of the whole KK-""irnt 
pedition, is generally afcribed, by the laid writers, to the'^***'* 
Greeks mixing Tune with the meal which they brought to 
Ml by the coanivance of their emperor ; wbom they charge, 
lifeewife with betcayii^ the defigns of the Chrifiians to Soltau 
J\Ia/iit, or Mabmat, as fome name him ^. 

Thefe are all the tranfa^lons mentioned by the Creeks, 
dorii^ the reign of Mafit .■ to which we have only one more 
to add, from JbU'ffan^, namely, that, in the )iear of the 
Hejrah 546, Ju/lin (H), having taken Nuro'Mn's armour- A. D. 
bearer prifoner, fent him tovW/i/W.who was A'u/-o'iii(/i'sfa- nji. 
ther-in-law, with a thr^teniiig anfwcr *. This fafl is of little 
%ntiicancy, but as it fer\'es to fettle the length of this Soltan's 
Kign ; which is thus brought down with cer[amty tb this 
period ; and, from circumftances produced hereafter from the 
Byzantine hiftorians, it is probable that be lived two or three 
years longer. But fuppofing that he died at the end of thADratte/ 
>ear 1 1 53, this will bring the end of his reign fifteen ycars^'*'^^ 

' NicETAs in Manuel, 1. i. c. 1, 5 & 6. t Abu'lf. 

p. ajfi- 

(H) That is, 7!/r<Aff, count of EJ'fa. 


L l,_< t.L.OtV^lc 

S24 ^^e Seljfiks of Rflfti." B. I.' 

lower in the ctntury than a calculation made from the years 
of bis reigning affigned by the Perftan hiftorians ; and gives 
" it a length ai thirty-feven years, which is double, within one 

year, to what they have ^vcn it : but on a fuppolition that 
he, and not Say/an, immediately fucceeded his father, he will 
then bavd a reign of forty-feven years. This goes a great way 
to fill up the chronolcwical chafm which thofc hiftorians have 
left in the fucceiSon of thefe Solcans ; and, by the ftill longer 
itign of his fon and fucceflbr, we (hall be able to accom- 
pJiSi it. 

S E C T. VI. 

Tie re's^n of Soltdn Kilij Arflan II, 

Tifib Stl- IT \s agreed, both by the Greek and wiental hiftorians, that 

/A^ Kihj J. jTilij Jr/in U. fucceeded his father Ma0d in the Soltanat 

*™"*' ^^'of Mm : but this circumllance is all the account which we 

have received from thePfrJian authors, relating to this prince, 

except the length of his reign ; which they have made (horter 

by three-fourths than it ought to be. This confirms the fu- 

fpicion, that they have no memoirs relating to the Brft SeU 

jikiart Soh&ns of J?iSm. In effeft, D'Herbelot, as before, has 

given nothing under the article of Kilij Arf&n H. but what 

he takes from AbtClfaraj * ; and that is no more than a Ihort 

account of the troubles which befel him, on dividing his do* 

minions among his fons, a few years before his death, and 

Whirfj is to be found in the Byzantine hiftorians : fo that our 

readers may be faid to be indebted to them for every thii^ 

concerning this Soltan, excepting only the time of his death, 

which is fixed by Ahffifaraj, 

milatKdhy MASUT, or Majf&d, emperor of the Turks, at hil 

Jagnpa- ^th divided his dominions and provinces among his Tons* 

*"'" He gave to Khrtziafllan, or Kilij Arjldn, his capital Kogni, 

with the places depending on it : to his fon-in-law Jagupafan 

(A) the cities of Amafia and Ancyra, with Cappadocia, that 

*',^" fruitful country : and to Dadun the cities of Cafarea and Se- 

■'■ bi^e. The three brothers did not long live in unity : iar 

tfie Soltans of Kogni and Cappadoc'm, envying each other's pof- 

ftflions, carried their complaints before the emperor Manuel, 

*ho fecretly widened the breach between them ; though h« 

openly agreed to affift Jagupafah, through the averfion which 

■ See D'Hekb. p. 1004, art. Kilig ArJIan ben MaObnd. 

(A) Puhapi r«i«j Ai^ 


C.4i Fifth SeMKy KilljArflanll. 225 

ht had to the Solt^D, a prince of a dark "and gloomy difpofi- 
tion, who fludi^ the death of aD his kindCed, and often diads 
incurfions on the Roman territories. 

JACUPASAN, elated with this reinforwment, attacted 
the Soltiin, who fought feverll battles, wiih pretty equal fuc- 
cefs ; but Viftory at length declaring fOr the former, he laid 
down his arms, and continued for fome time in repofe. , 

The Soltan, after this, went to meet the emperor on his Rfiirti ft 
return toConflantinopU, from his expedition to theweft (B), and Manuet 
was received with joy ; as he imagined his prefence would 
fcrve to fettle his ^tflairs in the eafl. 4 triumph was ordered 
on that octrafion ; but the people Were fo affrighted with aa 
earthquake, which threw down the beft houfcs in the dty, Knd 
darkened the air with vapours, that this pageantrywat but little 
minded. Duritw the long flay which the Soltiti made uCon* 
fiantinopU, he often diverted hiitilelf with publie ibews. One ^Tdrkilh 
day a Turk, who at firft palled for a conjurer, but turned Icarut; 
out lo be a foolj got on the tower of the Hippodrome (C), 
pretending to fly acrofs it. He was drcfled in a white gown, 
very long and wide ; the fides of which being ftuclj with 
Oiier twigs, were to fcrve for wings. He flood a long 
time (Iretching out his arms to gather the wind. The people 
Impatient cilled but to hiih oftfen to fly. The emperor would 
have dilTuaded him from that vain and dangerous attempt ; 
while theSoltin was divided between hope ami fear. At lafV, 
when he thought he had brotight matters to bear, he launched 
off like a bird ; but his wings deceiving him, he was carried 
down headlong by the weight of his. body, and broke his 
neck, to the great diverfion erf the Chriflian fpeftator^. 

The emperor, who had made Khliziafllan confiderable Manuel** 
prefents, carried him one day into h!s cabinet ; and havingA«/i"ft« 
/hewn him a great deal tif gold and filver coin, wrought plate, 
Qilendid habits; and rich filks, fent there for the purpofe; 
afked him, V;hich of thofi parveh he ivtuld hax'e ? The Soltan 
faid, he fbould receive ivit/> refpeEl that which -K-as agreeable 
to his tnajefiy to give. Mamvl then demanded,, if, 'with the 
money tvhrvh he faw, heJboiilJ be atle to humble his enemies ? 
Khiiziajllan anfwered ; that * ■:««/(/ have done it long ago; 
in cafe he 'had beeA wafer tf but part ff thai -wealth. Then, 
faid tiieempCTOT, I will give you the -whole, that yon may judge 

(B) This, w4 fuppoft, wfla fbr onr author Niceias marlu 

his expedition againft Sitily ; ncitlier ihe time ncr place. 

which we judge might have (C) Ca-lciJ by the Juris Ai- 

been in the year 1153, or 1)541 n:fjifan, vihich fjgnifies the fam* 

Moo.HlST.VoL.rV. (^ >Ufh4i 

226 7'foSeIjflks(j/Rfim.' B. l; 

, - lohat a monarch foffejej, -who can jnake fuel magnificent 


Tbt Ssl- The Soltan, charmed with fuch great liberality, promired 

tan'i dif- to reftoTC to Manuel the dty of Sebajle, with its dependcn- 

hmejlf i cies. The emperor accepted the offer with joy, and promifed 

, to maltc him farther prefents, provided he performed his pro- 

mife; and, to ftrike the iron while it was hot, fent Conjian- 

tine Cauras with the money and troops. But Khliziafilan 

"kts no fooner arrived at Kogni, than he ruined Sebafie, took 

Cafarea, drove DaMn out of his territories ar.d went in pur- 

fiiii of Jagufiafan, who died while he was raifing forces to 

6ppofe his enemy. Dadun having fdzed Amafia, was the oc- 

cafion dl the deaUi of Jagupafan'% vridow, who had called 

him thither ; for the inhabhants rifing, flew her, and drove 

out Dad&n, wh<^e power Ihe intended by ber intrigues to 


hii great BuT they found themfelvcs too weak to Tefid Khliziq/t- 

/ucccfi; Ian, who reduced their city to his obedience, as he had, done 

Kappadocia a little before ; although he was quite a cripple, 

and fo lame of his hands and feet, that he could not go, but 

as he was carried in a chair. Yet bdng full of fpirit, thia 

did not hindei: him to violate the peace, and take feveral 

places frbm the Romans : finding alfo the opportunity favonr- 

able, he went and fubdued the city of Melitene, which he 

Intirely deftroyed, and forced out the Amir, although lie was 

one of the fame reli^on. He made ufe of perfidy to deceive his 

own brother, and expel him, like the refl, who Bed for re 

fuge to the emperor. 

iivadet At the fame time one Sofrvmin, a fubtle fair-fpoken perfon, 

tbttm- came to excufe the Soltan 's condu^, laying the blame of the 

^rt. infringements made in the treaty, on the Turks, His apology 

was accompanied with exceffive piaifes on Manuel, and a 

prefent of fome fine horfcs from his mailer. 

The emperor ordered the ambafiador to reproach the Sol- 
tin, in his name, with his breach of faith and inconflaocy : 
bat KhUziaJllafi, far from paying any regard to his rempn- 
Ih'ances, though he called him father, went to Lao£cea% 
which, at that time, was not walled, and carried off a great 
number of prifoners, as well as cattle -, killing alfo many 
. people^ and, among the reft, the biftiop ''. The Turks com- 
mitted othef ravages ; but Manuel put a flop to them : and 
repaired Klinte, Pcrgamus, and Endromit, which bad been 
tuined by them -. he likewife built feveral forts to fccure the 
frontiers «. 

*NicET. in Manuel, 1. iii. c. ; 5:6, *lbid. 1. iv. c. 7. 


C. 4." Fifth Saltd^ Kilij Arll&n II. %%-f 

The care which the emperor took to repair the fortifica--/«w 
tioQs dDoryUum, gave occanon for a rupture. The So\tza,rup(iirt. 
prebsnding ooc to know the defign of his coming, lent to A- ^■ 
intreat him to retire ; and the Turks, not liking to be drivea ' '?S* 
•nt of a fniif&l territory, ia convenient for feedii^ their 
flocks, made fireqnent inroads, burning villages, and ravage 
tag cite coontry. However, Mamu/.-weat on with the work ; 
and when the fortifications of that place were lioifhed, he 
Jet forward thofe of Sabieam. This made ttie Soltan accufe 
him with breach of treaties : while the emperor, in his turn, 
spbraided the Soltan with ingratitude. 

Both partiee being irritated, the emperor made great pre-Manud 
parattcMis, and crofled into J/ia. He marched through i'A/7-yi'jyV- 
gia, and, poHtng by Laodicea, came to Kme, formerly KoUf-''"^^- 
jSu, a very rich city (D), where our author Nlcetaj was born : 
itata thence he marched to Lempu, and fo to Celene, where 
the river Marfms has its fourcc. Proceeding forward, he ar- 
med at Kome, and next at Myrkcephalt. He advanced with 
great precaution, always intreaching his army with care, and 
sever expofii^ himlelf to danger; though the multitude of 
warlike en^pues rendered his march very flow and ioconuno- 
^09. The enemy appeared fometimes, and fldrmiOied with 
the Ramani : but, what was woHe, they deftroyed the fo- 
rage, and fpwled the water of rivers and fountains, which 
pve them the flux. 

The Statin, having recdved a reinforcement from Mefo-Tht Sabai 
fottama and elfewherc, feat an embalTy to demand pe^ce <^6n' feaet, 
the emperor, on his own terms ; which all the perTons of ex- A. D. 
perience advifed him to accept; reprefenting that the cavalry »>7^* 
of the Turh (E) was very good ; that they had feized the in- 
aiceflible parts of the country ; and that a contagious diflem- 
per already prevailed in the Soman army. But Manuel, fuf- 
fering himlelf to be led by his relations, who had never beed 
in a camp before, feat back the ambaflador, without promt- 
fing any-thing. The Soltin having applied fw peace a fe- 
coml time, and received no other anfwer than that the empe- 
roi^ould fatisfy his demands whea he came to Kogni % he 
prepared an ambufcade, in the patsof 'Sy^rizii, through which 
the Remans were to march after they left Myriocepbale. 

(D) There was the charch of calls them Firfiant: which Ihewi 

Zi. Michael; admired for iiB he means the fame people; and. ' 

largenefs, and the beautji ofiia that hi: ufes the form or name, 

aichiteflure. only becaule they came origi- 

^E) A few lines before he nally from Perjia. 

Q_a It 

4i8 ?;6/Seljaks*/R6m. B.I. 

t>aiigeriias It IS ft long vallcy,' bounded on one fide with high mouo' 
t^JJage. tains, and on the other by deep precipices. The emperor,- 
Inltead of going before with light armed troops, to open the 
Way, divided his army into fix bodies, and marched behind 
the ba^age, at the head of the fifth, which confifted of the. 
flower of his troopa. The two firft corps pafiied. the moft 
dangerous places without any lofs ; becaufe they covered them- 
fclVes with their bucklers, and valiantly fought the enemy, 
who attacked them from the top of the rocks. For want ttf 
thefe precautions, the right wing, which made the third bo-. 
dy, was broken and cut in pieces, with Bald-win, the empe- 
ror's brother-in-law, who commanded them. The Tvrkt, 
elated with tUs fuccefs, (hut up the paflage intirely ; fo that 
the Romant could ndther advance nor retreat : in a moment 
both men and horfes were pierced with infinite arrows, which 
covered the ground with dead bodies, and made the chanels 
run with blood. 
Romans The enemy made great efforts to defeat the troops which 
wtr- were about the emperor, who tried fcvcral limes to repulfe 
tirtnvtt. them, and open a paflage: but not being able to compafs 
his defign, he threw himfelf almoA alone into the middle of 
them, and happily efcaped, after he had received feveral 
wounds ; about thirty arrows were flicking in his buckler, 
and his cafque was half beaten off. Mean dme the foldiers 
. fell thick in the battle; and thofe who efcaped this fatal pafs 
j>eri(hed hi the valley. The whole'^defile confifted of fevcn 
vatlies, one within another, the entrance of which was pretty 
wide, and the way out very narrow. A Solent wind hap- 
pening to raife clouds of dufl, both parties fought for fome 
time in die dark, killing inddfierendy their friends or foes. 
However, a much greater number of the Romans were flain 
than of the Turks, and chiefly the emperor's, relations. 

Whkn the ftorm was over, men were feen buried up to 
the waiA among dead bodies, extending their arms, and im- 
ploring help with lamentable cries ; without bdng able to ob- 
tain any, from men who were in too much danger thcm- 
fcives to think of aliifling others. "^ 

7ketm^t- The emperor was alone, without his armour-bearer or 
rtr^i di- guards, rellJng himfelf ■ under a wild pear-tree; there was 
firefi, only one horfeman who ofTered to ferve him, and tried to re- 
fit his head-piece. At the fame time a Turk fciicd the bridle 
of his horfe, but he ftriiek him down with a [rieee which re- 
(nained of his lance. Prcfently after, others running up to lake 
him, he drove them off with the lance of the horfeman who 
attended him ; killing one of them, and his affiftant cut off 
the head of another witli his fword. Having been joined at 


C. 4." Fifth SottSn, Kilij ArflSn II. 229 

IcDgthby ten Romans, he furmounted, with "incredible h-E/cafts 
tigue, the dUfipuhies of the paifages : ihett cr<jfliflg th? ri-'^''^^^' 
ver, and marching aver dead bodies, he met with a troop of'"'^ 
his foldiers, who came up as foot] aa they {aw him. He bC' 
held in the way John Cantacuzmuj, who had married his 
niece, fighting very valiantly ,■ but at length killed and flrip* 
ped, while he looked in vain to fee if any bpdy would cpm? 
to his aJEIlance. Thofe who had flain him, having perceived 
the emperor, who could not be hidden, made a fort of ring, 
doling their rantcs, to furround him. They were mounted 
OR barbs, nicely trained ; which, among other ornaments. 
had long collars of hair, with liitle bells. Manuel, encou- 
ra^ng his men, repulfed the enemy vigoroudy ; aifd jlill ad- 
vancing, fomeiimes fighting his way, at length joined th? Hfft 

Bbfort he came up with them, he afked for (bme water ^n /n/^/'n/ 
out of a river whii:h ran by ; and finding that it was taintedySi//«-. 
with the blood of the flain, threw it away, £iying, Ho-u> un- 
happy am I to drink Chrijlian blood? An infoleut foldier re- 
torted. It is not to-day only that you have drank Chri/iian 
blood: yo\i have, for a long time, drank it tofuch excefs, that 
you have been drunk -with it ; f nee you load your fubjeEls tuith 
the Tnoji violent and inhuman eiaSions, The emper:or, at 
' the fame time, obfcrving the Turks carrying ofF the bags of 
money defigned for paying his army, he exhorted thofe about 
him to go and recover them. But the fame foldier, continu- 
ing his infolences, faid. He ought to have given us that mo- 
ney, in/iead of commanding us now to go and retake it, at 
the peril of our Fives. If he be that man of courage as he 
boajls himfelf let him go and wreji it from the Tur(S. Ma-- 
nuel hoK thefe infults with a profound patience. 
■ CONTOSTEPHJNUS, and fomc others, arrivedin thtThe cmp,. 
evening, without having received a wound. They pafled the mr ri- 
cight in the greateft anxiety, leaning their heads on theiryo/i-cj /« 
hands, and reckoned themfdves no lietter than dead mcn^yO'- 
confidering the dangers wliich fijrrounded them. What ter- 
rified them moft was, to hear the Turks running round their 
camp, and calling aloud (o thofe of their country to hafVe out 
of it, for that next morning they would put all to the fword. 
The emperor hereupon conceived the defign of flying prl^ 
vately, and leave his people to be (laughtered ; nor was h^ 
afhamed to own it : thofe who were about him were l^led 
with indignation at it, and Contojlephanus moft of afi. 

A SOLDIER unlcnown, who was witliout the tent, an4 

heard what he faid, raiting his voice, Ciied out, UImI a de- 

tifiable thought has entered into the mind sf ths emperor?. 

0.3 Thsn 



' With-bcU Then uldlrefling his fpeech to him, h it int you, laid he, 
lyrt- who. have brought us to perijb here, under rocks li/hichiru^ 
/rsflrf. „j^ ^„j mountains which overwhelm us ? -what have vie to do 
in this valley of groans and tears, in this defcent to halt, in 
the midfl of precipices and ' pits ? tVe have had no'diffeeence 
■with thefe Barbarians, luho have inclofed us within this chain 
of mountains : ft is you ■who have led us to the Jlaughter., to 
* facrijice us as vi^ims. This boldnefs of fpeech touchod the 
emperor, and made him rdblve to fubmit to the neceiHty of 
the occafion, 
TheSeltan While no hope feemed to be left for the J?OTMaf, ihe 
tffers Solian, by perfuafion of the principal men of his court, who 
in time of peace recHved penfions and prefents from the em- 
peror, proposed to ofier him terms of peace. However, the 
Turks, who knew nothing of their mafter's intentions, pre- 
pared at day-break to attack the camp, courfing round it 
with horrible cries. Thrice the Romans made a fally to re- 
-pulfe them, and both times returned without gaining any ad- 
iwntage. Mean while the goMn fent Gauras, who, having 
ordered hoftllhies to ceafe, and liduted the emperor after the 
7-urkiJh felhion, prefented him wth a fword, and a horfe 
which had a filver bit, and* was very well trained ; making 
'"^ "■' ufe of the moft gentle and agreeable words to comfort him. 
"*"" Obferving that Manuel Iwd on a black veil over his cuirafs, 
he faid. That colour is not proper in time of -waf, and pre/ages 
■no good luck. The emperor received this freedom laughing, 
■and gave him the veft, which was adorned wth gold an^ 
purple. Afterwards he conchided and -figned the peace, by 
which he was obliged to demolish the forts of Doryleum and 
Manuel The emperor deligned to avoid returning by the pkce of 
rttmms ; battle ; but the guides brought him dire^ly tlu-ough it, that 
he might behold at leifure the deplcrable fpeAacIe. In fhort, 
the valiies and forefts were covered, and every hollow filled, 
with dead bodies. The heads were all fcalped, and the privy 
parts cut oiF; which, it is faid, was done by the Turks, that 
the Chridians might not be diftinguilhed ixom the circtuu- 
cifed, as well as to fti«w that the viiftory was thdrs ^. 
violates When the Romans had pafled the Or^ts of the mountains, 
the peace; they were attacked again by HicTurks, who purfued them, 
in parties, and lulled the lick and wounded, who were not 
in a condition to help themfelves, notwithHandir^ all the 
care that could be taken to prevent it. It is faid, the Soltan, 
repeating that he had let the prey flip out of his hands, had 

' NicST. in Man. 1. vi. c. 1—^4. 


C.^ Fifth Solidn, Kilij ArflSn II. 231 

QTcn his foldiers leave to commit diofe hoHilitics, which con- 
turned till they got to Konf. He flayed a while at Philadel- 
^lia to refrelh htmrelf ; and, in pafling forward, deuiolilhed 
the ibrtificatioas of SabUum, but left thofc of DoryUum ftand- 
iug; and when the Soltan complained of it, anrwered, that 
he paid little regard to a treaty vihich -uias extorted from 
Hn by force. Hereupon the Soltan fent jitapakus (F) at the 
bead ^ 20,000 chofen men, vnth orders to lay w^e fhe . 
Ssman pravincxi, and bring him home Tea-water, fand, and • 
in oir. That commander ruined all the cities near the riverUJii ma^f 
Mtaiuier ; had Tralles and Antiokb delivered to him by com-"'^'-'' 
pofidon ; took Liima, Petitakhtra, with fome other cafUes, by 
fbrcc, and ravaged all the fea-coaA.' 

The emperor, on this advice, immediately difpatched Johii7l>*Tv.r\A 
Vatacet, his nephew, Confiantine Duias, xa.A Michael Aj^-H'^"^i 
cm, all able men, with forces to repefs the enemy, yata- 
cn kd his troops dire<^ly to Hielium and Limnoihira, fmall 
cities, which had formerly a bridge on the Meander ; and 
lieariijg that the Turis were retiring with their plunder, made 
tie greater part of his anny lie in ambuih, and poAed the 
reft Dcj-ood the river. The Turks having been attacked in 
a place where they were much cspofod, Ata^akut charged 
ttie Rfxnani at .the head of his braveft foldiers, to give the 
otbers lime to croft the river. He gave eminent proqfs, for 
X while, c& his course and condn^ : but when he faw that 
Aere was another army of the enemy beyond the Meander, 
vluch flew all thofe v^o appeared before them, his ardor 
uMtcd, and he (ought a place where he might pafs the 
fircamwith tefs danger. Findingnonefordable.heplacedfaxm- 
ielf in his buciclcr, as in a boat, making ufe of his fword for k 
mddcr ; and holding the bridle of his horfe, who fwam bshind, 
gained the other fide of the river. As Toon as he had landed, 
wtcdd his Dame aloud, in order todrawtheTl/ri/ about him t 
tmt an Allan, who ferved in the Raman army,coming up. Rem ib*ir gfuir 
Wo ; upon which his troops being routed, moft of them ''''^/'""- 
werc drowned in the Meander. This exploit, more than 
>ny other, retrieved the affairs of the Remani, and humbW 
the pride of the Turks, jifpietus perifhed nnhappily in this 
TCDCounter ; for a Turk, not being able to hurt him, his ar- 
■unr bong pro<^, made a ftroke at the head of his horfe, 
Wllich, capering, threw him into the river •. 

* NiciT. inMan. \.-v\. c.6. 

(P) Some perfon, we pie- t\it Scljuii of JJnm copied thofe 
' Mine, who iiad the title of Jia- of /r«n'in moft tbings. 
^ii eipreflcd in Jtafaim: for 

0^4 Ta» 

ija ?*i< Scljvlks «/ Rum- B.I,' 

Sbameful The emperor being defirous to attack the THrh of Pa-^ 
fiight of a nefa and Lacere, r^uced the firfl ; then fent Katidui, governor 
of Laodicea, to difcovcr the condition of the others : but 
fac threatening them with the emperor's arrival, ihey.£e4 
immediately ; which (o enraged Mariuel, that he ordered 
Katidut to have bis nofe cut off. Soon after, he gave troops 
Xo^ndronicui Angelut, and Manuel Cantaiuzenus, to attack 
Raman the Turk: of Karace, which is between fjuiifii and Cracifgala. 
ftatroL A'nHronkas, having only taken fome flieep and peafahts, fled 
full fpecd at the bare report of the Turks being at hand, 
\nthout fo much as enquiring how many they were ; and not 
content with efcaping to Kone, fpurred his hor(e on to Laodi- 
cea. ' The foidiefs, aftoniflied at the abfence of their general, 
abandoned the prifoners and the baggage, and would have 
difperlcd, but for Caniacuzenus. The emperor ^yould have 
puntlbed this gjUant behavionr of Andrmicus,\sy making.hiiQ 
walk' through the city in womqi's cloaths, but for the rela- 
tioulhip that was between them. ■ ' 

pravtry As the ^cmirif retired, a Turk, from a rifing ground, Hew 
tfetlert. a, great >Quinbcr wiih arrows. Several fhotat mm again, but 
he had the dexterity to avoid their (hafts ; till Manutl Xerus, 
alighting, went up to him, and cleft his head with his fword, 
although he demanded quarter after killiog fo many others. 
A Deacon, who was a man of courage, and related to AT- 
cetat, having had the charge of fome plunder at Karace, did 
not leave it behind like the reft, for fear of the danger. Some 
admired his refolution, in marching llowly In the middle of 
his enemies ; and others mocked hint for his avarice, in fet- 
ting a greater value on the booty than his life : for his part, 
he defptfed their r^eries, and reproached thein with cowar- 
dice, in flying when they were not purfued. 
Claoilio- The Turks foon after belieged KlaudispoHs j on the news 
polig re- of which the emperor ran to Its relief, with incredible dill- 
iieviJ. geoce, without any equipage bcfides his arms. He crollcd 
Bithynia by the light or torches : he palled the nights with- 
out fleep : and, when fatigue and watching obliged him tp 
take a little reft, he lay upon nothing but ftraw. At the 
news of his approach the Turks betook themfclves to 6igh^ 
and the citizens wqre filled with joy, being no longer able to 
have held out '. - ' 

preatfue- KH L IZ IjiSTLA !V,\vho greatly fesTcd the emperor Wa- 
^'Z' naf/, no fooaer heard of his death (G), than he went and 

'NiCET.inMan. I.^ 

(G) The emperor died in 5^^ which anrwert ^0 the yewoi" 
Itviier, in the fifteenth indidion, Cliri/ 1 182. 


L „. ..L.OOQlC 

p. 4; Fifth Soltdn, KiTq Arilati II.' ?3J 

took SozoPoIh; befieged, for a long rime, the celebraHd city A. D, 
oijlitalia; s^oA nyngzA Kotyalium ;• aaA, moi^ than this, fe- "8j. 
vera! provinces voluntarily fabmittcd him *. This prince, _ 
'who enjoyed a yigoroos health, though upwards of feventy '„> ; 
years of age, took the like advantage of the deadi ■ of ^nifrff- , '* 
-aicus, and proclamation of J/aac Angelui ; uptai the new? °f ^3- '^ 
which, he fent Jmir Sames, with fome horfe, to make an ir- ^♦'•'^ 
ruption into Thrace, from whence 'he returned with many ^ ■ 
■prifoners and much plunder : for the nations of the eaft let 
the Romant remain no longer in repofe than they made them 
prefents, or paid them an annual tribute, which w^ the way 
bf making them quiet, ufed by the emperors of that age ; 
who, in this refpeft, fays Nkttas, were weaker than wtnncn, 
who handle nothing but the fpindle and diftafF''. 

This Soltan, who, in his latter days, became vCTy pow- ^'""''''t 
crfnl, divided his dominions among his fons, of whom he*'''"/^** 
had many ' : but we meet with the names of only five, Maf- 
JM, Kothbo'ddin, Rokm'ddin Seleym&n, Gayaiho'ddln Kay 
Kho/raw, and Moazo'dtUn Kayfar ShAh (H). After this di- 
ftribution,"his children treated him with much Ingratitude, and ■ 
even contempt; Kothbo'ddin (I) went fo far, as tO'Teize and 
confine him; Afterwards marching to beliege Kayfariyab 
(that is, Cafarea, in Cappadecia), which he wanted to take 
from one of his brothers; to whofe ftiare it fell -, the old 
■SoItSn, whom he carried along with him, found means at 
length to make his efcape into that city. But meeting there 
witn a bad reception, he applied himfelf iirft to <»e fon, and 
then to another, who all proved alike, excepting Gayatho'ddin 
Kay Khofraw. This prince not only received him with affec- 
tion, but went with him to bcficge Kmiyah ; and hayit^ takea 
It, placed him once more in the throne ^. The diftriburic»i 
inade by Kilij Arjl&n of his dominions among his fons, we 
judge, from the courfe of the Greek hiftory, to have been io 

t NiciT. in Alex. Coran. c. i ;. "• Ibid, in Ifaac Angel. 

1. i. c. 4. ' Ibid, in Alex. Coain. 1. iil. c. ;. ^ Abu'l- 

>AiLAj, bift. dynaft. p. 276. 

(H) M«/flj mentions only the {1} Tbis prlocc. by what fol- 

firft four, whom, according to lows, was in polTeHion of Kani- 

the Greek way of corrupting jab (called by the Gretki Kogm, 

Barnes-, he calls Ma&t, Kopalin, or Kenni), and confequently wa» 

tuiratin, and Kai &froei ; leav- to have been his father's fuccef- 

ing out ihc additional names of for in the kingdom, or the fb- 

^3nmdn^tv^Gayatbi> d£H,viVrim vereign on Vrlioro the icft de- 

ihe Griiki write ^atimw iaija- pended. 


L,i,.<. t.L.OO'^iC 

^34 ^' Scy^t of Rftm; B. L 

■the rear 1 187,(» that following j 2iid lus rcfbundoa lo bate 
bapptned ia 1 1 90 or 91 . 
fitGtt' DuEUUC this prince's abdlcatioa, and UI treatmeat by his 
nan em- children, the emperor Frederic Barbarojfa (K), who h?d taken 
ftrtr the crofs, arrived in Throve, in his way to Syria ; and hav^ 
bg made peace with ffaac jingtlus, rf^ajred with his Germans 
A. D. to ICffMipgiif J where, finding Ihips ready, they croOed over into 
i*9°- jinatolia. When th^ c^aie to Philadelphia, the inhabitant^ 
who hehav^ well enough at iirft, attacked them in the rear, 
at thor departure : but finding they had to deal with Aatues 
of brafs, and invincible people, they betook tbanfelv& to a 
jibasid'til Sight. The ciuzens of Laadicea, in Phrygia, op 
dte coatrary, recnvcd thete ftrangers with lb much good-na- 
ture, that the emperor prayed for their profperity on his 
.kaees. When they came to the roads leading to the hills, 
ihey met with the TurJu, who incommoded them all they 
xonld, by Iktrmilhiog *, althoi^h they had promiTed them paf- 
Jage, as well as the Eomatu, But they paid dear for their 
iefeaii tht fREDERIC gave battle near the fort of FilmeSm to the 
Tuilu. foQj (^ tiig Soltan of Kogtti, who had bewi driven from bj^ 
- idomimons, and reduced to a miferable condition ; and h^v- 
-ing defeated them, took the fort and burned it. Coming ^ 
s iccasd, -engagement with tbem at Cin^lacian, he gained a 
^Bftl vi^Wy : for as tiiey waited for him at the paHes whicji 
4hey had leiaed, the empsrcs' iocsmped in a plain ; .and iuiv- 
tag divided h'ls army in ttie night, he ordered one half to re- 
xoain in the camp, and the other to feign a flight as Ibou t» 
day appeared. The Turks believing that they fled for fear, 
'quitted the palTes, and aiming down into the .plain, entered 
the camp, where they expefted (o mett with a rich booty : 
but the pretended runr^ways reuimiug, and thofe who were 
Crttt in the cemp appearing, they, between them both, furround- 
Jofghter. ed the Turks, and made a horrible flaughter of them. 

As the emperor was on his way to Kogni, the Soltan, who 
iiad taketi refuge io Taxara, or Khlonia, iepX, to cxcufe what 
had happened, for that he knew nothing of tbe condufl of 
his fons, one of whom, named Kopatin (L), had driven him 
out of his domiruons. The Tarh had barricaded themfelvea 
in the gardens which were about Kogni ; and as th^ earned 

(K) Kir-clai never calls him Kohadcs, as £/unf/flviVj judged. 
emperor, but king; y« fpeaks hill. Mufulm. p, 86. Somt- -hi- 
of him 33 a great, wife, and Dorians fay. this Koihh'JiSn 
good ptince wos taken by Frederic in one of 

(L) That ii KHbbadTin, not tbsfe banlw, 


Jight TcafXms, and Oiot w^U, thou^^t they could ea£ly de* 
^oA themfeWes aguofl troops hcaYily amcd. But they mne 
aUSo decdved this ttnic by their hopes : for Ae Germans ob- 
ierving that they took -th? advantage of Qiopting froRi behind 
.the hedges and ditches, liic horfancDcanisd ^foot-ifoldiers 
behind them, and Siting them down vfaen they were near 
the enemy, fuppcxted them in every :plaac where the^ vac 
Able to go. Thus aU the Turki pei^be^, excepdng « 'fev 
-who eTcaped. A Mohamwiadan, who tnmed Cbrifiian, fwoie 
thAt it coft him 200 pieces of iiher to bury thofe who -m* 
imaiiied dead opon hs £cld ; by which the-nomber of the Una 
may be judged c^. 

Although Ae Cenaani were moAers of Kogni, AoyTaiwKai 
would not go into thedty; but were coatant to lodge inthefiya- 
i'uburbs, and there take the provifiois which they WMted. 
The Turks, apprehending that the empercr intended to con- 
.^ner tfadr coaotry, and' fettle there, ei)dea;<ioured to gain his 
meS&on. by falfe oflers of fervice : but after he had reoeived 
Come of their children in hoflage, with guides, heleft their 
frontiers, and puflied into Arpunia, where he was reccavcd 
with great honours. In a few days he prDceeded 6> jintiokk, 
and (ooQ after was unfortunately drowned in paifii^ a ri- 
ver '. 

One Alexis, who pretended to be the fon of the emperor^ Greek 
•Manuel, difgnifed his im[X]fture with fo much art, that heffiendtr 
bnitated the tme Alexis, even to the fairnefs of his hair, and 
befitadoD in his Ipeedi. He made his 6r& appearance in the A. D. 
■cities along die Meander.: then going to Armale, difcovered *'9>- 
bimfelf to a Soman, with whoni he lodged ; telling hifn, that 
his &ther had ordered him to be thrown into die fee, bnt 
that he was faved by the compaffion of -the officers who were 
charged with that crud maixlate. He and his landlord going 
^^ Kogni, he prefented himfelf before the old Soltin, who had 
jiot then been driven from the throne by his fon Kopatin (M), 
^d had even the boldnefs to reproach him with ingratitude 
wid hard-heartednefs, not to be touched with the difgraceof 
the-fon of an eiDpertu:, who had been his fticnd. KhUzinJl- 
Ian, overcome by his impudence, and decdved by fome marks 
■<of refennblance which appeared in hb face, made him pre- 
-feats, and gave him hopes. 

I NicKT. in Ifaac Aagel. 1. ii. c. 7 & 8. 

(M) Either this muft have not aiipear chat theGr»A Icnew 
bai^ned after the refloraiion any ining of his rclloiacion 10 
ni Kilij Arjlam, or the marginal the throne. 
date iQuft be wroog. It does 


'i^6 The Seljuks «/ Kdmt B. T." 

rlaimst^ OvE day, boafting of his birth in the prcCaae of the ^0- 
t^ir* i ■ man anfbaflkdor, tlie Solcan ailed the latter if he was fure that 
this pretcuder was Manuel's fon i The amballador anfwtred, 
that it was certain that the fon of iilaiaul had been drown* 
cd (N) ; and that it was in vain iot the party prefent to in* 
' vent a Aory which would meet' with no credit. The falfe 
jiUxis was fo provoked at this anfwer, that he would have 
flown in the ambaflador's ^e, if the latter had not cooled his 
courage by aSe^Gg alfa to be in a great palTian ; and if the 
SoUin had not rebuked lum fomewhat iharply. All the af- 
^ftaoce he obtained from this prince was only letters called 
M&fur, permitting him to lift foldiers : by which he drew 
to his party Ahmtras, Arfan, and other commanders, accu- 
ftomcd to rapine. !n a Ihort time he gathered 8000 ,men, 
with wlrich, by force or compofitton, he reduced many dties 
upon the Msander, 
jKcrn hya SEVERAL generals, and laftly Alexis, the emperor's bro 
fr-i'^' tber, were feu againft him ; but they could do no good, for 
fear of being betrayed by their fuldiers; who fhewed mcMre 
jnclination to fcrve this pretender than tlieu" lawful emperor. 
Nor was the infcAion confined to the people only : the prin- 
cipal perfons at court were pleafed with this illuGon. But 
WliUe the power of this impoftor increafed every day, and 
he feemed to be in a fair way of comparing his de/lgn, he 
was fuddenly taken off by an uitexpe^ed means ; for hav- 
ing returned from Armaie to Piffe, and drank more than ufual, 
he was flain by a prieft, with his own fword. When his 
head was brought to the Sebaftocrator (Alfifii }, he put 
back the long hair with his horfe-whip, and f^d, that it 
was not without reafan that fo many had been difpofed to 
follow him >". 
^iSiltan KILIJ ArJlAn died in his capita!, in the year 588, ac- 
£n. ctwding to Abhlfaraj : which gives him a reign of forty years, 

tJej. 588. by our reckoning, from the' death of his ^tlier Mnffud; aV- 
-A. D, tho' Kvjdarr^r allows him but ten years. The author of the 
1191. i^/ighiarijian, indeed, doubles that number ; but both are 
wide of the truth. From the before-mentioned account of 
his age, he miift have been fcventy-fix at his death. 
Bit eia- This piince was graiklfon to the firft of that name ; and 
TASir. diftinguilhtd hlmfelf, not only by the wars which he car- 
ried on againft his neighbours the Greeks, but alfo by hi& 

■NicET. in Ifaac Angel. I. iii. c. i. 

(N) He was lirlt ttrangled by in to be an adaciate with the 
order cf [Sc tyrant JaJisnicu!, young priiiife in the empire, 
who, by hisarts.cbruttbinirclf . 


C. 4I Sixth Solt^, Gayatho*ddin.' i^f 

'ir'iliom, jufGce, and fkill in goveroiiig his people. He left 
Ijis fon Cayatho'ddin Kay Kho/raw for his fucceilor ". 

In confequence of this oew oominatioD, Kontyab, as being 
the regal feat of* the Soltans fince the lofs of Nice, fell to the 
Ihare of Kay Khofraw, as it had done to Kothho'ddin, by the 
GrA diftribution : and it is, doubtlefi, to this fecond appoint- 
meat of Kilij Arjlm, that the partition, mratioDcd at the be- 
diming of the next reign, ought to be referred. 


■ ^he reigns of Gayatho'ddin Kay Khofraw, Rokno*ddiii 
Soleymaa, Kill] Ardan III. and of Kay Kholravr 
a fecond time. 

GATAmO'D D IN Kay Khajkaw, according to our hy* Sixth W- 
pothelK, was the fixth (A) Sollin of this Selji^ian dy-t^", Gaj- 
nafty. On the death of /Cilij Arjlan, his dominions flood thus atfio'd^i* 
divided among his fons (B) : Mafid had for his fliare Amajia, ^^, 
Ancyra, Dorylxum, and fevcral other fine cities of Pontus ; **' 

Kethbo'dMn polTelled Melitene, Cafarea, and Kolonia, called 
Taxara', Rokm'ddSn was maftcr of ■ Amy ntus, Dokwa, and 
other maritime cities j and to Kay Khofra-w bdonged KanSya, 
Lykaonia, Pamfihylia, and all the country as &r as Kotti- 
anyum '. 

ALEXIS Komnemis, *ho ' fucceeded Ifaac in the em-rf„i,,for 
pirc (C), had fcarce been three months on the throne, before ^r^^ni/er. 
news arrived of another pretender, a Ciltcmn, who had taken A. D, 
the tiame of Alexis; and was well received by the Soltan of ngS 3 
Ancyra (D), with a defign to embarrafs the emperor, and 
oblige him to buy his friendfhip. Oenofiolitvs the eunuch, 
who was fent againil him, being able to ilo nothing, he went 
hlmfelf, thinking to make an alliance with the Turki : but 

" Abu'lf. p. 276. • NicET. in Alex. Comnen. !. 3. c. 5. 

(A) D'Herhtlat, in his table, done by agreement among them - 
ronowing/TDjiAiCTir, makes him felves, as he declares afier- 
ibe fifth ; but, in the article of wards. Such as there are but 
this prince, fays he was the iifih fmall inaccuracies with the By- 
or lixLh ; for that hiltorians dif- xuniinc hiftorians, 

fer on this head. (C) In ilie year 119;. 

(B) Our author NUciai fays, (D) According to thc.abovc 
that Kilij ArJlS,n made this a\- dillribiition, this inuil have been 
llribution among his fons in his Ma£l.d. 

old-age; or, poffibiy, it sma ^ 

.. .,,=,^,Ol.WlC 

»3» ^e Sdjfiks e/ Rflm. & C 

thejr refufed to conchute a peace with him, nolds he paid 

them dowa 500 pouods of cotoed Jilvcr, and 300 every year,. 

belidcs 400 filk velh. Alexis, having deftrayed fome f<cts, 

returned to CanJiantinopU, after two moaths employed ia 

this expedition, leaving the pmeoder to iocreafe in power ; 

and doubtHs he wouhl bwc done a great deal of iniichiefV 

if his throat had not been cut m the fort of Zmgre. 

GteektE/- However, the 3oltAn of y^nr^ro carried on die.war,aiu^ 

iraeri. befieged Diadibris wth aU, his forces. At four months end, 

A.D. troops arrived under three young chiefs, Theodore Uranut, 

096] ^ndroniaii Katnkakn, AYiA Theodore Kafanus : bat the TwrAj, 

laying an amburcade, fell on them at day-break, put them to , 
flight, hilled a great number, and among the pvifooers toc^ '' 
etro of the generals ; whom they dragged with their hands 
tied behind their backs, to (hew to the befieged. The ii^- 
bitants, difcouraged at the fight, and being in great want of 
proviiions, delivered up the city, on condition of having tha 
liberty to retire vrith tbor families and efTefts ; becaute tha 
vi^r would not permit them to ftay in the town paying tri- 
bute. Soon after, when the war had lafted a year and a 
ItiUf, the emperor made peace with the Sol^n ; and was not 
albamed to . ^ee to the terms which he had refufed bcfora 
die place was befieged ". 
Man^af THE ODORE Mangifei, after his rerolt at PhilatU^ia, 
rtvtiiii and peace made with the emperor ; to avcnd the attempts of 
Bafilius Vataces, governor of Thrace, fled to Kay Kliqfraw, 
Soltan cX Kogni (E), and intreated him to fupply him with 
troops to make war upon tlie Romans. The S<dt5n, loftead 
of granting his requeft, only permitted him to aflemble fome 
Tnn^ who lived by plunder. Hanng gathered a multitude 

^ NicET. in Alex. ComacD. I. i. c. 4 & 9. 

(E) This event ia placed in or Kegiii, tlie royal feat ; nor 

tbe reign of the emperor I/aac did he fuccecd 00 his father'a 

^»_^e/iij.attheyear 118S. The reftoration. for Kilij Jrjlam 

dale does not agree with what reigned himCelf: nnlcfs we ifup- 

is faid a little lower down, that pole that he was reftored before 

Ka;f Kbe/rmxi had but misly fuc- the year 11 88, and that Kay 

tteded bis fiilbir ; for he did not Khcfre-w was his aflbciate, or 

fucceed till after hii faiher's governed ai if he was Solcan i 

death in 1 191. He did not fuc- for which we have no auchori- 

ceed on his abdication, in con- ty. To make the biflory tficrc- 

feqnence of the divifion Kilij fore confiftent with itfelf, we 

JrJIdn made of his dominions t place this iranfaflion here, fup- 

fcr Kcikbt'dditi was, by virtue poling it to have happened 

thereof, in poITeinon of A^nijo^, about the year 1196 or 1197. 


C4- Shtb StllSih Giyat\v>*Mtn: 33^ 

of thefe, he inrsded the empire, doing incredibfe damages la ' 
Phrygia (efpecially abont Indicia and Kont), and in Karia; 
after which he retired with abundance of priToners and cattle. 
The emperor, fearing that Mangi^ts might by his advice cor- 
rupt that young prhice, vho had but newly fucceeded his 
father KiUj Arjtan, fent ambaflklDrs, who by prefents prevailed 
On hint to deliver op that refugee, on condition that he»/<A«wp- 
&ouId not receive any corporal punifhment. This action oitdtif, 
the Soltan fo difpleafed his brothm, who had divided with him 
thrir father's dominions, that they would have made war opon 
him, if he had not appeafed them, by alle^ng : that he had 
not betrayed him, but only fent him back for the good <£ 
the flatc ; that he was a banhhed man whom he had fettled 
again in his own countf7, to the end that he night no longer 
pcrfecute others* or be perfecnted himfclf =. 

Towards the end of the third year of his reign, Alexis The Svl- 
broke the treaty which had been made with Kay Kho/roes, tan's /ue- 
Soltdn of Jhnium, jjpon a very frivolous occafion. TKn"/''' 
prracc flopped two horfes, which had been fent the emperor ■^' ^' 
by the Soltan of Alexandria; and one (rf tbcm having broken "9*-l 
i leg in running, he fent to apoto^ze for both thdfc acci- 
dents, and promifed to make fatisfa^ion. Alexit, inflead of 
being paciHed with this civil excufe, flew into a r^^, and 
threatened much ; but at hift tooli revenge upon himiclf, by 
ordering the merchants from Kogni, Kotruau as wdl as Turks^ 
to be feized, u^ther widi thdr efTe^, which were fqnan- 
dered away. On ad^ce of this, the Solt&n immediately fell 
upon the cities near the Meandir, took Karia and Tantalus, 
^ith feveral others ; and had become mafW of Antiokb ia 
Phrygia, but for a merry acddent. 

The fame night in which he intended to furprize that 
city, one of the principal inhabitants happening to celebrate 
the nuptials of his daughter, the guefls made a great noife, 
as is ufual on fuch occafions : Kay Khofroes, as he approached 
the walls, hearing this confnfton of voices, and the IVordy 
tvhich the foldiers, who had been informed of his coming, 
gave to one another, he retired to Lampis. 

There he viewed his prifoners ; and inquiring into their jft/f^rvtf 
names, countries, and after what manner they were taken, humanity 
afked if any of his foldiers had hidden the married wo- 
tnen and maidens, with a defign to ahufe them. Then Ireor- 
dered the etFefls to be reftored which had been taken from 
them ; and finding that their number amounted to 5000, he 
ruiged them according to their famiics, and, at parting, took 

■ NiciT. in Kaac Angel. 1, z. c. 3. 


;i4* ^ Seljfiks of R&tftr B, K 

care that Aty {hould be fu[5plicd with provtfions during tlw 
march. For fear alfo that they Ihould be iojuredby the cold 
weather, he todc an ax himrdf to cleave a tree which was 
fallen. The foldiers ifvauing to fee him work, he ordered 
them to do the fame, faying : th^ might go out of the camp 
when they pleafed to cut wood ; but that the Roman prifooers 
durft not do it, for fear of being fufpcfted df a' defign to 
t» th When he arrived at Filamelm, he .aiTigned ihem houfoj 
thrifiians \ to lodge in, and lands to mtuntain them, diftributing them coni 
and other grain. He promifed moreover to fend them back 
without ranfom, when he Ihould conclude a peace with the 
cmpt^or ; and ttiat, in cafe he rofufed to conclude one, they. 
Itiouid remain iive years in his dominions without piiyiDg any 
tax; tliac afterwards they Akould pay but a very light one,- 
which (hould never bs increafcd, as were often thofe cAa-' 
blifhed in the empire. Having thus regulated matters, he re- 
turned to Kegni. Such favourable treatment made the cap- 
rives forget their country, and drew into the Soltan's terri- 
tories abundance of people who had not been taken in war. 

ALEXIS fent againft tbs Turks Andromcui Dukat, wh6 
being very young, contented htmfelf with attacking the troops 
of Amir in the night, and prefently retiring''. 
mttackii Some time after this, war broke out among the foos of 
bj Rok- Kilij Arjlan, on the following occafion. Kothbo'Siin (F) being 
no'ddin ; dead, a difpute arofe between Rokna'ddin (G) and Haffiid, 
who fhould fucceed to his dominions (which, as hath been 
obierted before, confdlad of Militene, Cafar'ta, and Kohxia). 
But as Rokno'ddin had more fpirit than his brother, and un^ 
derftood military affairs letter, he gained the advantage ; and 
conftraiiied him to demand his friendftiip for one part of Us 
country, leaving him the other part as before. After thi^ 
having conceived an inveterate hatred againft his brother Kay 
Khofraii), becaufe his mother was a chriftian, and burning with 
dcfire to poUcfs Kogni, fent to require him to deliver it up, 
in cafe he had a mind to exempt the leSt of his dominious 
from the hazard of a war. 
rttiri) ta RAT Kliofraii) upon this, having made peace with AUxis; 
Alexis, repaired to his court (drelTsd in a robe adorned with gold 
point), juft as his father had done before to that of the em- 
peror Manuel, during the difputes which he had with his 

•* NiCET. in Alex. Comnen. 1. c, J. 

(F) By the Gi'eeh named K«- hap? by miflake for Rainatini 

falin, or Kati'li'i. So Mafal, inftcad of Maffud. 
(Gj lT,M.^tn>Ruh-arm^ei' 

7 brothers 

C. 4.' Sevmtb SoMh, RoknoMdtn.' 241 

brothers after the death of their father Maffud: But whereas 
Manuel alTifted Kilij Arjlun with forces beyond his hopes, 
Kay Khofraiii received oothlng from Alexis but common ci- 
vilities. He was fcarce returned to Hogni, when he was pur- 
iacAby Rokno'dJin, and forced to ^y into .ilnnffi/ii (H) ; where 
he was kindly rfceived by Leon (I), although formerly he had 
been at war with him. That prince however lent him no af- 
Jiilance againft his brother, with whom he {aid he was allied, 
becaufe he forefaw that the war would be very bloody. 
Hereupon Kay Khofravi returned ag^ to the emperor, in 
hopes of being restored by his means. But this lecond hoptf 
being as vain as the £rft, he continued at Conjiantinople (K) 
in a private condition, and much below his birth ". This 
Vevolution happened, according to the compuution of the 
Creeks, in the year 1 198, or rather later. 

ROKNO'DDIN Soleymm having driven his brother *««»/* 
Kay Khojra-u) out of his fliare in the empire, in the fame^*'^* 
manner as he had expelled his other brothers out of theirs, ]f.*''^^'"" 
die whc^ became again united under one prince. levtai' 

Not long after, the emperor fent Conftantitie FranhpoSt, ^ jy' 
with Cm gallies, into the Euxine lea, under pretence of get- nag] 
ting up the wreck of a fhip which had been cad away near 
Kerafonte (L), in' returning from the river Fafis ; but in re- 
ality to rob the merchants who landed their goods at Amri' 
ttu. FraitkopoHs following exafUy the orders which he had 
rccciTed, fpared no veflel whatever ; plundering thofe which fn^'or 
carried c(»nmodities to Conftantinople, as well as thofe which ""^'Z*^ 
had returned with the price of fuch as they had fold*"""* 
there. They flew fbme of the merchants, and threw them 
Into the fea ; the refl they Gripped to a (hamcful degree. 
Thele prefented themfelves before the emperor's palace, and 
entered the great church with tapers in their hands, to de- 
mand juftice : But thdr effefts havmg been already (bid, and 
the money confifcated, they could obtain no rcdrefs. 
, The merchants of Kontyah had rccourfe to Rokno'diUn ; 
who, by hia ambafladors, demanded back what had been 
taken from them, and at the fame time propofed a treaty of 

• NicET. 1. 3. c. ;. 

(H) The leffer Jrmrma. Others fay, he died thctc. See 

(I) Others name him 'Zebun, Kncviles, vol. i. p. ^9. 
at Turk, See Knavlti, vol. i. (L) Ot Kerafas (fromwhence 

p. 39, edit. Ricaat. came Cbirryi), a city and port ' 

(K) By what appears after- of Fojttus in the Euxim fea, 

«&aidt, he iccovered his throne, about Gxty mites Ibuth-wclt of 
■frapexus, or frapcwnd. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV. R peace. 

14* ^' Seljfiks of Rflmi B. I, 

pwce. The emperor laid all the blame on Frankopolis : how- 
ever, the articles of peace at length taldng place, .Roknd'ddtn 
had fifty mina of filver, to fatisfy him and his fubjefts, ha- 
AnJ an e/-Mts the promife of a yearly tribute. Some days after, j4lexit 
JaJJht. • was fhamelully conviftcd of an attempt againll the Soltan's 
life ; having fent a very polite letter to that prince by a 
KnJ/ian (M), whom he had bribed to allalEnate him : But 
■the bravo being arrefled, the plot was difcoTcred, and the 
peace broken almoft as foon as made : which rupture' occa- 
iioned the ruin of many dtjes of Anatolia. 
Roman At the fame time Michael, the natural fon of John the fc- 
harbx' i. baflocrator, a froward and pafltonate young man, having been 
"""• fent to colleft the taxes due from the province of Mylaffa (N), 

revolted: but, -being defeated, fled to Rokno'dMn, who re- 
ceived him very civilly, and gave him troops ; with which he 
plundered the cities about the Meander, and committed more 
horrible cruelties than thcTurkt would have been capable of 
7*:^ Com- It muft be confefled, that nothing ever contributed fo 
ne^i (cn- much to the dcfolation of the provinces, or the ruin of the 
Aw empire, as the ambition of the Cmineni ; who were of no 
ufe to their country fo long as they ftaid in it, and became 
very pernicious to it when they were out of it ', To this ob- 
fervation of Nicrtas we may add, that the Rsmans generally 
brought on themfelvcs the evils which befell them ; either by 
their breach of faith, or violences committed againA the bor- 
deiing nations: yet, when the injured made reprifus, they 
loudly exclaimed ; as if they had a right to be cruel with im- 
punity, or thought ihofe anions virtuous in themfelves, which 
they deemed moll execraUe in others. 
Kokao*d- We are not much better fupplicd with materials from tht 
din'j rx- oriental hiftorians, relative to this Soltan, than thofe prc- 
fieiti. ceding him : what little we have from that quarter Is g^vea 
h-^^h&'lfaraj. This author informs us, that Rokno'dJin Sg^ - 
leyntan took Koniyah from his brother Gayatho'ddtn Kay 
A. D. ^hofra:oi * j and that in 597, in the month of RamadAn (O), 
I30O, he forced the city of Malattyah out of the hands of hU 
brother Moezo'ddin Kayfar Shah, after a few days leaguer. 
Then marching to Arzen al rim (or jirzer&m), wMch be- 
longed to the fon of king Mohammed ebn Salik ; that lord, 

^ NicET, in Alex. Coronen. 1. 3. c. 7. ■ Abu'lf. p. 276. 

(M) So the Grtfii call the (N) A city of ^ar/a. 
Saianijfs, Or IfmaiUam, whom (O) The ninth month of th« 
the oilier motions of £tt)0/r name Mshammedeti year. 


C> 4; Eisbih SeliSn, Killj Arflan III. 343 

depending on Rokno'dtHn's promife, went to him, in ordo- tb 

treat of peace 1 but the Soltin imprifoned him, and then took 

the city. He was the laft of his family, which, fisr a long 

time, had reigned there *. Soltiin Rohio'ddin, iord of Rim, tmd deatt^ 

died in the year 600, in the month of Dhulkaada (P), Icanng A. D. 

his fon Kilij Arjlan, a minor, to fuccced him'. "°3- 

D'HSRBELOT affords us nothing from the Perfian 
writers concerning this prince, only that he had great dif- 
pntes with his brother Kay Khofra-w \ but that at length 
peace was concluded between them : that, having reigned in 
quiet twenty-four years, he died in 602 of the Hejrah, and 
of Chriji 1205 ; and was fuccceded by his fon Kilij Arjlta, 
fnrnamed Azxo'Jdin, an infant *'. Bnt, beGdes that we hear 
nothing elfewhere of peace between the two brothers {for 
Kay Khofriea} retirecf to tlie Greek emperor, and lived in Eu- 
rope, -wKHe Rokna'Jdin lived), there- is an error both in th^Ernrstf 
length of his reign and year of his death. For, reckoning «"'*•«• 
from the end of the reign of KH!j ArJMn 11, which is fixed 
by AM'Ifaraj in the year 588 of the H^rah, to 601, when, 
according to D' Herheht'% account, Soleyntan died, it will 
give him no more than fourteen years to his reign out of the 
twenty-four : but as that event is alfo fixed by Mi'lfaraj to 
the year 600, there muft be adcduftion of two years out of the 
fourteen. This is fuppofing that Soieyman immediately fuc 
ceeded his father Kdij Arjl&n : but it appears from the Crtek 
liiAorians, that Kay Khofra-w rngned between ; perhaps as long 
as, or longei^ than, Rokno'dUn reigned himfelf. To the above 
millakes, or inadvertencies, we may add another, which is, 
tiiat, in the article of Soleymdn, D Herbeht fays that he was 
the fifth Soltan ; whereas, in his table of SoltanS, he gives 
him the 6th place. 

KILIJ Ar/lAtin, fomamed Azzo'ddtn, was advanced 5(>j/i 
to the throne immediately after the death of his father Rak' Sauix,, 
ne'ddin Ssieyman, to^va^ds .the end of the year 600. But as '^.'''i "*'' 
foon as his uncle Gayatho'dMn Kay Khofra-w heard that his """ '■'^' 
brother was dead, he left the caille where he refided near 
Conjiantinopie ; and, making what hafte he could to Kontyah, 
feized the child, and took pofTeflion of the city : after which 
he flripped him of ihe reft of his dominions. This revolu- 
tion happened in Raj§b{(^) 601 '. D' Herbeht has copied 

* Ab«'lp. p. aSo. 'Ibid. p. aSa. * D'Herb. 

p. 82a. art. Soliman ben Kilig' ArUan. ' Abu'lp. p. 381, 

tc feq. 

{V) The eleventh month. (Q_) Rajch is the fcvcnth 

Mahammttian month. . 

R 2 the 

S44 Tie SeljQks of Rdtti.' , B. I. 

the article of Al/y Jr/Idn lU, from Mu'lfaraf, withont adding 
any thing to it from other oriental MAorians. Some Greek 
Writers fay, that this Soltan, whom they call Tatbatines 
(which is a corruption of his fumame CayaifM^ddin) (f), on 
the taking of Con/?iin/ini^& by th& Latins, fled along with the 
ftiirify dtfeinperor j^lexis Angelas, otherwlfe called Comnenuj; and that 
ibrtncJi a few days after, being fecrctly iofcuined of the d^th of his 
brother Jzatinet (ib thef mifcall Rokno'ddin), he departed ia 
difgutfe, and, repairing to his own people, was proclaimed 
Soltan -. 
anj G ATAtHO'D D IN Kay Khfra-w afccodcd the throne of 

Gaya- Kontyah for the fecond time in 601, the fame year in which 
tho'ddin the Latim took Con/fatitinopU from the Greeks. Abu'lfardj 
^V informs us, that, after this, he became very powerful, and 
^aj* '^"^ with great dignity ". This is all we learn from the 
a'^ oriental authors touching the fecond rdgn of this prince ; 
tibil ^^^ ^'^ Byzantine hiftorians have not laid much concerning 
it. According to a fault very common with them, they do 
not dircftly raendon the reiloradon of Kay Kho/ra-w ; and 
only give an imperfeA hint, where they fliould fpeak out. 
Stall of After the (hameful flight of the ^pcror Alexis (who 
f^f fn^fW. changed his name of Angelui to that of Comnenus), and the 
eleAion oi Baldwin by the Latins; thefe latter, in lefs than 
one year's dme, reduced alt which the Ronuuti poflcfled both 
m Europe and in AJia, excepting the cjdes of Nice and Pn^a. 
The Greek onnmanders, and other leading men, fwayed by 
the fpirit of pride, malice, and coirupdoo, Inllead of unite- 
ing in defence of th«r country, divided into faAions, and 
formed pardes for ctcating new emperors. The wellern part . 
of the empire feemed to be quite cut olF from the eallern, 
' which fcnt it no manner of a^ifbnce : but, being infe^ed 
with the fame contagion, produced a multitude of com- 
manders, who mined the country, and formed a mooller with 
three heads. 
MaurozO- MANUEL Maurozonais-, fupported by Kay Kho/raiv, 
mus «• to whom, fince tht: taking (ft) of Koniyah, he had promifed 
Jpires It his daughter in marri^e, made all his efforts to ufurp the 
«•//« ; fovcreign power, and joined the 7urkt to ravage the country 
, ^ about the yWifa/tiifr. Theadorus Lajkaris, illuflrious both by 
' ' his birth and alliance with the emperor, having defeated hioii 

■" GeoRc. AcKOp. Niccph. Gregor. 1. 1. ' b Abw'lf' 
ubi fupra. 

(R) That is from hi) nephew beginning, and adding an s at 
Kilij ArJIait, ai before related, 'the end. Jaihatintt is the G<r- 
(-|-J £y omitting the Ga at the tnan orthography. 


L „. ..L.OOQIC 


C. 4<' Gayatba'ddin rtftored^ i4g 

put on the purple buOuqs; and had himfelf proclaimed empe- 
ror thro' the cities of the Etffi (S). Oo the other lidc, David 
Comnenui, having gathered troops at Jieraclea, a city of 
Pontus, and in Paphlagonia ; having aljb fubdned the Jbt' 
rians, who inhabited along the Fafij, reduced fomc towns 
and cities, and made himfelf the for^nner of his brother 
JUxis, whom he had a defire of advancing ip the throne : 
but this ^lexii, inflead of haAening tQ taSit polMion, loitered ' 

about Trebizond. Mean time David having fent a young 
man, named Synademus, wth troops to Nikamedia, Theodore deflated hf. 
Lajiarii advanced at the head of his army to give him battle; Lalkai«. 
and, taking a crofs-road, inftead of the great one, fell upon 
him unawares, and difperfed his forces. He d^eafed niortly 
after Manuel Maurozemus ; cut in pieces part of (he Turks 
whom he commanded; and took the molt confid^rable <£ 
thofe who were in the van '. 

In ftiort, Lydia, Philomoipis, Prvja, Nice, Smyrna, Ephe- Empire »f 
Jus, and fomc other cities of the eaft, were fubjefl to yVfl-Nice. 
ikre Xafiar'u ; who built long fhips, and fubdued fev^ral; "• "■ 
iflands. However, in making peace with Kay Khofra-w, he '"S- 
gave lip to Manuel Maurozomus, his fether-ia-Iaw, part of 
the country which he pofTefled ; comprizing the city of Kone 
(or Koloffm), Laodicea, and all in^lof^ within the windings 
of the Meander to its fall into the fea. 

Dj^ S^ID and Alexis, the fons of Manuel, and grand fonsfn^/rv tf 
of the tyrant Jndronicus, had eftablil^d their dominion inTrebi- 
dilitTent parts: David in Paphiagoma, and at Heraklia in "•"■*: 
Pontus^ Alexis it Eneum, SinoPe, aad TreBizond, Aldoiran- 
dint, an Italian, (earned in the Reptan laws, commanded at 
Aitalia ; and the illand of Rhodes was under a particular 
lord (T). Thefe numerous commanders, inftead of afiing 
in concert, to preferve the cities which they held, or recon- 
quer thofe which they had loft, gave themfelves up to a fii- 
riouspaiCon of lording it; and having t^kep lip arms on<;. 
^ainlt the other, yielded their enemies an opportunity ei, 
fining farther advantages. 

Kay Khofravj at this junflure laid fiege to the city of At- ActaHa 
talia ; imagining that it was not in a condition of defending ^^''i'l/. 
■tfclf; \i\st Aldobraitdini having procured 200 f<:>ot fcon) 
Cyprus; the unexpected appearance of them,at the beginning 

* NicET. in Baldwin, c. 5 & 8. 

(S) Or Anatolia; fo the AJt- the fame manner among many 

atit part of the empire was peity foxereigns. SceA'/Vt/. in 

galled. Baldwin, c. 10. 

(T) Creice was divided in 


246 ^he SeljAks 0/ RAm. B.I. 

of the af&ult, m^de the Soltan retire, afier he hid been bt- 
tecn days before the place ■*. 

As we fiad nothing farther in Nicetas conccmiog Ctj*- 
the'd^n Kay Kkofra-w, we mnft, to limQi hb rogn, bsTClt- 
couHe to the fui^eeding hiilomns : who, being lefs accnnie 
in their account of matters, have greatly embanalfed tbc 
biAory of the Soltans ; and led thofe, who have h'd»» 
written of them, into very ^x)ls miftakes, which we fliall ca- 
deavour to clear np. 
Alexis rr- ALEXIS Jngelus, the law emperor, hearing thatTlw- 
tirei fe- dore Lajkaris, his fon-in-Iaw, reigned at Nice ; hong iffW 
{rtl!y by his coniln Rtikhael Comnemii, who was prince dEfina, 
A. D. eroded over from thence inW j^a, and went fctpaly to 
lio6. Gayatf)i>'eUin(U), ScA^aoi Ktmiyai, his old friend »d %, 
then lying at Atfa/ia, which he had not long befcn tt- 
duced (X), end be^ed his aid for (he recovery of bii i«A- 
nions, efpecially that part of them p(^elKd by Lt^ans- 
The Soltan had been very ferviceable to La/kint[l) «» 
■ / time when he was reduced to great ftraits, by lending !«■ 
forces, with which he defeated his enemies, and had ilfc 
/• lit cofidudcd a peace with him : but bdng urged by gratitode 
Sslfaa J fiis quondam benefaftor, as well as intereft, (AUxh imki^ 
him great promifcs), he threatened Lafiaris by his entnfr 
dors with the utmoft extremities of war, unlefs he inmrfi- 
ately refigned his territories to his father-in-law. ThnJeni 
was much troubled at this unexpected met^gc, as foiiog 
both the Soltiln's power, and the people's inclKiatJoo to ito 
<Jd emperor! but, having founded the minds of his newfel> 
jefls, and finding them ready to fnpport him, he took horL 
wio at- Before the return of the amballadors, GayathtMin, «- 
tach An- tended by Alexis, marched ^ith 20,000 Turkt and beC^d 
tiokh; Antiokh on the Meander .- which L^arii no fooner nafcr- 
ftood, than he.haftedwith 2000 men, the moft he was able 
to raife on fo Ihort a warning, to the relief of tliat city, wlwi 
was a ftrong frontier ; and being the key of his domifflons on 
that fide, he knew, if taken, would open a way into the 
nvfrfii ihe^^^'* ^ them. Lajiaris, drawing near to Anttokh, feni liie 
Gi(eks i ambaflador before, who could fcarce perfuade the ScJtiD. by 
oaths, that the emperor was approaching with lb finiH 4 

' NtcET. in Baldwin, c. 11, 

(U) Tho tfrwif/ (Write Ja- on account of Altjii, wWe 

thaihui. daughter, Anna Jupifia, U^' 

(X) This mull have betn in had manned j which lady the 

id attempt. Soltan ufed to call fiSer. 

(Y) This fecms M have been 

C. 4- OayadKi'ddtn rtfimd. 347 

force. Howcv», he drew up his army in thtf beft flUMiB* 
the narrowncfs of the place would atlow of; which he h*d 
fcarcc done, than 800 Italians of the Roman army began the 
attack, and, breaking through the Turkijb ranks, put them into 
the greateft diforder. As the Creeks had not courage enoiigli 
to fcdlow them dofely, they were fcparaad from the reft of 
the forces : fo that, on their retarn, they were furroHndcd, 
aod all to a man cut to [Meccs, tho' not without making aa 
incredible flanghier of the enemy. 

The Creeks, diiheartencd at fo gjtat b lofs, were on ^figbn-v.-itb 
poiat of flyii^, when the Soltan, now almoft in poflcAlon of I'Sflcarisj 
the virtory, defcrying the emperor, and trufting to his own A, D. 
great ftrength, rode up to him ; arid at the firft Maw, gi»CB •*"'■ 
with his mace on the head, ftmck him off his horfc. Ba( 
Lajharit, though forely ftunned, nimbly recovering himfctf, 
drew hb (word ; and, while the Soltan turned abotir, 
ordering bis attendants, wth an air of contempt, to taltt 
him a-way, he difabled the hinder legs of his more, which 
thereupon rearing up threw her rider, who, befort he cotild . 
rile, had his head ftruck off(Z) : which, being ITiewn uport«»'«nw'i». 
the point of t fpcar, ftruclc foch a terror into the TtirkifB 
army, that they immediately betook themfelvM to a diford^rty' 
flight, leaving the Creeks mafters of their camp and ba^nge, 
jiUxis, the' author of this \^ar, was taken f rifdn^, and car- 
ried to Nice^ where be was conhned to a moniifter}-, in' 
which he ended his days fome years after. This gave the 
Romans an opportunity of breathing : for, from that time, 
the Mojlemans made a peace with them, which they kept in- 

The fFfMi hiftorians, who relate this tranfa'fHon, mAeMi^aket 
Jathatines, or Gayafho'dJin, a different peribn from Kayef ihg 
Kfxfravi \ not knowing that Gayatho'ddSn (which name per- 
haps he moft commonly went by after his reftoratioo,' or dM' 
not alTume till then) was his furname. They fay thai he 
was the fon of Soltdn Aiadin, brother of fCay khofrtru), con- 
fequently .¥(iji ATi^^itti/'s nephew : that ^£id!rn, nor long for- 
viving his.faid brother, left his dominions to this Jathatinfs, 
and his other fon called Azathies (or Jzzo'Mn), who wdi 

1 Georq. Acrop. Niceph. Gregor. 1. |. Univerf. Hilt. 
Tol. 17. p. 1 7 J. 

(Z) The hifloriani fay it was done, or who did it. Thii 

wti done fo fnddenly, that nei- looks as if the)' would have it 

tber thofe prefent, nor the em- pafs for lbinc(hi>ig miraculoui. 
fcror faimfelf, knew kow it j - 

R 4 tha 

'24» ^e Seljfiks of Rfim." B.n 

the elder : that Jathatitui, being afterwards exptSkd by 
Azatincs, fied to Alexis Angelas : and that, Azatines dying 
foon after, he returned to lionium, and recovered Tiis lung- 
Greelc dom. The AJadin here faid to be the brother of Kay Khef- 
hijhriaiu, raw, feems to be the fame with his fon the great Aladin ; 
who did not begin his reign till the year 1219; and A^atinei 
is put inflead of the Rukratin of Nicetas, by whom Cayath- 
e'diiln fCay Khofrmu had been driven out. How fuch great 
miflakcs came to be adopted by thole writers is hard to ac- 
count : but whatever errors there may be ii} the names and 
genealogy, the circumAances of the ik>ry and junAure of 
time Aews, that Jathat'mes is no other than Kay Khofravii 
According to the chronology of the Creeks, Jathatines was 
fiain in the year of CArT/? 1210. Abffifaraj docs not men- 
meermng tion his death ; and D'Herbelot only fays, from the oriental 
thii Sol' authors, that, having feized and imprifonei his nephew Kilij 
''^'* Arjlan; he reigned in the dominions which he had ufurped (A) 

the fpace of fix years, till 609 of the Hejrah, and 1212 of 
Chrifi '. As there is here a difference of two years, we have 
fixed his death at the middle year 121 1, (which gives him' 
feven years to his fecond reign, and thirteen to both) -,. being 
fenHble, there may happen a miAake of a year on one fide (X! 
the otlwr. ' 

We find the names of two font, whom he left behind 
lum, Axzo'iMn Kaykaios and Alao'dJin KayiohM, who fuc-' 
ceeded each other. 

' D'Herb. art. Gaiatbeddin ben Ktlig ArJlan. 
(A] Z)'^fr^/(i/confoundshi3 or feems to havebeen^flranga) 
firft and fccood reign together, to the former. 


?Se reigns of SoUHn Kaykaws and AlaoMdJn Kay-' 

kokad. ■ 

SmihS»l-f\Y this Soltan JTfiv^fiwj, {anamsA Azzo'dMn, or Ezzo'd-: 

t4n, Kay- ^-' ^tt, we find very little mentioned. Abu^lfaraj only tells 

kaws. as, that he died in the year of the Hgrah. 616 ; lea-ring na 

A. D. children, but who were minors ; by which means his brother 

'"9- Alaa'dJin KaykobH became his fucceflbr*. D'Herbelot adds 

nothing more from his authors, than that he died of a con-i 

fumption of the lui^ : only he differs much from Ab&'lfaraj 

as to the tune of lus death ; for, he (ays, it happened in 

the year 609, after he had reigned no more than one year *• ;* 

- whereas' 

» Abu'lf. hid. d^inaa. p. zSg. * D'Hebb. p. 257.' 

art. Cailuus Ezzoddin. 

C. 4. ^entb Solt^Ht AlaoMdtn.; i+jj 

whereas the other, putting his death fevcn years later, allowt 
him eight to his reign. There Ts the lefs reafoD to depend 
on D'Herbekt, as he places the death of his father Kay 
Khofra-u) in the lame year, 6pg ) in which cafe Kaykaws coald 
not have fat in the throne lo long as a year, perhaps not a 
month. Befides, he b^na the reign of his lucceffor Kay- 
ioiid, agreeable to Jbi'tfaraj (whom indeed he, tot the moft 
part, copies), in the year 61 6. 

AZZO'DDIN Kaykaws having died, without leavirtg7V»/i a»/- 
any fons dd enough to take the government upon them, thitda, Kay- 
army went to the caftle of MenJhAr, which ftands on the-J">fci3. 
Euphrates, near Maiattyah, where his brother KaykMd,^'^' ^^ 
{wraamtA ' jllao'd^n, was imprifonedj ,and, bringing Wm ^•"■. 
forth, proclaimed him kingi^. '' 

After the deftruAion of the Karazmian impire by 
Jenghiz Kh&n, snd his Mogois, Solt3n Jalalo'ddln, furna^cd 
JUankberni, eldeft fon and fucceflbr of MshammeJ, for fome- 
tjme made head againlt them, with furprifing bravery : but, 
being at length obliged to give way to numbers, he retired Urftatt 
vdbuniA'uao Jrmtnia; where, intending to reduce it under jalaio'tl. 
his power, he, in the l>^nning of the year 627, lat down din ; 
before Khe^' (or Aklat, capital of that country), wherein A. D. 
were two brothers ai AI MaUk al AJbrdf{K). Having dofe- '^^9:' 
ly belieged the city all winter, and battered it ^th twenty 
rams, on the lide towards the fea (B), the inhabitants, who 
Were reduced to eat dog's flelb, delivered it up to him, with 
the caftle. 

On this news Al Malek al Afln-af and Alao'ddin Kaykob^ 
marching wth their forces, met near AMoftayn (C), and 
thence proceeded to Akjhahr, where the Karazmian met 
them with 40,000 men ; and coming to a battle, which 
lafted near two days, was at length put to flight, with great ''i^'^' 
Qaughter of his men. Thofe who Bed efcaped 10 the moun-*"^ '"^■' 
V^m of Trapexend, where 1 500 loft their lives. Jakh'ddin 
efcaped alone to Khartaiert (D), and thence to Khoway (or 
liy^. After this, he fent one oF Malek al Ajhrafa brothers 
in chainsj'to the Khalifah at Bagdad; and put one of hit 
Daves Azzo'dJln Ibek to death ; but hearing of the approach 
i£ the Mogoli againft him, under the command of Jurmagift 

' Aav'tr. hJA. dynafly, p. 389. 

(A) Lord of JitU or Qr/a, (C) Or Ailajla. 
Sarr^H, and Kl>iJ4i or Kba&t. { D) Alfo Harttbdnt: by Tome 
- (B) Or the lalce of Fan, to travellers called Kaifkrt. 
the north of which it fland;, at 
(bmc difiaace. ' 


L ,„.=,l.,otwlc 

*5» S^ Seljfiki */ Rflm; B. I. 

fTovJoin, be lent ambofladors firom Tabriz (or Taujis), in- 
Titing both AJbr&f and Alao'd^n to altf him with their 
(<»xes to repel the Aorm ; which, if it palled him, he faid, 
would fall on them. But diey paid do r^ard to his la- 

titiaffj ta In 630, Solidn jflaa'diBn fent ambafladors to Oktay Kaon, 

Oktay. offeruig obedience to him. Oktay, commendii^ bis prudence, 

A. D. told hun, that if thdr mafler would come to his court, he 

*>3'- would recdve him with honour, and give him one of the chief 

empIojrmeDtsthere;, without taking away his rerqiues. Which 

baughty anfwer the ambafladors wimdered at. 

The 6ime year jilao'tHin breakiog with M Maiek al jijh- 

r^, took from him KheUt and SarmAnray (E). Two years 

I after he likemfe forced Roha from him ; in which, for three 

JtiftnJ days, the R&nu Hew both C/lrifiians and Mohammedans. The 

xtr S^ remainder they ftripped of all; not fparing the churches. 

i''^ Hereupon HarrAn furrendcred to him. After this he took 
RakkaJ) and Btr. But, as fooo as his fences were withdrawn, 
M Maiek al Kaftut (lord of Egypt) cftme and befi^ed Roha % 
which he took at the end of four months, and feat all the 
R^mi whom he found there into Egypt, in chains, upon 
camels. D'Herbeht fays, that, bang prelTed on one fide by 
the Megob, and on the other by the princes of the houfe <^ 
AytJi (F), he was obliged to withdraw his troops out of dieir 
dominions, in order to preferve his own. 

fMrneaxJ This prtncereturnedhome, loadedwithpIuDderand glory; 

tmfin. having extended his name and conquells very &r eaftward ', 
lb IhCo-t, he reftored the great repu&c'ioa of ^ Sel/6kiani, 
which tha children of Kilij Arjl&n had fomewhat impaired by 
their divifions ; enlarged the empire to its former limits ; and 
re-cftabliihed order in the Aate. 

Sk itaih, In 634> SoltaD Alao'dUn KayiobiJ died fuddcnly : for 
A. D. at a feafl which he made for his chief lords and officers, juA 
»xi,6. as be was boafting of die extent of his dominions, he felt a 
diforder in his bowels ; and, being taken at the lame time 
with, a flux, difcharged fuch a quantity of Hoody excre- 
ments, that be died two days after, having reigned eighteen 

D'HERBELOT has given the hiftory of this f«ince 
wholly from Ah&'lfaraj, only adding one or two particulars 

* Abu'lf. hift. dynafty, p. 306, & feq. • D'Heka. 

p. 139. Jk feq. art. Cailccbad. ' Ibid. p. 311, & feq. 

(E) Or Surmalaj. Geraansji from whom Saiab- 

. {V]OrJyubi that i», Joi oVd'« was defccndcd. 
(at we write (he word after the 

C.4i TtnthSoUSn, Alao'ddfa.' 251 

from KondanAr^ wbo, in thofe pc»Dt5, differs &om him. 
That author fays, JIao'ddin was poiibned by order of his Cob 
Kay Khofranu, whom he had declared his heir. He likewife 
b^ns his rdgD in 610, and puts liis death in 636, which 
makes its duradon twcDty-lix years ; whereas Eba Shohnah 
agrees exafUy with ^M'/faraj^. 

This prince was prudent, temperate, and ftrong. Heandtha' 
kept a very ftrift eye over his nobles and dependants. Mtraatr. 
was endued with great firmnds <^ nuod, magnanimity, and 
pr<^ound gravity : aor could any foverdgn govern better. 
As all the wra-ld fubmitted to him, fays our aniJior, he was 
juftly iHled (G), Idng of the tuorld^. He muil therefore have 
been not a little mortified by the mdTage, above-meatbned, 
{ent him. by Oktay Khka. 

This is the femous Ala^n. \. known to the Bunpean 
writers ; who acquired moft reputation of all the Solt^ns of 
bis race, and pafTed for one of the greatcfl princes of his time. 
He generally gained fome advantage in all the wars wherein 
he was engaged ; but was obliged at laA to acknowlege the 
Mogols for his mailers '. 

It was under this Soltin that both Ortogrol and Othmin, Rifi ef 
at Ozm&n bis fon, foander of the prefent Othman race and Othmin. 
emfure, lorved, with their foUowen, and laid the foundatioQ 
i£ their future greatnefs ^. 


The riigns of SoUdn Gajratho'ddin Kajr Khofraw,' 

and Azzo'ddln. 

AhAO^HBIN being dead, the princes took the oath of _, 
-^^ fidelity to his fon Gayatho'ddtn Kay Khofra-w ; who^j^^* 
prefendy after feized Gayer Kh&n, prince of the Karazmiant. Kay*' 
The reh of them fled, with their chiefs, by Malaliyah, Khofraw 
Kakhtin, and Khartabert ; where they did great mifchief :Hej. 634. 
thcn^ wafting the country of Somayfat (H), they pafled on to A. D. 
Sowayda. - But Al Malek al Naffer, lord of Hahp, aiTignlng 1*36. 
over to them Roha, HarrAn, and other places beyond the 
Euphrates, they delifted from farther ravages. 

In 637, the Mogais advanced, with a defign to invade the , _ , 

« See D'Herb. p. 235, art. Caikobad. ' ■• Abu'lf. p. ^H'h 

390 & 312. ' D'Hbkb. p. S;, art. Alaeddin ben Cai- 

kbofrau. '' Ibid. p. 340, art. Caicobad. 

(G) He afi'umed the title of (H) Or Someyfat, the fams 
Shah Jcban j which Agnizes with Samofal, on the Euphratu, 
lini ef tht lutrld. ■ « tbc north o£JJSir. 


L „., ..C.OLV^lC 

if* Thi Sdjflks */ Rflra: B. I. 

Rwtuan territories; but, on CayalMd^n's fecdiag foreea 
into jirmenia, they thought fit to forbear. 
J Tnrk- Next year ^.Turkm^n prophet, called Baha, appeared at 
»an fre- Amafta, who drew after him multitudes of people, by the, 
J^" Arange tricks whkh he performed, in order to decdvc them. 

He fenc one Jf-hak (or Ifaak), a difciple, in a doctor's gown^ 
through the other parts of the country of R&m, to drftw-ia 
the TurhrtMs ; whofucceeded fowell, that, at Somayfat, he 
had gathered no fe\ver than 6000 horfe, befides foot, chiefly 
of thofe people. Thns ftrcagthened, they b^an to propa- 
gate their impolVure by force, making war upon all wha 
would not fay, ihers is no Goi hut g<id Baba (A), the apqfile 
tfGqi. So that they Hewa.great number of the inhabitants, 
. of Mojlani and Chriftians, of Hefno'bnanfur, Kahhttn, Gar- 
gar, and Somayfat, who refuted to follow dicm : they Uke- 
wife put to Hight all the troops wluch oppofed them in thdr 
■way to Amafia.. 
itnmuth Hereupon Gayatho'ddin fait an army t^aiA^ them, io 
mifcbitf. which was » body of Franh, who were in his pay. But the 
Majlems ^ving way, through fear, the Franks fet themfelves. 
in the frtmt dt the battle ; and, making a vigtwous attack, 
put the rebels to flight, and killed every man of them. The- 
two. doAors, BaJ>a and. I/'hdk, were taken alive, and put ta 
Ifogul) In 639, yarmagSn Noivayn (B), advancing into Armeniay 
tait Ar- as (ar as Arzen Alrin, took it by force, killed Senan, its fub- 
jwruni. . ba/ha, with a great number of the inhabitants ; and, carry^ 
A n' '"K ^^™? ^^^'^ children captives, fpread defebdon Where- 
- * ■ ever he came. Hereupon, next 3'ear, Soltan Gayatho'ddim 
•" ' marched tow^ds the Mogoli, with a great multitude of men, 
and military flores, fuch as had not been known before., 
Eefides his own troops, he was aflillcd by Creeks, Franks, 
Georgians, Armenians, and Arabs. The two armies met in 
a place called Kufadag; belonging to Arzenjan ; but, 00 the- 
firft attack, all the auxiliary forces turned their backs and 
fled. The Soltan, aftonifhcd at this event, fled likewif^ ta 
Ciffarea ; whence carrying his wives and children to Ankira. 
(or Ancyra), he there fortified himfelf. 
Siwasyir- The Mogds, no lefs furprized at the flight of the enemj', 
rtu-^i. kept themfelvcs ftill all that day, not daring to purfue, fu- 

(A) This is the Mebamtaedait thors Krviian, Nevian, and Ift' 
•ciait. 'Tb a military tide, £g- 
nitj'ing the fame as Amir, or 


,-C. ( ^Uvettib SoUdtty Gayath6*ddfn It. S51 

fpeOiiig it wastJBly an artifice to draw them into ambufcadcs : 
becaufe they could perceive no reafon that fuch a numerous 
army had to 6y. Bdc, as foon a^ they came to know the 
truth of the matter, they penetrated ioto the country of Jfumg 
^d lat down before Si-wAs ; which having furrendered to 
them, they fpared the lives of the inhabitants ; but took 
away all thdr cflefls, burnt all the warlike engines they 
found there, ^d demc^ifbed the city walls. From hence 
proceeding to Ka^irtyah (or CafareaJ, the citizens oppofed 
(hem for a few days : but at length the Mogols, taking the 
place by force, put the principal inhabitants to the fwori^ 
torturing ^em, to difcover their riches. 

Af TE& this they returned, carrying die women and chil* Areenjalk- 
dren along with them, without cnterii^ any farther into xbtf'rad, 
Soltan's dominions. This news coming to Tfa/af/^^, where 
our author Ab&'Ifaraj and his father then were, Sqfi>tdo'ddi«t 
Its prince, and manyyf the inhabitants, fled, for fear of the 
fi&gali ; who in their railage Hew fcvcial of them, near the 
town oi Bajuza. ten Perjian leagues diiVant; but without 
coming nearer the city, held on their way to j4rze>tj^ 
which they took by ailaiilt, and (erved in the fame manner as 
they had done Kayfartyah, The Soltan, fmding himfUf laSaitaHpafl 
no' condition to oppofe the enemy, ieiit ambafladors to defire irihuu. 
peace ; which was granted him, an condition that he fhould 
annually pay a large tribute, inmooey, horfes, vefls, and other 
things of value *. 

In 643, Cayatho^diiin lent a great army to befie^ TarJUii 1 Hit Jaai 
but, as they were on the point of taking It, news arrived of 
hii death ; upon which they retired from before the city, ia 
autumtt, when there fell very heavy rains. 

This prince was given to wine, and fpeakJng idly. HcanJel^, 
led a life very unbecoming his dignity, indulging himfelf in raStr. 
pernidous defires. He married the daughter of the king of Hej. 641. 
the Georglaiu ; whom he loved to fuch a degree, that lie had A. D. 
her image f^mpcd upon his coin. The reverfe of fame was "44* 
a lion, with the fun over its head. The allrologers told 
him, that in cafe he had the figures engraved, wliich repre- 
icnted his horofcopc, he Ihould fucceed in all his dcJlgns. 

He ieft three fons, Jzzo'ddin, Roknoddln, and Jiao'ddln. ffii ehiU 
iTie two firft by Rumean women; the lall by a Georgian. drtn. 
He declared the eldeft for his fucceflbr, appointing for his 
tntor and Atabek Jaioh'ddin Kortay, a perfon of gteat inte- 
grity and rigid chaftity '', 

» Anu'Lf. p. 31*, 5r feq. » Abu'lf. hill. d>na(ly. 

p. J19. 

-; The 

L i,.< t.L.OO'^iC 

254 ' ^ SeljAka */ RAm; B. tl 

The artkleof ffayitiAo'iiflB, ffvca by D' H^beht ^, feems 
to be taken indrely irom AbAPfaraj, whom he quotes twee; 
7et, at the end, pats the name of Kondamir, as if the whole 
was extrafted from that author, 
Greeks The Byzantine hiftorians mention this Soltiin, whom 
tieir tr- they call Jathatinet ; but fay, he was the fon of Azatines, 
nri. who fucceeded his uncle Jaihatinet. For ^ this falfe gene- 
alogy, which is common with the Greek writers, 'tis evident, 
from th«r own account, chat he Is the Soltin in queflion ; 
not only as they make him contemporary with John Dukas, 
furnamed Vatazes, fecond emperor of Nice, who began his 
reign in the year 1222 ; but they give him jufV fuch a cha- 
rafter as we find in Abul'faraj ; viz. that of a fiothful 
prince, who delighted in drunken and debauched company. 
What goes'flill ftirther to decide the point, they fay, his fa- 
ther excelled, in military afialrs, all his predecefTors : which 
charafVer can be applicable only to Aleio'ddtn. 
Tatar rn- With regard to the tranfa^ions of his reign, thofe hi- 
mafieii, ftorians infonn us : that the Tankhari (C), a nadon oiTartart, 
havli^ invaded his dominions, and defeated hia army, he 
fent to Vatazes, defiring alTiIbnce, as well by his adWce as 
forces. In this-, he faid, both of them would find thdr ad- 
vantage ; fince, in cafe the enemy fubdued the Moflemant, 
they would next invade the Romani, Vatazes, judging this 
to be a.right meafurc, entered into a league with the Solt^, 
and had an interview with him at TripoHs, on the Meander; 
which river Gayathao^ddin (D) palTed over a bridge, made in 
haAe, with rafts or floats of timber joined together. The two 
princes not only gave th«r hands to each other, but to all 
their followers of diAinAion. After this they agreed, in the 
•eetr£«g Arotigefl terms, to ]tm their forces againft the enemy : but 
ttiitm. the Tankhari, for a while, fufpended the war againfl the 
Soltdn, that they might go and attack the Khalifah of Ba- 
7vitiph AZZO'DDIN (E) having fucceeded by his father's ap- 
Saltoti, pointment, the great officers and nobles look the oath of 
Azzo a- fltjeiityj and he was prayed for in the pulpits. 

< D'Herb. p.3$6. art. Gaiathcddin Caikbofrau. 'Georq, 
AcKOP. i NicEFU. Gkeook. 

(C) Called hyAjHa, or Hty- it wu to Ax.%»'ddin, hisfuccef. 
thati, the Armenian, Taitgori. for. 

(D) Some authors pretend (E) AzKo'JJin i» only the for- 
thi] wat the Soltan to whom nameof thisSolian,whofenain« - 
Idikail Paleahgui fled ; wheieu Ceem» to bavf been Ka^kavii, 

7 Nbzt 

C. 4.' Twe^tb SfUStit AzzoMdla.' S55 

Next jaa ambaJ&dors came from the Great EHn Oitay, Hcj. 643; 
requirin}; the Soltao to come and pay him homage : but he A- O. 
cxcafed Mmfclf ; all^i^, that as both the Cr«* and v^mw- *HS- 
nian kings were his enemies, they would faze his dominion&^^^^ 
In his ablence. Mcaa lime be ob%ed the ambal&dors with ' 

^fts; and, at lci^th,&nt his brother ^o^'df]!cR(F), uoderthe 
care of Bahao'dtQn, the interpreter, whom he made his Atabdc 
(or tutor). He alio appc»Qted for his own Wazir f^dT^ tdUCn, 
a learned native of I^&kht \ who& credit was fo great, riiac 
he manied the Soltan's mother : which, however, the gran- . — 
dees were nrtich trended at. Thas year the Great KhSa 
died ; and, the next, a KurUtay, or grand aJIcmbly, was 
called : at which, belides the Mogat princes, there were pre- 
fent ntany foreign potentates ; and, among the reft, Soltio 
Rokno'dSn, from the country of RAm, In this grand council 
Kay^, eldeft fon of the late emperor, was choua to fucreed 

In 64;, Kayik, die Great KMo, febt lieatenants into Xt-Jtf<fiil$ 
veral parts of his empire; appointing Iljtktay Noiuayn for^'«- 
the countries of RAm, Mii/ol, Syris, and Gerj (G). At the^^^-^lff- 
fame time he granted llw government of Rum to Soitan A.D. 
Rokno'dJiti, and ordered Soltin Azzo'ddin to be removed. "W* 
Next year RtAno'dJln, and the interpreter Bahao'ddin, arriving, 
with 2000 Mogol horfe, to put this decree in execution, Sol- 
tan A2.zo'diin was adviled by lus WazJr Shamfo'tUin to op-, 
pofc it, and withdraw to fomc cafUe near the fea. When 
Kortay heard this, he felzed the Wazlr, and fent him to Baha- 
e'JtSn ; -who immediately difpatched fome of the Mogel chieft 
to Koatyah, to make h^ difcover vhcre his trea(ures were; 
which, having done, they put him to death. After this the 
interpreter and Kartay meeting, agreed to diiidc the domi> 
iwHis between the two brothers. Azzo'ddin was to have 
Koniyak, Jk/era, Aidtirit (or Ancyra), Jaatolia (H), and 
the reft of the weftem provinces : Rokn'oddin, Kayfartyah, 
SiviAf, Malattyah, Arztngan, Arzen ai RAm, and die pro- 
vinces to the caft. They likewifc appointed Alaa'Mn, the 
yonngeft, a proper pordon for bis maintenance ; and had 
money ctxned in all their names, with this infcriptiofl, tht 
great kings Azx. Rokn. and Ala '. 

■ Abo'i.f. hiil. dynafiy, p. 319, ic feq. 

(F) His proper name, ac- (G) OtKarji that is, Cwr- 

cordilig 10 others, was Selcy- gia. 

Kin, Reins'ddie being his fur- (H) In vioihercopy.^a/oii- 
Mjae. yd, or AalinkUa, in Afiaaiimt. 


■5^ ^*f Seljaks of Rflm: B. \l 

Smtfor In 652, there came feveral ambaffadors, oneafter theother, 

3flin. to Soltan Azzoddin, lord of R&m ; requiring him to go and 
ej. 6(1. pay homage to Munkaka Kaon {!).' He accordingly fet out: 
■ A-^- but hearing, nx-Siivdi, that the Om^ra (K) wctc inclined to 
»^54* place Rokno'dJin in his throne, he returned in Halle to KonU 
yah, and fent Jlao'Mn in his room, with letters, fettiDg 
forth ; that he had fent his brother, who was no lefs king 
than himfelf; but that he could not come, becaufe his Ata- 
bek Kortay was dead, and his eaemies to the weft (L) were 
at war with him : however, that when he was delivered from 
the fears of them, he would wait on the Khan himfelf. AU- 
c'lUin accordingly fet out ; but died on the way, before he 
reached the OrJa(MJ. 
'Jfiitmpt AZZO'DDIN, conceiving that he /hould never be fafc 
agmnft while his brother Rokno'ddin lived, refolved to put him to 
Rokno'd- death. This defign taking wind, the Omera contrived his 
^m- efcape. They drelTed him in the clothes of a cook's boy i, 

and putting a bowl, with meat in it, on his head, fent him 
out of the palace and calUe (N), along with certain boys who 
carried visuals to a neighbouring houfe : then, fetting him 
on horfcback, they conducted him to Kayfartyah ; where a 
great number of Omerat repdring to him, they got tc^ther 
an army, and marched towards Kontyah agaii^ Azzo'ddtn i 
but the Soltan, maiching out with what troops he had about 
hioi, put them to Aight; and Rokiio'ddin, being taken prifoncr, 
was caft, fettered. Into the caftlfe of Da-^alu. 
Oppeftilht The year following, Bay^u Noviayn, being obliged to re- 
Tatar* J move from the plain of Mugdn (O), where he ufed to wmter, 
Hej. 6;3,in order to give place to /^«/oit«(P), fent a meflenger to Soltan 
■" "■ Azzo'ddin, requiring ibme place to wintq- in with his troops : 
*^5S- but the Soltan, inftead of complying, pretended that he had 

(I) Called alio Mong» sod himfelf. And be feems to havtf 

MangK KbSn. He Was the retided at /ion/vM ; although be 

foarth; and Aicceded Kj^ik, in had one half of the empire. 
648 of the Htjreh, of Chrift fO). Or M<A£n, a fpaciofU 

laS©- plain in the north pan ai jUbtr-- 

(K) Omtra ii the plural of iifaii, towards the mouth of 

Arnir, and fignilies the princes, the river Aiir, and iht Ca/pim 

chief), great commanders, or fea. 

generals. A title denoting both (P) Who afterwards reigned 

great lords and ofEcers. in Ptrfia, by grant from his 

(L) By thefe mitft be meant brother Kkhlay Kian, in the 

the Grttii. year 656 of the H-jrab, of 

(M) The Court. <>t place C^;/rxc8; fbundingad^naily 

where the Khin was encamped, of Mogoii, at Tartan, as the/ 

(N) By this it appears, that are commonly called. 
RBkttti'iJiB wa? but a youth 

defer ted 

C.'4> TvfeiftbSok^t Az2o*ddtnt aith RoknoMdfn. 257 

dderted frcnn his prince ; tad, collcfliiig forces^ gave bin 
battle at Khano'lSdtin, betwefcn KontyabmA Akfera, How 
ever, Azza'd^n happening to be defeated ( Q^), Bayeju took 
his brother out of prifoat and pat him in pcdMion of all 
tliie Rimtaa dominims '• 

It was, doubtlels, in the aboromeadoncd battle that 
J^Gihael PaUologtu was prefent, as we are told by the Gredi ' 

hiftorians ; whom we muft now fisllow for a whUci Thefeii tvtr* 
hiiloriaas iofbnn ns, that, in the year IX55> Paleologui {R),tirfumi 
who had been imprifoned, on fufpicicm oif fome dangerous 
' deTigns, efcaped, and Bed to the Turks. It happened, thU, 
while he was at the SoltAn's court, the Tdtiits (S), after 
having ravaged the greatcft part of his dominions, came and 
bellied the city of Axara (T). Hereupon the Turit march' 
ed ont againft them, ^nng to PaUohgut the command of the 
Creeks forces. The Tatars, beine repulfed at the firft onfct 
by PaJeohgus, or, as others %, diunayed at the fight of fucb 
nu iherous forces, were upon the point of iljnng, when one of 
the Tttrkijh generals went over to them, with the troops under . 
his command ; which changed the fortune of the field. The 
TaJars, encouraged, returned to the charge, and, defeating 
the Turks in their mm, made a great flanghter with their 
arrows, purfning them a conriderable way. Paltobgus, upoa 
this, joined the Pekiarpek (U) wth his troops ; and they two ' 
rented, for feveral days tt^ether, with the enemy at their ' 
heels, till they got to Kaftamma (X), near which that officer 

■ The Tatars now over-ran the country, and the Turhjbgsa tn the 
forces being difperfed, the Solt^n flies to the emperor; vhatmfiror. 
received him kindly ; but could fpate bun only 400 men, 
under the command of .^ciTiurux, {■artasoeAMurtZvfut {y). 
The Soltin, in requital, gave Mm the city of taedicea t ' ' 
Which, botfever, fooa retunied to the Turks ; becaufe the 
f Asu'lp. Uiil. dyrtifly, p. 319, tc feq. 

( Q_) This, doubtleft, is the (S) They are called by fome 

battle which ^<tji/M> fays was ^TanlhariTatarf. 
gained by lh« TaHtri, under (T) Alfira, not Ji/ar^ ; or 

BayJa, over the Soltan (whom the iKhiie ptdact. 
hedoesnotname) of fw*f(i)l (U) Or Rfg/erhg; that is, 

fo that author call) the domi- lord of lords, the gsvetno.-t of 

Dions of [he St/jSHani of Rum. great provinces. 

(R) He had married the era- (X) Caflamana. 
peror's niece; was conOable, (Y) BeMule his family had 

and commanded the Frtncb thick eye-biowi, andjoiniedtO' 

troops. ■ Path. c. 7. gethcr. 

(t] lUjt it Tattiit, cap. ij, 14, 

IiIoD.HisT. VoL.IV. S Jtmdnt 


S5S f ^ Setj6k« of R««i. B. I. 

Satuas could not defienA ic. After aH, the Soltah not be- 
ing able to oppi^ tbe Tatarj, he obtaiaed peace, by be- 
comiag tributai^. Mean time tbe emperor wrote to P.aieo- 
i^ut,- inVitti^ him to rctum'luime ; hif recocKiliari(» hav- 
ing been made by means of the bifh(^ of Kogm (or -Kot^ 
ydi J i itiA, fooa after his reiura the emperoj died, iai25t^. 
NtgUSi ^ th^ for^mng acconnt, from tfie Gr^i hiftorlau, we 
. f^t^ Bod no meatioa « the dH^pute benrecn Azzo'd^ and his 
. brother Scha'ddin ; which was, ia a great neafure, the 
Caufe of' tlus Tatar war : bot PtUAamire, in one plaoe of his 
}uA(^i occaTiooally tntioduces a. He there tells u& in ge- 
DcnJ, that ^xA^xi Azat'uut {iah/taSisAzzo'MnJ hadgKK 
Contelh with hb biothei Rukratln (that is Sakttoadln^, after 
the death of their faxha Jtxthatinti (or Cayatho'ddin) ; that 
Rukraiin, having ttdcen arm*, and obtained confiderabte forces 
Gretk ^°^ ^ fatars, became ftroog enough to opprefe liis bro- 
hifi»riani. *1^^ = ^^ Azatinei upon this retired to tbe. court of the 
emperor theodonu La/karis ; who received him dviUy j but 
let hiffl know, that he ccwld not Aielter him in his dcMninions, 
for 'feat* of drawing on htmfelf the refentment of the 7a- 
. tan (Z) : that Azatinei accordjnglj withdrew ;. yet received 
iiich ^onTidcrable {iiccours from tafitaris, that he over- 
came his brother, and recovered the throne ■>. From tlut 
paHage, and feveral others, occurring in Paihamire, and the 
r^ of tbe Byzantine hiHoriaRs, which are brought in ab- 
xnptly, and out of place, there appears r^afon to believe, 
that the Greeks had particular hiftories or memoirs of th« 
Soltans ; of which they have only given ns pieces occafionally 
in the r^ns of their emperors, as they related to their own 
afiairs, and that, for the general, witliout either the proper 
- -elucidations or connexions. But to return to our fubje£t. 
Aia'od- ■ As AAKifarof does not mention what heanie of Azzo'ddtit, 
iin *fftjii^fer hew^ removed from the throne by Bflyejd, Jiic.Mogei ■ 
general ; neither does he teJl us how he recovered it again : 
but, proceediog as if no fuch revolution had happened, in- 
Hej. esj.forms us, that, in 655, this Soltan fent an ambadador to 
A. D. HuUM, to teftify his fubmiffion, and intreat him to drive 
*H7' Sayeju Ntrwayn out of his kingdom. Hutakv, in arjfwcr, or- 
dered that ht Ihould divide, the Rumean territories with his 
brother. Hfreupon Azzao'ddin returned to Koniyah, and 

■ pAKHAMia,.L i. c. 9. Nicsra. GaeooitAi, and others-, 
^ ?Ai(H>. 1- xiii. c. w. 

(Z) Yet, on his cmningto the ctowo, he mewed the antienC 
league with [he Soliw, 

, ■ ■ Rokn'ed- 

t:.4. T-oMl/thS^tiift Azzo^]d&,1rfr£RoknoMdl^; 259 
Mekm'^n vfiat vith BayejH to ^ camp. Azzo'ddtn, bang 
A3][ afrsfd of this Mogot, fent l^to the parts ahoat Ji^idatlyM 
and Rhartahrrt, » raile an army of K^rds, Turkimnt, and 
■ ^jij. The officer fent him two coMmanderB ef the Mrdi, .' 

Ahmed eht Sei& and Mt^mmei ebn el Sheykb Adi ;. to whon 
the Stdtan alli^ed the laid citKS. 

£ fl iff ffih?)'**- Alii, being met on the *ay to -Khariabert by fi« Moi 
Angitrk Nffwttyn, vha (lain, wkh Us followets t and the peo» goU in 
^ of JVhhtiyah, ha'ring Qd:ea an oa^ to -Rdm^ddhi, xe-vaiM. 
fttbA to receive £bn BeUt ; who thereupon treating ^etn 
ill, they kUled 300 of his men. Wi^ the rdV he fled by 
KUnidiya (A) towards A7»ed (B) ; vhere he wac Hain by the 
lord of Mayaferktn. Azzo'd^n appcMoted in his room one 
ASBahadr ; who, b«ng a bold man, die citizens, thro' fear, 
Hdmitted htm. And he did them great (oviee : for he cleared 
die county of the /^/ Jizi, a tribe of Tvrkmins, who nfed 
In thdr incnrfions to Icill the itUiabitams, and carry olT that 
diildren. Thde he defeated, and took dietr commander J» 
taiig priJbner. 

M^iH while Btnejii Nvwayn, advancing with his forces, 
ot^gcd all the caftfes, which had been delivered up, to fub- 
mit to Rokne'dJIn. Then gtring to the city 6f Aboloftayn {C), 
Ite flew about 6000 of the inhabitants, and made capdves of 
the women and children. . ■ . , 

On his approach to Malattyah, Ali Bdhidr fled to Kakh- Malat'; 
tah ; and the citizens, goii^ to meet him with prefents, fub- ya^'.A*'. 
. ndtted to Rokno'dSn ; who fet over, them one of his flaves,"'"* 
named FaJtro'd^n Ayyax. But as foon as BayejH had gotten 
beyond the borders of Rum, in his way to Irik, Ali Bah&dt 
retnnied ; and, being denied admittance, befieged the city. 
At length, provifions growing very fcarce, fome of the com- 
mon people opened a gate, by which A& entered with his 
TarhnittJ, Having thus recovered the polTellion of MalatU 
yoB, he caft Soltan Rokno'ddSn's governor into prifon, and 
put a fiwv of the leading men, who oppofed him, to death.^ 

At rfie feme time the famine was fo great in the diftrifV QlDnaiful 
this city, that cats, dogs, and leather, were eaten, for want (^fanint 
food. A friend of the author's faw in a certain vill^ n'^'rt. 
Company of women in a hourc cutting pieces of flefti out of a 
cbrffe which lay bctbre them, and broiling them to eat. 
IJkewUe another, wbo halted her dead child ; imagining, 

fA) The antient aaaJispulis, (B) The antient Ain!Ja, now 
en Xhs E4firatti, below Maiit- Dijarhtir. 
tijai: (C) QxAhleftayn ; in the Gfngi; 

KMenfu, Atlajta. 

a& tbi Seljfik* ef Kftnr. B. % 

that his flelh Would agree better with her than that ofvainiii. 

In ihort, Alt Bahidr, though he fubdned the town, could not 

wthftand the calamity ; but retired to SoltSu Azzo'd£n. 

Emfirf ■ In 657, H^laH fent for Azzo'dMtt, Soltio of the J?«inj, 

di-vUtd. and his toother Rokno'ddin ; who obe^og his fummcMis, he 

Hej. 6;7^went out to meet them, cxprefling great (atis&dtioa set thek 

^ ■ ^' comiog. Then he appointed Azzo'ddia to rdgn over the 

■**S9' country- from Aiiji^^'oi la the borders of Crtater ArramiA; 

and Rakno'dtSn to commaod from Ji/era to- the fea-cooft 

bounding the territories of the Franks. After this he began 

•his march for Syria ; and, when he drew Dear the Ejipiratit, 

the two brothers, takii^ thrir leave, returned widi joy to 

their own dominions '. 

We find no farther account in Abitlfaraj of thefe two 
Soltans (wfaordgncd together, or interchangeably) ; altboagh 
that author is more particular in rclatitig their tranfa^ions 
than tliofe of any of the former : but the dcfcA is, in fome 
mealiire, fuppiled by the Greek hillorians, who happen to be- 
gin, as it were, juft where he leaves off. 
Azzo'i- ■ Although wc left the two Sohaos going home in good 
din retirei hartnony ; yet, according to the Creek hJAorians, they did 
^- ^- not long conthiue fo. They tell you, that, after the death 
'*S9' «f l^heodorus iMJkaris, Mikhael PiUeolegut, bang made the 
aflbciate in the' empire with his Ton John, after icrasigthenii^ 
the fronder places with gariifons, fent an embaify to the 
Turks, to notiiy his adranMnient-; and that, not long after, 
letting out with the young emperor on a new progrels, he 
leceived, at Nymphaum, an embafTy, with prefents, from the 
SoltSn ; whole affairs were in a very bad condition : fen-, 
b«ng threatened with an invailon from the Tatars (or Mo- 
golf J, every perfon, inAead of faving the ftatc, thought only of 
^ving his bnuly, and the governors every-wbei:c revolted. 
« Mi- PvtflfOIOCy^, upon intimaticMi of this, gavctheSoItSo 

khael Pa-2n invitation to come and refide at bis court, promifmg to 
leologut, let him return when his affairs were fettled. The cauie rtf 
the Solcan's fear was, the news which he received of the arrival 
of Malek (D), with a formidable army. This Malek had fled, 
it fcems, to the emperor before ; and Azzo'ddm was afraid he 
might efcape, and crofs the defign he had of re-ellablijhing 
his ai^s **. In another place the fame author informs us^ 
that the reafon of Azzo'dtUn's applying to the emperor was, 

. ' Abv'i.f. p- jja, & feq. *.pA|tH.. I. ii, e. 7, 10, 34, 

(D) . Who [his Ulalek was, we about him. Perhaps he was the 
.are quite at a lofs to Itnoiv, Sohan's broiber, mentioucd a 
the anchor having Cud no mere litde lower down. 


L ,„ .=,l.,otwlc 

C 4! Twelfth S^ti»* Rokno*dd!n aUne. t6t 

becaufe Ruh-at'tn had tfathered new forces ' (E). Howerar that 
be, the Soltin acceptea of t.he ofier ; and, relying on the friend- 
Aiip of Pa/eologut, retired, with his wfe, children, his mother 
(who was a Chrilika}, and his Tifler, to Cotifiantinople 1°. 

Some authors tell us, that, after the former defeat of'*'Gre«fc^ 
Azatin, the Tatars, inftead of penetrating tarther into \\ii*mptr«r. 
donumons, went and conquered Syria : but that, returning 
next year, they crofled the river a fecond time, marched into 
KappadociA, and took ikoniwn ; from whence Axatin £ed, 
with his brother Maltk, aid bis iamUy, to the cmpertv 
Mikhael PaUohgui ( who, not long before, bad retired for 
fiielter to his conrt". Nkephorui Cregoras vel^tes, th4t- 
Azatin, nddng occafian from the inTalK>n of the, Tatart, , 
feook off the Perfian (be means the Turki/hJ yoke, utd (ub^ 
doed fevera! provinoes belon^i^ to the .caAcro emperon : 
but that he was obliged at Icngtli, with his fon Mohio, to 
petire to Mikhael PaUakgus^ after bkving been routed by the 
Tatart, in theyear la^LO. Here we find liEveral Maieh,^^. 661'. 
who ]>oflibly m^ht tA\ haTc been the fame perfon, confidet*- A. D. 
ing the inaccuracy of the Crw* authors ; and that MtJek 'a6". 
Jiiriply is no other than a title, fignifiying king, which was 
^ven to the princes of the Se!j^k blood. 

But to return to Axxo'Jdin, Pakologut received VmHh illrt- 
with great {hew of friendllup, and promifed in time to iaTiuShciftion 
bim with troops, to recover his kii^dom. Mean while he 
fiiffered the Soltan to live intirely at liberty, to lit in his 
ptvfence, to have bk guards, and -wear the purple bulklnsi. 
Id July 1 261, Conftantinopie tidng recovered out of the 
hands of the Latirii, he returned thither (rom Nice, with his 
oollegne Jtin. Next year he fent -ambalTadors to Khatau (or 
Hil&A), [vtnoe of the 7atan, in Perfta, and another to the 
StdtaRwffiUD/M (rather EgyPt). As ior Azatin, he was at<tf CoD' 
Confiaittinopie ; where, AnolllDg^bout to view the Aroets andflutin*- 
jmblic places, whichwnc almoft quite unpeopled, he led ap^ - 
debauched life, with his followers, expcAing the performapce 
of the emperor's pronvic : but all MikhaeTi fair optfide was 
only dilTimulation : for, being very intent on making an alli> 
ancs with the Tatari, he fent the Soltan's wife and children 
tD Nica, under jwctcnce of greater fiscurity ; ax the feme time, 

' Pakx. 1. xiii. c. 21. ' Ibid. I. IL c. t\. ' AtrcuiT. 
CitaiO. 9 NicEFK. Gkiook. 1. tv. c. i. 

(£) Sure Ratratin and S^Ui cy in ftile than hiflory, or order 
cannotbe thefamcperfon: for of time in ranging his fafli: is, 
no aathor fpealci of RtlmiJdin't very verbofe, - yet deficient in 
flyingferflidieriotheeinptTor, matter. 
Pakbamirt ainu more at accura- ... 

.'S3 M 


262 fSf Sdjfiks 0/ RAtnC B..Ij 

he afhially promifed Mary (F), hU na^vral dlMighter, tt{ 
Khalau, Whoyet died befiare (he arrived at his 0(MUt. . j/ic^ 
this he concluded an alliance with Apagan (G). 
mails hit ^"^ Soltan, after, a tedious Aay U Conjlantinople, havii;^ 
f/^'afe difcovercd that the emperor wis treating with hi« eacaues, 
A. D, wrote to an uncleof his; who dwelt towards the Evxia* fet^ 
,1266. 6n the north fide ; "iatrsating him td work h^ deliverance, fkf 
exciting Conftantine, kitig of Bulgaria, and Negat, Khia ^ 
^ 7'iifarj (H), agaJnO: Paieohgus : in wlikh ca&, he £ud, Int 
would eodcavcur to deliver that piirv£ intp th«ir htutdfi. Thif 
Solt^n'^ uncle having agreed to djis propofi), Azatitui, pqr- 
fiiant to leave obtained, repaired to the empecw, who wa^ 
then In the weft, nnder pMOence of (mag tbat p«rt of h^ 
dominions. It their rctorn back, withia a day't aurch o^ 
mount ffem»s, Paleoiagui, to his great ^ftpniOinfeat, undt^- 
ftood that the Bulgarians and Tatari bad paJ^ied the firaiu^ 
fpoiling and killing vhae-era they caste. The etaptntr. 
who had not forces to oppo^ them, left tlm ^olran, with hq 
baggage, in the lught, asd, getting to (be fea-fide, pa£led ^ 
a bark tb his capital, j^afinei, with thofe who h^d f«fe o^^ 
ibebag^ge, retired to the fort of Aiae (I). P»efeot)y t^ 
fy afira- enemy came, and, be£^ing tibe jiixe, 'a was at )engfl| 
tegtm. agteed, that the Soltatt, and his attendants, fhould be deli- 
vered to them ; OB condition that they withdrew, smi fttC-r 
fered th« refl to retire, with the bi^;gagp, to the portt 
which they did : and the next day came fucconrs i)f ifin, 
with whom diey returned to Qm/iantinopU, The empefora 
enraged at their conduA, punKhed the chief pf them ; aoij. 
imprifonlng the wife, nodier, - dauebter, and fiflcr, of tha 
Soltan, with thdr cUldren, coofijcated all theii' e&^P, 
The Greek hiftorians lay, that jizatines oever retjunia^ 
into his tjwn domimoiiB ; but died, fooc after his efcape, tn 
the country TO the north of the Cafpiaa Tea. 
ttiflaritttit HisTOKiAKB, bo^ eaftcrn and weftern, dt&gree fo modi 
^/agrts with regard to this Soltan, that an author, for wast oC&tii 
thcr helps, lUuft be at a grmt nonphis how to recofKtle 
them. The Cfeeks and AbA'lfaraj agree to make Jkza^dJbt. 
ScAxia oi Kmiya; and, from all circumiVauces of the hiflury, 
be muft have bcea ib, at leaft for a term of y^ars, fiiK 
f Pakh. I. ii. c. 3^.' 1. iii. c. 3, 2$. 1. xiti. c. is. 

(F) Hence (he is caRed af- Cajpian fea, and flie Damh. 
ttrtntis qoeen of the Muguh, He aftNwatda married Eufbre- 
thongh not married to #iiitf«l Jyiu, the erascrai'tt nauml 

(G) Jiagt,. or JiaiN, Kiifl, daughter. 

fonand laQceKOT Of HS/aii. {l) Ajtmah or Oaum, 

(H] To the north o( tli« 


C.4i :^voelftbS4ffiift Roknt)'d(UR?i&Wi &6| 

jP'jff^rWte.'tfrtt the~i'i-r^ hiftarmils, makes Aubxi'dUfff ^ , 
SoUaaj pofiiMy, becaafe he \ras fuppoited by the Mogottfi ' 
and CotUknied to reigHriafter Jxze'dJin v^ii ckpelled ; yet h« 
•itCitts from them only two thiAfaftidns o£ hta icign. He 
ijifiDrms us, that Jlokru'dXn Sokymdn, hntng init his hn-in/overal 
thef Jiao'iidht Kdykobid to the court cf tbc Great Khan oi-rifftai, 
the /)%v/i, to tran&A the ai&irs of the Sg^kiam, that 
Sridce gained the favour of the Kbim by his addrefe ; and 
rerartwd with filch «mpi6 powers, that SoUymht, . fiildii^ ■ ■ 
binifi^ slmod wholly depriTed of hb authok'ity by Kay- 
^ Mai, ttfibed' one <^ Tiis domcAtci to poUbn him : ttmt 
M^. KhM, htro^ infortncd of this ill office which SeieymAp ■ 
bad-^one iius bcother, ordered hhn to be ferved in the &id4 
aWBoe* (*), ia theycaf 6C^, afwr he hidreigned twenty years.Hej. 664, 
H0 kfe far his fucctdbr bit fon Kay Xfmfrdiu, who bad b£i A. D 
couShaaiion -fron the (kme Khan «. < '^S' 

'• IfF i% «vident, frotn . dw tiiftimony of j^M'^araf, a futijeA nuifh rt- 
of' t}te Se§ukiait empire) backed by th^t of the Greek ymtcn^garJ tf 
that Abx&'ddhi immodiatcly focceeded His iuthcr Gayatho'd' - 
4in. h a|q>ears alfb, tbitt foon viiex Rokno'dSn's bong fet np - 
by the M>gds, Ind the monarchy divided between thetn^ 
tb«y both tcignod at the lame time for feveral years, eaf^ 
in bis refpeArve territories: that, at length, Jxxa'ddin, be- '^ 
ing diqKUM by the Mogoh or Tattu-it Rakno'diUn reij^ned 
alone <f)jover the whole. It feema therefore but ,juft, that'*?'*,'^* 
^zco'i/iin Ihould be reckoned antong the Soltanc, as well s^Siiiiani. 
Hokm'dJin J and t"he rather, as we find hira named '' " 
riie coin mentioned \yj AbSlfara}. But whether w 
the reigns of the two brothers, ending that of ^zzo'c 
bis lafi abdication, or make but one reign' of both, 
be obferved, that Kondamr (or whatever author S" 
took thefe few particulars from, for he recites nob 
agrees with Ahuifary in two or three very efiential . 

f . According to-him/ there were no more than twol . Taftaxtis 

Xoino'ddin and ^/flo'iii'n j whereas Abitfaraj affirms , there /^i-^o/". 
tfere three ; of wiiom A^sa'dSn was theeldeft. 2. He faj,^ 
(bat Alao'ddin was fent to the Khan by Rokno'dJin. AbU't' , 
faraj fays, A^-z^'i^n fent both him and Rokiw'Min on that 
tmbajy. 3. He afiirms, that Alao'diHn returned Into Ram, 
^ D'Heax. p. 822, art. Soliman ben Caikhofrou.. , 
("1 Ahfflffda dyi, thalJlftyp- S^lkhaJdln, fir Babadit. tdtf. 
ae'Mn al Bir-wana, the T,:tar Schylttjif. p. 59. 
gtnenl, hei^aftcr-memioned, (+) Mulfria, in the firoe 
b«ing alTended wiih Rokntddin, place, fays, ihey reignrd t«f^~ 
flew hbn. Smeerfla adfn. vilit ther for a time, and then R»hi- 
e'dJin alone. 
S 4 and 

%64 ' 9^ Seljfiks of JLtm'. B.I. 

and was Acre poifoned by R^ina'd£n. Jbi'^ara] a£nns, oa. 
tile coativy, dut^Wt^n died en the road into Tatary. 

Wit H r^Bid to this j4lao'J£n, whidi-ever death he died, he 
mky have been one of the jilao'ddms mentioned in the Turlqflt 
faiftuy^ander whom the Either c^O/AmiR fcrved; forhcwasa 
King or Solt^ in the jhare of tlic Seljtkian domimons, which 
was given him, as appears by the atiovc-mcntioned ccrin. 
Anatolia In dw ragns of thefe two SoltSns, the Roman empire, 
9vtr-rmt ^rtiich, ever floee the death <rf Cayatko'ddin Kay Khofraw, 
h llain by TAcadbrtu ZiO/Zitm, in 1210, feenu to bare beat free 

from die depredadons of -the Turks, b^n to be invaded bv. 
dum vnth greater fury than ever it had been before : not fo 
mndt frmn inclination, which governed thdr former ravaJions, 
a> neceJGty, wliich obliged them to it in thdr own defence. 
For as the diflentioiu between the two farotherB gsvc enc6a> 
ragcment to the governors towards the borders of the StljUu' 
tMjiigi ■ gj, dominions to &t up for thcmfelves ; To, on the invaiion of 
J?", the Mi^ols, the Turks, to avtrid them, retired Weftward, in 
^**' great muldtudes, under different commanders : who, the bet- 
ter to fccnrc themlelves againlV thole ibrmidable enemies, and 
gain new pofleffions in the place of thofe they had abaiid<Hi- 
ed, fell, with all thdr force at once, on every fide <tf theJIff- 
vian territories in -^Of which tiien were in a moft defence- 
lels Aate ; and, in the compafs of a few years, fubdued the 
whole, as viU be ihewn more at large in the next rdgn. 
ninttMti KAT Khofravi III. fon of Sokne'dJln SoleymAn, being but 
Ssltim, an infiuit when he afcended the throne in 66^, Jiaka Khin, 
KayKhof-whq married his mother, appointed Pervaneh KaJbi{X) for his 
j;»w IIJ. tuitwr (or Atabek). This Soltan reigocd dghtecn years ; at 
the end of which, in 682, he was lulled, by order of j/imf if 
Khin (K), who fucceeded Jbaka Khan ; and Ma^id, (on of 
fCtiykavis, was afterwards appointed his fuccelTor by Jrg&n 
Khin, who fucceeded Ahmet '. 

This is all which D'Herbehi fornilhes from the oriental 
anthors, relating to this prince, whom he reckons the twelfth 
Sottia ; nor di>e3 Ahi^lfaraj mention any of the Soltans after 
Azzs'ddia, uncle to Kay Khofrarai. However, we meet with 
a pafl^ge in him, which we fliiill cite, as it relates to Pervajwh^ 
the Solt^'E tutor, and the a^irs of his kingdom. 

■ D'Kf ita> p- 13^ & i?7i wt Cailcholini troi£cme, tt Argonn 

fj) PtrtMwii* tbefofterP#r- led Ui father, entroo'd him La 
jfidf proDnaciationor£«r«i'<MdA, bis ftead. 
WM, AhS^t& fagri, having kil- (K) Sumamed JfiiuJar Qglam 1 
v-r — ^._. -^ai^£j^,jin68i. 


C. ^ mrteeiOh-SeUSih Kay Kbolhw ni. 265 

That aatfaor informB as, that, in the year 67$, BtTiJok-SfltAi »f - 
JAr^ Soltia oi Egypt, udud by fome fug^ves, refiilTcd toEo'pt 
invade the tcnitraies of JfAn; whjch king Lein, fon of thc"^- As- 
king of jlrmenia (Naiem J, hang informed <^, fent notke ^* ~* 
to the Mogol commaoders who were in that country. Bnt "^ * 
this ad^ce bang reprefentcd to them fs falfe, by BenoSnah 
(L), who wilhed well to BfndokdAr, and h&ted the jlrmenian 
)UD%, they, paid no r^ard to it. So that the Egyptians came iraaJts 
upon tljem at a time when they were foovera)me with liquor R'*'"^ 
that they coald not mount thor hor&s : and as, by thor 
Tafa (M), i^ laws, th^ arc obliged not to fly till they have 
^ed the enemy, they gave them battle ; in which all the 
great Mogol officers ^erc flain, befides moll of their men," ^ 
and 2000 outof 3oootforf.(N), who were irith them. The 
Egyptiam liltemfc lofl a vaft nnmber on their fide, fitrwii-- 
nah, CD this news, fled to a calUe for fecurity. Betukkdir, 
aSxei his viflory, encamped in a place called K^kebad, near 
KayhHyai, 'triisre be remained fl^een days, without ^aa% the 
kail hnrt, or nking any thing without payii^; for iL Nor dhl 
he eater that city more than once; laying, that he came' not to 
lay wafte the coantry, but to deliver its lend from flavery. 

As foon as Ahika Kb&n (0) was informed of this Tav&X'tttirti at 
tqnc, he gatltered forces, and marched into the coantry of '^' 
AeRAiu 1 but Berukkd&r, knowing himfeif unable to with- 
fiand him, had redred into Syria before he arrived. Ber- 
vinah went to meet the Khin, who received him without 
any fliew d refentment, and took bun with him in his re- 
turn to the Tik (P) ; under pretence of confultii^ what num- 

(I') Stfwimttb, U die Jr^ name, given to, or alTumed by, 

pronnndatioii ( Pirvaneb (or Hulalu, whofe defccndanti are 

Farvmaa, al Hajttn ihejtmH' thence called Ilibaniani. Hs 

«/«» wiitn) ii the Ttrfiem, feemito haveaAiimed itin imU 

The £une Hrfttn fayi, he was tationof 'jToiiMut IHbam (i),who 

commander of the Tatan in firft introduced it; and to (hew 

7ia-k3 (i), fo he calls the i^- hewaiddcendcdfromtliithero. 

jikim domtnioni in Afietmner: ThittitlediffersfromthatofiZai 

bnt he mnft be anderftood of a or Hii Kian, affamedhy Turiijb 

civil, not a military, officer. princes, who poflcfTed thecoan- 

(M) Or r«_^, laws military tTyof//o;fi waflied onthefouth' 

and avil, made bv Jcntbiv by the river SihSn or Sir, and 

Kh£a, but laid to nave been whofe capital vntTmliSt,m,a 

fmaxA firft by Oo&c KhSn, and others fay, Nebaibl. D'Htrb. 

only revived by Uie other. bibL orient, p. ^8S, art. lUi. 

(N) Or K^i called by m (P)^/7aJii theplaceofen- 

' Cfrntou, indcad Q^Gtrjmni. camping, or where he en* 

(O) U Kha* is atiide, or for- camped. 

(I) Ibfn A7««f»,(*f. 3^ (x'iSuhJwtif. 4j. 


XtttBid^Ai^ of £<xctiwaiAA be fuffidcnt t9 gutcd -thb oiaatty of 
y^atk. Rhn»^a^ ihcEgyptiMu. Bciog arrived ia Aeaahp, the 
Khan nude a ou^nigctat feaft^ y hcr rii i he tapty. 
Berminah widi niarc's milk (Q_), fer he jdpiak aa wine. At. 
length, thckttergc»ngcinttodrtw'W«av,.4MilagBvetiieiigQ 
to kaoe in waiting, -wtio ibUonved, and cnt.kini di jMcaXK-). 
This was the end of a tnitor: ivx iiiiimiklularioDgimnt 
■ ■ him ; for he died at Mtmi (in Syrity, in his retutif tOfBgypt, 
SoiiK&yofawoaiKlitceitedbyaliani>v, in tbe cqpdtmeot' 
wlth-ih^il^ilb; others by paUba,.ii)fofed by MK-ofukdo^ 
mcflicsiii themarelBmiik, vUdihecallad W(S).tD<Uibl[*. ^ 
Klftraih HAVING nothing fiutfacr to hj (toia theeaft, kc«6 tam: 
fimttj 'weftwani, and flow die nlccdrie eooiMtkn <A-'^^Srerks%\ 
BOOUe to vefiil tbe pcmcr of the Tiw^y trho, Hke ao-isim-- 
datiea, faddbhiy ovenrhehned tfacn. As.we haroheady^ 
ipa ttotrf the. drfiBipdefe ftaOl of. ttie gmyice at ihb juafttfre,'- 
it wilt be i^v^ to fet fonb by ^bac mcsns. it cmo to M^ 
rcdnccd to-findj^vcakcoaditiao. To do ihi3..ttejno(cef* 
ftOuidl^, itimayjbc! aeccflary to. take the matter a-Jittiahigfi-! 
er. Ahhoi^i; ,oii the ai-fpiff"— (£ Theodont Lafimi-to thtf 
throne, the'eapitcicfiVM'^vas.ooii&ied to fhe narnnr boviNJl^ 
of ooly threedtieB, fiSce, Prutt, and PbUadt^U \ -TSttafiirs 
vrare nonaged with fbch prodencs, dutt tbe {brb «3S.fec(U«] 
agtinft all its enomcs. Tte betted to£>pp>^ the-frantvy wbo' < 
hid takdi Csi^iottitttpie, and vers utahcrs 4tf.ihci>ilaJi,J flt«'. • 
isiai&n aide peace with the Turki ; poyii^ thtan y eiirly r 
large fdn, and' d^» tariied all tlieir forces agnnA the fbr- 
/<f/Greeks°*r. After t^^.h«d.d(uiewbh than, tbey ^fdled tbanifelwfr 
(sAfia; to fortify the mountalQS, in fpite of all the endeavour^ fif the 
Twifrj to hinder thpn. They buftt fdrW, comtnltfing tlie 
ore cithern to' the naihes of thb country ; and Uius feciued 
tbe empire on t^t fide. ' _ '....,' 

, As ine people who inhabited thofe mountains were inelina* 
Ue to change Gdies, and did pot care to run any. f ilk by re« 
fining the eneay ; the ei»|>eior& attached them to. their ime- 
reft, by atcrapting them from cevtaid taxes,' aod baflowio^ 

• AbuYf, p. 358, ic (em, 

(Q_) The chief liquor uf«l tiia]*xvhi£liwereferve4athista. ^ 

by the people of Tnirry ; it !»■ blei and that heandall hisof- " 

n]\e6Kumii, ar.d is ftrong aQ>t IJcCrseAtofit. JSiV. Thisisonq 

yleafant. ■ 6f Haitoa'a mtmAtes. 

{R) ffajtOK ftyi.-he was cat {S) He waffoartH Solt^ tit 

11 two by the iniddli-, accord- tht BiiirrjanJi^riiiais.KiitrvtTe 

1^7 to the ciillom of the Talan ; Raves from Tatary. He wa< 

nntl thit the Khan ordered hi* c^rlled z\(o Bthmi alSaUbi, fa- 

S: Ji 10 b: ]iux«d AiJi tile vie- no^if for hi> ri&xiei. - 


L „.. .X.ooQic 

C. 4h 9%irteeMth S^^, Kay Khofraw m. s6^ 

copfidorablc .tywxi*^ qb the pf incipal pttrfoiu Ufmg ikptOt 
vrho, . bjT that meaus, becsme verjr rich. Thek zeal for their 
<ount'ry increaied with their wealth : lb that they made tt 
their buLfincfs to fucprize the coany ia the nt^t, canyiug off 
laucii plmvWj aml.cholt »ther ta prevent their cominft^ 
iim wait for tbetn. The are wWch was laltea of the fort- 
vflbs had ttiis hitppy «Sc^ ; and thu thoTe who guarded then 
mi^ht not bx. twipted to delert' them, there were troops ia 
the Qejghbourhooc^ ready to &[>pqrt ihcm '. ' 
. . Br U)e(e eppd regulAtipns, tne a&irs of the Greeki wereM 'wht 
fy greatly aovadc^ in the eaft. that when Mikhaei P«lMiogvt«^'^g' 
return^ from i^ve. to Cvi/lantin^e, upoo its boog taken 
from tiie l^titu 1^^360, 4^ mutor, Pt^Magenia (T), Bi- A. D; 
ihynia, the Greater and Ca^at'ia*. Pbry^oi, with Sarin, wen 1 360. 
UAdCT the ohedif nee t£ the.^omaas (U), and paid them tribute ■■. 
But after ^jiWiw/iiad reuuived the feat of his empire, and 
that the iohahitaata, efpecliUy thofb who tiad b^en in coof 
QKUid, were returned, iite people who pofleired the looua- 
tains 'Were exceedingly weakened ; and, no longer receiving 
any Tiuxpfics, wer? themfelves obliged te fuAain the wdghi <3 
the varl ' To loake the m^tcr Ml worie, the alfairiof the 
eupire Un Europe } faliiog afterward^ into a bad fiatc, JK»- 
khofl Peueokgus, by the advice of i C ad en ut, ggrernor of Cotif 
jiMtineplf, Artppcd thofe people, who were rich, of their ef> 
^fts ; aodi allowing each forty crcwns penJioo, ordered th« 
reft of the revonufis «rifiug from thctasds, and which afloouot- 
ed to coniuletahle fams,. to be brought to the treafnry ■• which" 
111 treatmeiit d'tninifted thor ftrength, and totjk away tbpr 

The emperor, ia all likelihood, wae the more QaGIy bt-Turfei 
4Hced to do this, as he apprehended oo danger itoia. <Aix CiMftrtiJ 
of the Turh ; whom he kept at peace by continual waaties,*'?^™*''^' 
and wiio were too much cm^doyed by the Taiart to give tum 
any difturbance. But that which leenied to pronufa moft fe*. 
cnricy, ^oved moft pcrmdous to his intereft : for fhortly af> 
Kr, by an nnforefesa event, the Turks crouding weftward, t* 
av<»d the army of the enemy, and being too many for dw . 
country, to make themfelves room, b^an to invade the Raman 
' (ppire ; or, to fpeak la tha words <^ our autht^, the moA', 

t Pakh. Li. c. z. 3i " DoiAs, %. a. 

ff} Sulgaria h added here. hfid, Pamphylia, ^meina, Vt- ' 

(U> Tb« Tvrkt, who a little hm}(t>rt,Pyfdia,Licia, andothof 

b«&re lud ulcea LHatma, were pcoviacei. C^lt^ria \i aMed, 

fbea inaftera oiKaf^xia, Ga- perhaps by miftakc. 


i6Z The SdjAks */ Rflmr B.1,^ 

nliant among the Turks, futdiog, after being woqnWhfid by 
die Tatars, ^at thcjr had no other recoiiHe but their arms, 
retited into the mountains, and committed robberies. With 
tliis riew, they ailembled in great numben, . and attacked the 
Romans; who, being weak, were obliged to yield to them. 
Siixt tb* Thet would have fuflcred themfdves to be quite driven 
mtiauaUi.oxil of the conntry, if the penlions which they mil recehred 
had not with-hcld them. The defire of preferving that little 
which was left them made them defend the places, and dc- 
firc the aid of Ronton troops, when they were hard prcfled : 
but then they never expded themlelves to malte (allies, or 
fight in the open field ; and as foon as thofe lalarics were re- 
trenched, fome of ^M loldiers went over to die enemy, and 
tfie reft retired M*ither they thought fit. 

The Turks, having thus become mafter^ of thofe parts, 
made incursions through the country, plundering it at plea- 
fure ; and extremely incommoded the Piman forces, who were 
continually harrafled between them in the eaft, and die Frartla 
in the weft *. 
^it eoitu- As the emperor had not forces enough to diidde them, and 
try dt- thought it of moft importance to prefcrve that part of lus 
fiuctufi : dominion which lay in Europe, he employed them chiefly 
againft the laft enemy, \dio threatened Conjianfinopk itfelf. 
Py this means the eaft came to be n^Iefled ; and, being de- 
ftitute of troops, as well as ganifons, was expofed to the 
^'Ia "™6^ "f *^ Turks ,• fo that about the time that Soltan</z- 
1300. xo'mln made his efcape from jlinwn, the afFairs of that coun- 
try were in dreadful confufion ; efpedally about the river Me- 
ander, where thtTtirks had {eized many towns andmonafte-' 
' ries : but John the De/pot, repairing thither in time, favcd the 
chief of them, and fecnred Tralles, Karyfter, and other ad-' 
vancCd places. He Hke^nTe prevented the lofs trf the JUage- 
donians, thofe expert archers, who were in danger of bang 
fubdued, for want of the forces which had been called away 
to the defence of the weft. The Turks, intimidated by the 
vigour with which the De/pot proceeded, fcnt to offa* him 
their prifoners, and demand a peace, which was granted. 
tpprtffiJhy B o T while the emperor by his arms faved towns on one fid<v 
*«*« i he loft whole nations and provinces on the other, by his exac- . 
tions ; for he laid fuch heavy taxes on the MariaiuHnes, Bu- 
eeUarians,a.T[APaph!agonians,t\^et to pay his foreign troops, 
or keep thefe people in fubjc£Uon, caufing them, at the fame 
time, to be raifed with lb much rigour ; that he quite ruined 
the country, and obliged the inhabitants to deliver up the 

^ Pakh.M. c j,6. 


C.4^ fbirteeMiiS^tdn^KiyKWmini. %6f 

iomeSes, and put tfaemielrei aaia the dominioQ of the 
Tttrkt, in hopes of better a&ge '. 

The aflkirs of the Franks llkewiie Feqniring the [n'cfeace A. D. 
<f the Deffiet in Europe, the country about the Meander, at 1x67, 
well as the reft of the eaft, became expofcd afrefli to the 
depredations of the Turkt, The nuwatain, defended by the 
forts of Aiala, Kaafia, and Mazedm : the once famons pro- 
vince of Karia alfo lay open to thdr incurfions. Trakhium, ittver-m^ 
Stadia, StraiUon, and the lands Ipng oppofite to the iflaod 
of Rhodet, vhich, but a little while before, had been reduced 
onder the power of the Somant, were become the letreat of 
the enemy, from whence they made thdr inroads. The pes- 

. pie inhabitii^ the northern coafU c&Afia minor (not to "nen-, . 
tioa thole vdthin land), the MariaruHnet, MoHniam, and the2 '^f 
ffenerooi Enetes, were ruined to a deplorable de^^e ; the ^ 
tortref&s of Krotmtus, Ama/lris, and 7io/, which are near the 
fea, had nothing left of thdr andent fplend(»'; and muft 
have been deftroyed, but for the advantage of their fituation, 
which made it eafy to relieve them. In ihort, Anatolia was 
(b over-run by the enemy, that the Sangarius ferved as -the 
frontier, and there was no pofObility of getting to HeriUdea. 
hy land. Tins bad Aatc df the eafi was owii^ to the trea- * 
chery of the men in command ; who, that they might have 
the better opportututy to enrich themfelves, - made £e empe- 
ror believe the lolles which happened in thofe parts were 
fi> ioooniiderable, that it was not worth his while to crofs the 
fea to repur them : which ^e report, as MikbaeL laid hJm- 
felf, waa what contributed molt of all to its ruin '. 

However, no Acps were taken, for fcveral years after, Tralles 
to put a flop to the progrefs ipade by the Turks, till M-'*^'''- 
khael, reflefHng 00 tlie rum oF Karia, Antiokh, and the ^,0 
odghbotiring country ; and on the neceffity there was of fend- ^' 

ing iuccours to Kayfiro, Priene, Mile/bs, and Magedon, lent 
Andronicus, his ion, and aUbciate in the empire, with a con- 

. fiderable army, accompanied by a great many perlbns of di- 
ftinAicm. In his inarch along the Meander, he beheld the 
ruins of TralUt (X), formerly a famous dty ; and, being 
charmed with the bamty of its frtuation, refolved to rebuild 
it, and give it the name either oS Andronicopo&t or Paleokgo- 
polis. As the mafons were at work, they found an oracle 
CDt on a piece of marble, declaring; that, in time to come, a 

T Pa«h. Liii. c. 31,21,28. •Ibid. Liv. c.zj. . 

' (X) Bythis,T'«/&iinu(l have yet the author has not taken no- 
been lately roiaedby theTirntfi tice of fo remarkable an event. 

__. , prince ■ 

L ,„;,i.,oo.^ic 

prfnc* ftonM niifc tiiis city coit of W nAiS, intf baild It 
with greater magnificence than ever; 
J/a!/e ANl>R0HIGV1>, appJyhigthe oracit to hhnfdf, in hopes 

m'aiU, ' of the long life which was promifcd to its reftortr, nndertooft 
to rebuild it, luwl fet abont the biifmeft "orith great tameff- 
oefs. Bill: this oracle Was "no other than ftb inalioii, wMA 
proved the dearfl of an infimte number of people. Wheii 
» the wbUb were finifted along the Mtander, no fewe*- thaft 

3,5,000 came to inhabit the fmcc. Ho^TCTer, they wtre -fcatte 
■warm in (hdr hosfes, when they found theinfelves of a fiid- 
dcn befiegcd by an army of 7ar*r, commanded by MahiaHla, 
fnmameaSaipace ; which, fn their langnage, fej-s our atrihor, 
fignifies a ftrong man. As the foil aftbrncd no fprings, and 
were were neither fonntains, ciftems,' nor Ttfells, in the place, 
;■ ' LHadarius, the graml (Srwlary, who commaiided rfiere, fcne* 
not what to do. The inhabitants would have been contmt 
though reduced to cat vermin, and even dead bocSes, ccffila 
rfiey hare only found drink With fuch bad food. Many died 
for thirft 00 ' »n^ others, to svoid that death, went tffb^ 
relief from the enemy, who drove them back, oi- klUed 

■ ^^iA Those wltTiio relying on the oracle, anH the hopes Of 
IfrJ""^ J fiicTOur, the Titrh refoircd to make a lafl'dfcrt; and, ap- 
^'^' ' proaching the wall, tiiider cover of thdr bncklert," Yapped 
it. When they had fixed the (borings, they once 'more fntn- 
inoned the befieged to furrender ; and, on their refufiil, fet 
fire to the wood : a breach being thus made, they toe* the 
city by ftorm, and put all the inhabitants to the fwofd. Be- 
fore this, xhcy xook Nfjii; which, in like mjiMner, fell into 
. their hands, for want of forces to relieve it. What is Bidft 
ftrange, the yonng emperor wa? at Nympheum all the while 
riiey were performing thofe two exploits ; after which'they tu- 
T«ged and plundcredvAM^oA'irwthoufcontroul. ' 
Bitliynia The Turks, encouraged by thefe fncceffbs, eroded the rl- 
taidiaafie.ict Sangarhis, and laid waflc the country to the Weft Of it, 
A. D. On this news, the em\aor Mikhacl, raifing all the forces he 
»»8i; ^ci6\A, in hafte fet forward to flop thetr inroads. When he 
beheld die dreadful defolation which they had made; he was 
ftrock with the dcepeft anguifh. On this occafion lie loIJ 
the patriarch of Alfxnndria, that the^attenips of certain per- 
fens to ftir up his fubiefts agaiiift him, by condemning hlS 
conduct, had obliged him to neglcft the care of the prpvin- 

(Y) Could not the MtaaJir fays ran throii^ the, city ? vol. 
luve fuppliedthctn with drink? ij, part 2. p.^/.^ 
•rthe flream which Dr. i'dfiKif 


CO, u order to look to Ivfi avra (tfety : and that the gi>- ' 
Mtraors, to whom he had iotruAed thofe diftapt parts ot liic 
d wn i n io w , hvl coMealed firem him the diAref« they were ii^ 
i6m liwitde 4Ky lud bam sajnul over bf (xe&ats, or throt' 
(w qf bfjug fVKtUDwd for tbnr oe^cft. 

TuET fbuadibgKat a quantity of fnut under the txccfcT^^w' 
dMtt feraMto'fubftft 4Btf half ci the vmy. . The Turks tiin 
Rm4 at &ft ai tb* enpcvor a^aoocd : wbq wanting thB/^''^E'^<*r 
■mfiv; CTBTCoioa c t w for purfaiiig them in the hillj coan-*'^' 
tW\ vtuthv the; Wl retreated ; be was coDWnt to ftcure 
l^im^trs, by Mpajnog the .old fbrts, and buildigg new 
*m is tkofe plaicae where th< ^Mtgariut was moll nairow aa4 
Mibl;. He liJiewife gave ordert to fortify the river, for a 
oniivi ifKt, -Htitb traet ; vhf^ bnmches were lb thick, an4 
*4 mpwieJ. tktf a taalu* ciwld aot ouks lus way throi* 
*m\ . 

. ilJSSl/J\ fnmaiBad G^yat^'ddbi, was the (on ^ v£z'fffarff/«l( 
*»'^Sayb0u}S. Qm QiGaj^tioddlit Kty Khjrinx, two ofSt/i^n, 
^pna&Bg Scitaas. This prioce hftd bat Uttle authority M>A^ 
'(6'iut-JQ the <k)eMt>ow which his pradeoillori had cob- 

riiti j^a-mmqn', anA the greattr y^iutnia ; for, in ef> 
diofc qovttiies were iatireiy fubjoft to j4/^g£a Khiiit 
nsubtmherqciaived theiavei^rcof diem ^ D'Herkt- 
h, vho ^vc$ ^ti9 {hoFt aoconiU of him, at die end of aa 
"W^ tcutiwc to a difierent prince, mendcns the dme nti- 
l^wiKD bcb^w wx «&ded bU reigQ : but in the table or 
lift of the Soltans ol RAif', his death is put in 687. It rauftHej. 697^ 
w obftrvtid, th&t tboe v^»a an iDrerFegnam of ooe year, at A. D. 
^ of SoBsti ntoathi^ from the de»th (xKa.y KhofrAtu, to the ia£8. ' 
dcuh of jihaud'y and it does not iippear whea Ar^n Khiui 
'iKftei.AJ^;^ .-' but feppofi^ it to have been in Ms Hrft 
^, or 6a3, tbea MaJ^ BuiA have re^oed bat four or five' 
yeiraaMnoft. ;. - 

Ttui is alt the Wonu^R whidi bos yet come ta oaifSt/ery 
Iiuds, froa the oricnttil- yAorians. concerning this prince. : itiftx/ia. 
u far Ati Greek writer^ thor memoirs are fo confuled ajid 
inpcrfcA, tiiat we-can deliver notbiiig with certainty from 
tit^b -We fiod no more relating to Jiukratiit, or Rokno'dJiitp 
ifan what has been already taken notice of, altho' he muft 
^ve nagned fereAl' ^eirs after his brother's ^polfion -, nor 
^7 mention of Kay Klnfraiu, who reigned after him for the 
fjna ctf eighteen ycarsi They tell you, indeed, that the foa 

'Pa«h,'I. vi. c, 10, '21, 19. 'D'Hfrb. p. 562, art.Maf^ 
^, £1. de Mohammed, iub 1*41. ' IbjJ. p. Sco. 

7 . ^ of 

L i,z<.;t,Coogle 

of Azetines, or Azzo'Mn, ^irho redred to CenfiantmofU, and 
whom they call Malek, did, a long time, after his mteat 
JTom thence with his ^ther, recover his doiainions. We 
cannot pofitivcly fay th^t this Malek is the Ma^iid of the ori- 
ental authors, although there are drcumAaoces in fail Aoty 
which fsFOor that opinion. 
. Ohtaim The hJAorian who gives the beft accoant of thk matter, is 
itt king' Pakhamtr. We have already related, from tiw lame author, that 
^v- MtUek,yih\ora he llkewifecalls Arii/«AJIf<^ur(Z),fied,alongirith 

his fiither Azatines_, from the caftle of Ame into the country 
beyond the Euxine fea. There they wandered together, for 
Ibme years ; till after the death of Azatines (A), he crofied 
the fea into AJia minor % and, arriving at Thymemtm, {pined 
the favour of Argitiy Khan of the Tatars. By this means 
he became maftcr of the o)unty, as his proper ioheritance ; 
and reduced to his obedience the principal Turitjb com- 
manders. , But Amur (B), father of AH, having gathered a 
confidcrable army of Tatan, tell upon Malek, and reduced 
n_-__ faim to fuch aa extremity, that he refolved to go with his 
^^_ wife and children, and lubmlt himfelf to the emperor, ifc 

repaired firfl to Heraklea of Pontui, and then to Cott/lantiite- 
pie *. The ftory thus far is related fomewhat differently by 
(he fame author, in another place. He there fays, that Ma- 
lek, a loi^ time after his father's death, crofling the Euxine, 
flopped at Kafiamona ; where, hanng gdined 3te good-will 
of the Tatars, he made an attempt to recover his lather's 
kingdom : but havuig been defeated by Amur (C), he redred 
to HertUtlea, and thence to Coitfiantinople '. 
Xteevtrs The emperor Aadronicui, who fuccceded MUhagl, bei!^| 
it again. ^^^ at Nymfhtmn, Malek left his wife at Confiant'mopU, and 
cro(&d over into Afia. But when he was near Endromt (D), 
he b^n to fufpeft the emperor's fiiendAiip ; and obferving 
that his conduAor had too watchful an eye over him, com- 
plained openly of it, and quitted him ; declaring, that if any 
body Qffered to flop him, he would repulfe him vigoroully. 
He retired to the Turks ; and having, in a ihon time, acquired 
a more iltuftrious reputation, and more confiderable forces 
than he had twfore, Amur became fo much afraid of him, 
that be came with fats feven fons, and hnmbly fubmitted to 

' Fakb. I. X. c. 35. * Ibid. 1. xiii. c. S2. 

(Z) A miAake, probably, for (B) Called by oihen Hmw, 

l}rjr,t. or Manid. and Oair. 

(A) Elfewbcre it li faid, a (CI Who was fettled there- 
long timeafcer his fiitber'sdead); about, 
which mull have been the cafe. (D) Or Airtmt'um. 

4 ' bimi 

C. 4; ' Fonrtesnib SottSn^ Mafflkd. S7| 

him. Bat wUle be by proftrate at MaUk'a feet, to impI(H« 
his clemency, that prince reproachsd him with his former 
treachery ; and having taken a glafs c^ wine, as if to drink, Si^f 
extended his hands : on which fignal thofe ia waiting drew Omcr. 
their fwords, and flew .^ur, with his Tons. 

HoWETEK, one efcaped, named AH, who reftdved to pc- 
rlQ), rather than not revenge the death of his fattier and bro- 
thers. With this view he gathcted a coniiderable number <^ 
Turks ; and rangiiw the country after the manner of robbers^ 
it was Malek's fll .fortune at length to fall in liis way ; for 
as liit horie ran full fpecd, he fell, and threw hts rider, who t4.JlMn i/ 
at the fame tnftaat was mo throogh by bis enemy. ..Aii- 

ALI was fopafied up with this foccefs, that, gatherias 
fome troops, he began to ravage the Rtmatt territories ; ipto 
which the river Sangariut, by an unfbrefecn accident (£}, . , 

gave him admittance. At the head of this account we are 
told, that AU, and Najlratius, his brother, liad been a long 
time with the Romans as hoAagcs : and that, having gained 
the afleAions of the Turks, who dwelt about KaflavKna, thcf 
committed divers afts of hoftiiity againft the people who in' 
habited towards the Euxine fea, and the river Sangatius, 
without daring to adx'ance farther; but that his ifilolence 
Inoeafed, after he h'ad Qs^ Malek Majkr ^^) {nthia Ma/ut), . 
the {on c^ Soltia Azatints ^ 

There is nothing in this account of the Greeks inconfift" 
ent with that of the orientals. Oo the contrary, it feems cod-' 
'pAtH. 1.1. c.aj. 

(E) The aoddentwhich gave ing tbemfelves ei^fed, .by tliii 
All a palTige over the Santariuty alteraiioH, to the loroadrof the 
waithii. ]n the month of Afari-^, enemy, withdrew. A moaCh 
that river, deferang its fortifica- after, the river took ii) ufual 
tioDS, made by the emperor Mi- chanet ; as if it had left it onl/ 
i^nr/Po^/sjiu, refumed ItsaO' to difperfe the garrHbns, and 
dent bed, where rhe emperor favoar the incuiiions of the 
Jaftinian had built a bridge j enemy (i). 
SDd although the rinr Vuf/M (F)Somerender it,.i^rrMs. 
t4x>k iti place, yet it had not lee MafnrjW/Wn /.h/«n^£a/- 
watcr fufficient to fill its cha- •«£tA2atiim : but diat ii to fay, 
nel. Aftcrwardi the Stmgariai, after the fon (^/CEa//H» had (laia 
being greatly fwclled with the the fonof^.^auiri^ri', which isab- 
raina, changed it« coorTe a la- furd. Be£des,^r,in(Ia}ingA/<i' 
cond time, carrying with it Tuch J^.i,lIewtheroaof..&.i/iwj; and 
' a vail quantity of gravel, mud, from thence itwas that b« grew 
and earth,thatit tntght be crof- fo elated or infolent, as to ra- 
fed on foot. Thofc who garri' vage the JieMtfn territorfet. 
toaed the faid fortifications, fee- 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV. T firmed 

L l,.<. t.L.OOglf 

174 ri/Seljakso/Rfiim B.i; 

Malek, flmied by two c'lrc'omftanccs : one is the name of Mnfur, 
MaJIud. which is doubdeTs a miAake for Mafiit, as the Greeks writs 
Maffid ; the other, 'h^t he wae adf anccd by the favour of 
Argin Khin, as it appears Maffud was. 
^ We muft not forget td mentkm that Makkf a confnlerablc 
thne after his retreat from Endromii, fent fot his wife, who, 
by the einpcror's confent, went to him,: but his daughter 
Remained in hoftage (G>, as well as Confiantine MaJek (H), 
another fon of jizatinet, who had b«eD baptiecd, and lived 
after the lAaniMT of the Greeks '. It .is not mcnctoned at 
tvhat time he fent for the Soltana : but it muO have been be- 
fore he obtuned ths kingdom, la regard the emperor Mikhaet 
died th« year before that event; namely, in the year 1283, 
MASSUD was Aiecseded by his nephew Kayk^M. 

fifieinth ' K^YKOBjID, th« lad SoltSn of Rum, was the fon of 
Saltan, farnmorz, fon of Kaykavs ; and fucseaded his uncle Maffid, 
k"^*"*' °9*'^ *■ authority of CazSn Khin, who confirmed or in- 
' veded him in the dominions of his anceSors, in the year 

A. D. 687 (I) : but having revolteti againtt that prince fome years 
1*88. after, the Megoli to»k from him all his dominions ; then laz- 
ing hia perfon, put him to death ; and, at the fame tinte, an 
end to this laA branch and dynalty of the Se^kiam ''. 

This happened, according td the table of the Seljukiait 
princes ^ven by D'Herbtht, in tht year 700 of the Hejrah, 
or of Chnfi 1300. The Greek hilbrians make no mention 
' oC this Septan, with whom they had no affairs : the Turks, 
whom th^ were at that time engaged in war with, having 
been the Seljik commanders *, ^o, taking advantage of the 
dillraftions canfed by the Mogol Invafion, threw off their de- 
pendence on the Soltan, and fet up for thcmfclves. 
Ptiilantro ^'^ order to reprefs their Jfrogrcls in the Raman territories, 
f enus rf-v (be empcrctf' Andrinicus made Akxts, furnamed Philantrope' 
itii: nus (who was hit cup-bearer^ and fecond fon ofTarkoniate:, 
the protovefliary), governor of ^a minor and Lydia. Phi' 
lantropenus, havii^ then tinder his command the troops of 
KanMtt, and at length all the annics of the eall, dlfplayed 
fo much vatOtir, anHl gitincd (i many victories, that, during 
bis government, which contisoed a Iwig time, he rellored 
I Pakh. I. xiii. C. aj. * D'Ham. p-a4o, art. Caikobad. 
(G) She was aiven in mar- to be ttm Ctnftaniiiu than Maf- 
riage to IJhak Malik, as the fid. 

reader will find hereafter. (I) D^Htr^rltl, jn anothar 

(H) Other authors mention place, p. 363, art GazanKhSn, 

but one fon. (?rf^ar» calls him puis it in 702, which is two 

Maiek Shah ; who a more likely years after the end of hii reign, 

and of.tbc Sefjikian d/nany. 



,C. 4- Fifteenti SoUStty YizykthaA. . 2^5 

the affairs of the empire in the cafV ; and at the fame time, 
by his great liberality and addrefs, gained the afleAioa both 

. of the Romans and their enemies. In all his expeditions he 
acquired mnch wealth;^ yet gave moil away in prefcnts and . ' 

" rewards. Of this we (hall give an inftance. Near Mela- 
dun ihcx was a fort, called the Toz-f of the tiuo little hitit 
(which our author thinks was the ancient Didymion of the Mi- 
iefians), where the principal wife of Salampaces before-men- 
tioned, who was lately dcccafed, had retired with ineftima- 
ble treafnres. As it was not poflible to take the place, by 
force, Philantropenut, making ufe of art to gain his ends, 
thought to deceive that lady by fccret promifes of marriage. 
After (he had rcjefted his propo&l, perceiving that there 
were ports driven into a little lake which wafhed the walls of 
the fort, he ordered planks to be Aliened to them, wth 
jropes, asd built towers on them ; at the lame time covering 
the reA of the l^ce with veilels fiUcd with foldiers, and en- 
]]^ncs proper for taking cities, he quickly tiecame maftcr of 
the place, and all the riches, ^ hich he difiributed among his 
followers. Tbefe perfuaded him to revolt : but Ubadariui, jtfiattdh 
sovenKM* of Neoka/lrum, Lydia, and Sardet, marching againA Libada- 
liim at Nympheum, he \vas betrayed by the Kandiots : who, rius. 
feizing him at the head of his army, delivered him into the 
liands of that commander, who inamediately ordered hu e^ S,' 
to bepntout. His ibrces, which were very numerous, con- '^9^* 
fitting of Turks as well as Romans, fled ; while Ubadtuim, 
with his liaail forces, made a great Ikughter of them. 

The Turks, fome time after, to revenge the lliame of this Greek ^ 
defeat, aflcmbtbg in great nmnbers, Idd waAe the ^haltfairtmeiid. 
Cpnntry, from the Euxine' fea to that of Rhodes, To put a 
flop to thefe diibrders, the emperor fcnt over John Tarko- 
jiiates with money and troops, although he was an obftioate 
abetto- of the Ichifm which then prevailed in the church. 
,This he did, upon a perfuafion that a diJIenter trom theefla- 
bliHicd reli^oa m^ht love his country ; and that to de^t 
the eoemies of a ftate, depended more on the military flcill, 
than orthodoxy of its generals. In e,Se,(t, Tarkoniates, by 
his coodaft, proved the emperor's fentiments to be jufl. He 
brought the foldiery to a proper r^nlatiou, by preferring 
poor men of merit to rich cowards ; and obliging thofe to do 
duty, who, prefuming on th«r wealth, defpiicd the orders of 
thdr commanders. By this means, in a fhort time, he raifed 
a numerous army, and equipped a powerful fleet, with which 
he had fuch good fuccefs, both by land and fea, that he foon 
reftored the af&irs of the eaft. But they were ruined again,' Rtleffi^ 
by the negligence aad bad conduct of thole who fucceededMnu.' 
T a Mm: 

- ^"-"Bi^ ■ 

s ;6 Uipory sf tU Moguls aai Tartan, & if. 

lum : £(»- the money, appointed fra- payment of the fcddlers, 
being mifapjilied, the troops dwindled away by degrees, and 
laid the country open anew to the incurfions of the enem.y ^ 
IRifi if AitoMG the commanders who beaded diluent armies of 

Ochmin. Turks, and invaded the empire in different parts at the tame 
time, A^iman was one ;. who, from a finaU banning, in a 
Jew years bid the foundation <^ a mighty empire, which 
jxile out of the ruins of the Seljukian. With r^ard to this 
latter it may .be obferred, that the empire of the SeljAks ended 
properly wth Gayatho'iUtn Kay Khofrit-ur, the eleventh Soltdn, 
who, after hi» defeat and Joflcs, in Hejrah 64 1 , became their 
tributary. Thisisootedby^jM'j^da', whomaricsi/^rtti^ 55;! 
{.I.D. 1156), for thcfirflyearof ^/^y*;^!!, whichpves 
him a reign of qnly tlurtyrfeven years, mdead of forty, aa we 
have aiTigned him in our table of Soltans : that remark net 
. liaving occurred time enough to correfl the miftake (K). 

^ Pakh. l.ix. c.9, 10, 14, 15. ' Abu'lf. excerpt. ad 

fin. viuc Saladio. edit. Schgltent. p. f 7. 

(K) It may be proper fanber ' din Stham Sb£b : that tJm latter, 
to relate from Jbm^aia, that Kt- after taking Kmlyab ftigm UiUti 
Hi ArMn had ten Ions : that to Shih, went M M/.r»: diu thei|e 
KsttbbQddU MaUkShab be gave died bis ^tber; UidMaiti$b4fi 
Siiiidi i and Cajaria, to Sured- foon after. 

B O O K n. 

The Hijiory of the Moguls and Tartars from the 
'time of Jcnghlz Khdn. 

C H A P. 1, 

A Dcfcriptim of Weftern Tartary, oi divided 
at prefent among the three Branches ^Mangls, 
cr Moguls. 

Divffien f~^ RE AT Tatary, or Tartary, as has been already ob- 

»/Tatary.Vj" fened", is divided into eafl and weft. The eaftcm 

Tatary is polTdTed by feveral nations; who, being 

fubjeft to the Manchc-vjs, at prefent maAers of China, go by 

that general name. The weftern Tatary, which is cooi^derr 

ably more exteofive than the other, is in like manner occt^ 

pied by a great number of nations or tribes of people, who 

. are called Mungls, or Mungals, by themielves, and Mt^uls or 

■ Tatars indifferently by other natic»s.< 

* See before, p. 9, 


C. I. Shut Jcnghfr Khin. 177 

These ^BU^/j or Moguls, after various revolutions, thePrefer 
moft remartabie of which will be related io the following"'''''?" 
hiftory, became latterly, divided into three great bodies, under ^"^^' , 
differeni fovereigns. One retained the name of the Mtmgh i*"""" 
ilmply ; the lecond took that of KaJkat ; and the third af> 
famed the name of ^^irfitx, or Eluths : and among thefc three 
Afungt powers is all the weflern Tartary divided. So that, 
It prefcmt, weflem Tartary may be (aid to fall under a tri- 
partite dlvifion : however, it mull be obfcrved, that as the 
country of the two firfl of thefe three Mogul branches, as 
well as that part properly called eaAem Tartary, are fubjeft 
to CMna; therefore fome authors, pardcniarly the jefuits, 
who have given us of late the hiftory and dcfcription^of that 
empire, divide Great Tartary in general into nearly two equal 
parts, by aligning mount jiltay for the veftera limit of 
caftem Tartary. Perhaps it would be better to divide weftcm 
Tartary into two parts : that is, to make mount Allay the 
partition between them, and afcrfbe the eaftern part, com- 
prizing the countries of the Mongols and fCalkas, to the do- 
miinon of China, But in this cale every hlftorian may do as 
he thinks beft. 

S E C T. I. 

Coojftry ef tie Mungis froperly fi called. 

THE country of the Mungis, or Mtmgals, called by theCountrj af 
European geographers Mongalia (A), is bounded on thcMangla, 
caft by eaJEtem Tartary ; on the fonth, by the Chinefe wall ; 
on the weft and north-weft, by the Kobi, or great demrt, and 
country of the Kaikds, from which it is £vided by the Kar&t 
OT limitB fixed by the late emperor of China Kang-hi ; and on 
the nor^ by dte Kalkas, and part of eaftera Tartary, This 
is a very large repcm, of no Ids extent than the Tawdry juft 
mentioned. It is fituated between ttv: 124th and I4id de- 
grees of eaftcm longitude, and between the jSth and 47th 
d^rees of latitude : fo that it is in length, from the bwders 
of eaftern Tatary in the caft, to die parts over-ag:dnft Nhtg- 
hya, in China, to the weft, about 300 leagues-, and about 
aoo in breadth from north to fouth, although not every-vrticre 
fo broad, ag may appear by the maps \ 

• Du Halpb defcrtpt^ Chiaa U Tartoy, toI. ii. p. 249, 361. 
Engl. fol. edit. 

[A] Icflisult] rather be called ;u£r,orJtfM;i^{ andfb we Jind 
iianlifian, or MtagUpea ; that put of T^mrf named by the 
. i$. m the Mmgl,m Ttirkijb Ian- oriental lu&Dnani. 
Kuaze, the coontry of tbe Mo- 

T 3 THr. 

. „.. , L.OOQIC 

2^8 Hi^ory of the Moguk and Tartars, B. I!. 

I'r^r The part of Taiary within this diviilon, has been tbe 

MnogU fcene of the grcateft afllons performed both by the eaAcni 

tBBBtrf. and weftern TWtwj. Here the great empire of Jenghiz Khdn, 

*""V^^and his fucceflbrs, had its rife and feat: here the empires of 

famcuifor j(Hgy j^j Karakitay were founded ; and here the pre&nt 

"**■ empire of the caAem Tatars, or Manchews (now in pof- 

fmon of China) had. its bt^nning. Here, for fevo^ ages, 

bloody wars fubftfted, and many battles were fought, which 

decided the fate of thefe monarchies. Here all the riches of 

the foutKera Afia, at fereral times, were carried and difli- 

pated, LalUy, in thete defarts, for a time, arts and fcienoes 

were cultivated, and many populous cities fiourilhed : bqt, 

at prefent, they are all deAroyed ** ; nor do any figns of 

wealth r^&dn, which may ftrve to witncfs the once opulent 

condition of the country. 

Mttimtaim These territories (rf the Mungls pre full of mountains, ef-i 

tmdrivfri. pecially in the fouth parts adjoining to China ; . and are inter- 

fpcrfed with rivers. Among thefe may be reckoned tbe IVhang- 

ho; which, paHing out oi. China, furrounds the country of 

Ort&s, and then enters the empire again in the province of 

Shenjt : the ShantH, which enters Pe-che-li towards the lea ; 

and the Sira Muran, which, rifmg to the iiOTth of the Shant6, 

runs caA, and then, turning fouth, pafles through Lyau-tong- 

by the name of Lyau, There are feveral lakes in tiit« country, 

but none remarkable for thm magnitude, 

Divide* The countries of the Mungls are divided into (everal terrii 

imi» fiaU' tones, or diftrifts, according to the tribes which poflefs tbero. * 

ardt. • But fincc they have put themjelves under the proceAion of the 

« emperor of China, they have been divided into forty-nine di- 

ftri^ called Sbaffaks', that is banners, or fta^dards, under 

fo many princes or chiefs. The fituation of thefe territories 

may be ccMifidercd as they refpeA the four gates in the great 

wall of China; viz. Hi-fong-kev*, Ku'j>e-kev), Ciang-fya- 

kfvi (thefe three in the pronncc of Pe-che-lij, And Sba^hew: 

kevj, in Sian-Jt. 

F.'rjt PASSING; npTth from the gate Hi-fong-keiv (B) you foon 

tturfi. arrive, in the cqyatries qf Karchin, Tumet, Shan, Nayvtait^ 

and Korchin. 
Karchin. KARCHIN^ which begins at the feid gate (C), is divided 
into two diltriJts, called lUqdards ; the moll remarkable place 

" * Con^. Trav. 4to, vol. iv. p. 367. 

(B) Lat)tu<}c 4odeE..l9inin. of LnJ^m, and 114° eaft of 
lofeconds; longitude 1" z8' Parh. 

•o'' weft of Pr:^fflgi. which jb (C) Kardirr {i^nifiai tbe Haei 
ij+eaft of /Vrr?, iii"'^^' eaft sril*. 


C. t.' ^ince J^nghlz K^am 279 

here is Cbahan-Suberhan-Hotun (D). It js "by far ;he b^Frtper ■ 
hclonpng to the Mungh ; for, as thfijircfent priBcesof it arcMungls 
qrigk^y Chinefc, they tavc drawn diitiier feveral of their """"'J'- 
eountryioen, who have built towns, and improved the lands.*— "V""^ 
Here are' likewJIf mines, fosie af excellent tin ; mth largp 
forefts of fine timber : by which the great ancellor of the prefent 
family got immenfe Hches. £arc^in is 41 great /rmc^ leagues 
' Irom north to Ibuth, but much larger from eaft to wi^ : and 
here "are the emperor of Chma'a fioe houtes of yleafure, nexr 
which the late Kang^hi frequently huntcoL JUid ufually fpent 
Us fummer ; efpeaally at P'i«ii about iisrty leagues &om 

KORCHIN IV) u did4ed into ten ftandards, incjui^og Korchhu' 
the countries -of Twbtia and Cbaley, or Chaiayr (F): Tt^ 
principal xefidence of the Karchin Tatars is along thp river 
^ieyUr(G), and their pofleffions extend to the iSu-« Mu- 
ren (H) j but they have neither fprmgs for drink, nor wood 
for fuel, .which they fupply by weS^ and dung of cattle. 
The principal point of Turbed* i% Baytahfii Pira (I) : the 
CAaley Tatars dwell hy the Nsnm Ulg. (KV So that Ka-chin, 
from north to fouth, contains ^molV four degrees, extending 
fuc Leagufs to ^hc north .of Mayt<ihan.; but jt does not ex< 
«ed three degrees four minutes from ca(t to wefl. 

The iC«untry cA Nayman (L) .contains but one banner, t^NxyoMW'' 
flandord, and begins from the louch Tide of Sin Mvfn ; its 
pnncipal north point being Tojiin-tala ''.(M). 

' Du Halde, ibid. p. 249, Ic ten. * ^^- '^49> '^^ 

^D) Wff/*ff, in the MancUw (H) Lat._43° 37' long. 6" 

language, fignifiej chj ; and S«- 30' eaft, . 

hrrhaa, a frframid of feveral (I) Lat. +7° 1 5' long 6° 30^ 

flories, Lat. 41" 33' long, 2° eaft. P/rs figniliei a ftnall river, 

45* *o" eaft of Pi'iing. as Mtwm, or Mumn, a great 

(E) Thatij the«rf/n*f, ime, 

(FJ It is wricun airo 7'>^'7''> (K) Via is the Mambt^-t 

vahjelajr. wOTd fov greatirivGrs. Lat. 46* 

(O) Lat." +6° 17' long, 4" 30' lone. 7''45',eaft, 

32' ca& of Px-iing. Notethit (L) This <:ounci7 begins on 

the laiitudcs were obfcrved by tfae Sira Mann, in lat. 43° 37' ■ 

the jefuit mirfionaries, who, in byobfervation, long, 'j° eaft of 

1709, 10, and 1 1, by the 'jnce- P/-king. The ancient conn iry, 

ror of CbiMa's command. Air- of the Najmant waE from the - 

veyed and made a map cCOii- t'tvtr SeHnga w the ymifa, Ob/,- 

nife fatary: the longitude! are' apd /rW^, 

the refalt «f tiicir geometrical (M) Lat, 45° ij' long. 4" 

ojicrations. 45' e>fl of Pttirif. 

T.4 PN4V 






Hifiary of the Mc^ls and TarUrs, B. II. 
OMAN u chiefly inhabited &long the river Narkeni Pira, 
where fome nnllets, as the Shaka (N) ko! fall into it. On 
this lide the ktltade of 41 deuces 1 5 miilntcs, are feeo duj 
^miQ3 of » dty called Orpaa, or Kurian-Suberhan-Hotun (0), 
On the little ri«r NAchika,OT Nvchaka, which falls into the 
Talin Jft. lAytnan and Ohtn, though fir left, arc yet 

Siidi better than ItbrcMn, bring interfperfed with flircibbjr 
Us, which fUmifh wood for fuel, and abound trith game, 
efpecially quails. Thefe three countries, with Turhtda, are 
fei^, ana eytrcmely cold. 

tUMS,7 is- divided between two banneret princes, and 
Inhabited chiefly beyond the ri?er Suiarhan, where occur tha 
niin^ of flflxbm Hotun (P). This country extends foathward 
to the great wait of China ; e^ftward to die pali&de incloling 
Xyab-tongi^XJi\ and northward to ifa/Aa, or HaraPaychang. 
i. If you go from the ^tcKu-pt-kevi (R), you enter tipoa 
the tcrtitdries formerly part of Korchin and OnHot, but ikjw 
convened to a foreA. where the emperor hnot), and ba^ feve- 
ral fine fummerrhonfes. Farther north are the countries of 
Onhiot, Kechikt'en, Parin, Shant, Ucbt Muchin, AmMorc^, 
and Ahuhanar. 

■ ONH~IOT is divided into two ftandards oi two jMinces, 
on the river Ink'm (S). 

PJRIN, divided alTo into two ftandards, has its princi- 
pal habitation (T) on the Mara Muren, . whidi 6dli Into the 
Sira Muren- Tnis territory is Jarger than Oniiot, bat in 
other refprfli like it, the foil being but indiflfercnt. The 
princes of thefe countries ire allied to the imperial fiunily of 
CMna, and are regulo* of the firfl and &C0Dd carder '. 

KECHIKTEN, or Kefikten, is divided into two ftand- 
wds, and has its princi[>al habitation (U) on a iinail river, 
which runs oorth-^id into the Sira Muren. 

UCHU Mitchin, w Utfi_ Mufm (X), has two lkndard» 
along t^ HtJakar, or Hulgar Pira ; its prince is a prime re* 

* Dir HaldB, p. 149, U feq. 

(N) \M. +2' 15' long. 4" (R) Called by die SaJ^ans 
e«ft- Xapii, lat. 40" 42' I ;" long. 

(O) tat. 41' so' long. 3' weft of ?*-<."^, o" 39' 4". 


(P), tat 41" 28' long. 3" eaft. 

(6] Lat. 4a° 30' long, a* 

40' eaft. 

(Q^) Tamif, Olam, Nt^man, 
Mid lurhida, or fmrmt^, follow 
each other from wcA to eaft, 
with a fweep northwards, and 
lis to dM Boith of lyau-Uni. 

(T) Lat. 43* 36' long, z" 
14' ealtt 

jU) Lat. 43* long, i" 10' 

(X) Lat. 44I 4s' long. 1* 


C. u Slmi Jei^hlz Khah. 2S1 

SHAROT, dinded into cwo'ftuidards Ukewtft, is la-Pnptr 
habited chieflf towards the conflu«fiOe of the L^an Pira {Y} Mnngh 
mud Sira. Mtiren. teuntry. 

ARUKORCHIN has but one baim«-, whidi rtfideg on '- -v -J 
the river Arukondulm (Z). * 

ABUHANAK has two ftafldardt, And is bcA inhabited Aboha- 
about the Tad Nor (A), or lake of 7aah war- 

WiTBiM ihlfrfecnid divifion, going alAoft due north (Am Jinim cf 
Ku-^knti, one meeu \rith fonwi towns; and the rains of fc-""'". 
' Teral conitdcrable dtics, as Ban Hahm, Poro ffottm, Kurtu 
Palht^uH, and Chan Najman Smiu Hotun (B), all upon the! 
fiver SiKuigtu, tit Shttniu. The laft of thefc places feems ta Shtng-ta,- 
hftVe been the city of Shtmtu, called by the Chhufe Kay-ping- 
Jii, \rtK>le mins Gerhiikn faw in 1691 '. It was built bj 
KaUay KMn, the fifth Mmgl emperor (and grandfoa of 
Jengh* KiAi), lAo lemoved the imperial feat thither, in 
ocd0 to be neara lua nnr conquefts ; and femd as the fnm- 
OMT Son of fait faceaflbn Jn Cbna, who m winter refided at 
JCMn-halik, or Pt-king, It belongs to the country of Kar- 
eii»i bat tbc othir ouffiooers, who farveyed attd madCi the 
nap of Tatcry, take no notice of it, ray more than the reft 
of the aatieat cititt AtedoiKd by Marca Polo, and other early 
navafcrg, empring Ktraiu-am ; which yet they werfe uitinily 
atuiok aboatf as-wiU brfosa prefently. 

3. VfBKm-yoafa&oattitiKgUBChang-kya-kev>(<y][,jott7i'r^ 
nter on aomatry 'vUch was coDqnered by the emperor"*^* 
XoKg'M, and h Ut property. TheTe landt, and all the rdl. 
aism^ the Cime^ wall at ^ a* Hi-fmg-hnu, are ocoifMed bv 
iututn beloodag to his majefty, the princes, and fereral ' 
SWdflorcb. Hattai«MuR^/7«riirjal{bOT<fii{erefitcoDntries, 
nu^cd undn thtee ftandards, and commanded by officers ap- 
poinied by the empcrsr, therefore not reckoned among the 
mrty-^nc Mm^ banncrt. 

Fartbib to the north irf Cbang'/iya'ifvi are the countries 
of the Mungl priaces of JVhatHit, Sonkht, Sahahay, and 

* Dv Halbi, toI. il. p. 33;. 

(Y) LaL,43* jo/ U»g. 4* (B) Lat. 42' ij' by obferra* 

»o' eaft. tion, long, o' 1 1' weft of ?<- 

(Z) Lat. 45<* 30' long. 0° Hag. 
18' eaft. (C) Lat. 40° 51' 35" loag, 

(A) Lat. 4j" 30' long. 0° weftof Pfiw^ r ^x' ^8", 


zSz • Hifiaj tf tkt Mopib taJTMOn, B.n. 

Trtftr WHJCHIT » dindnl mo two fia«faids KOr tbeiiicr 

Mio^ O^far (D>. or O^is Pv«. 

tmttrj, SONHIOT has two fiandji d^ jad thefROt^ol biUa> 

AbaJby. y/^/^/Tv^r ■ (Undediotatwa&aadanb, whid) cqcaap 
iboBt fame lakci or Bnen> the (oaibemflA vhereof is aiied 
Siretu-hucbm fF) . 

Twia- TWINCHUZ coaiaim bat oge baaocr or Outdard oev 

^Oa. the Crfun >4Sn (G), or ouannia £r^«. 

/MrfA 4' ^>^oM tbc gate of f&c-lw-im (H) yoa enter oo the em- 

^y^j^ peiDr's lands. In this CDHOtiT Hmhm Hatrnx, or KbiUi H*- 
tun (I), is mofi raaarMhlc- Here inhabit the ducb of tan 
Tatar banners, called atlb Tumet, <riio vc appoiaKti bf the 

KhfikU emperor. ^wiM ^^rwt is d>c a;pia!L of all the oiaatif of 

HoCfB. the proper MmagU, trhere the cnpeior's ganraor, and die 
- knrulctu, or htgh-pricA of tbofi: peopfe> lefidc. 

Betoko the territory of J/itii ffatn.lie.thecsaotiiaof 
the Mungl princes of Ka&a-Targar, MatnuagoMf Urat, ad 

Kalka. KALKA-TARGAR^) itvatered bjr tlw litde wr 

Targar. Ay^aha MAren, and contaia* but oae bannff. 

MAUMINGAN{L.) has bnt one baoKT. . ■ 

Urat. VRAT (or fTro/) is divided iofp three Ifamdards, aidil- 

nofllf inhabited along the river (MpfomUat ■, « ^<«flUai, 

Ont*. . THE^wig/r<ailed£'r4»,-of^r^M(N},areboaBdedMiilie 
ibuth by the great vaU; which, ip d^t part; and indeed- 
througlioHt SheB-Ji, is <Hdy of eanb, 4Bd ftftien foot IqglL 
On the three other fides they are hemmed in by the Whng4at 
or yellcnr river: which palling oat of China, near the fine 
city of JVingbjut, makes a grea; fweep, aod eaters the onpK 
again near Pau-u-chevt. Thcfe Mwigli are govenwd In fe- 
veral petty princes under fix ftandards, and ptide thetnfclKS 
in the number and largenels of their tfots* as wdt a« vaJtw 

> J>v HALnf, Tax ii, p. 164. 

■Dl Lat. 44*'6'long. o°4s' (I) Lat. 40* +9' long. 4.* 

ean. . 48'. 

(K) Lat. 42' 29' 7" by ob' (K] Lat. 4t'' 44' long. 5* 

fervatlon, long. 1^ z9' weft of sf'. 

filling. (L) Lat 41" tj' lM(g. 6* 

(F) L»t. 44" long. !• 31' 4'. 

weft. (M) Lat. 49" 55' byoMer* 

iG) Lat. 41" 41' long. 4' vaiion. long. C^ 30'. 

30' weft. (N) The dtief point of thfia 

, 1 H) In Sf'an-j;, lat. 40° z?' f oantry is in lat. 39' 30' loafc. 

lang. weft »f pg-kiffg 4' li'. f J9/. 


Ce. fiw/ Jenghl? KMb. 283 

tode of dicir flocks. Thejr had beyond the great wall, enEaUu 
ttt Whang-be, a city called Toto, which feems by the ruins toMungI* 
hive been pretty large J though at prefcnt they have no fldli"'""''?' 
ia'boildiiig, nor take any delight that way '". * ^v^M 

Althpugh the fereral truyes or brftn£h«s of the Mungls Umitt 
kad i nmng life, yet they h^ve thdr rcTpe^ve limits BKedfiiiltd. 
bjrailoin. beyond which they muft not pafs tp ftttle ; for this 
is ftckoped aa 3^ (>f holtility among them. 

C H A P. II. 

ZSf country of the Kalka Mungls. 

OF all the Mmgl nations dtpcnding on China, the tsa^Cetnitty tf 
DQmeiotia and famous -arc the Kalkas, who take thdr'^ ^- 
nam? frtxn . the river Kalka, written al(b Khaikha, and '"^ 
Ba&t. Tlieypoflcfsaboyeaooleaguesofthecountryfromeaft 
to veft, and th? banks si the iinefl rivers in this part of Taiary, 
Tlt^dtRU beypnd tix Mungls northward, and have the jiluths, 
or Ektix^ OB thp'weUf Tl)f!ira)antry,tiCcordlagioGeriil/onthc 
jdiiit, extends from mpnat j^lfay ' in the weft, to the province 
of J«l»i la the eafl ^ and from the 51(1 degree of latitude (A) to 
tfae bathem extremity of the great JCoH, or delart, which i> 
i^ckoDcd to belong Uiem : for they encamp there during 
tliewinter, when they fland lefs in need of water -, which is 
mdf to be met with in thdr tctritories, and generally bad. 

The defart above-mentioned, called Koii, or Gohi, by theO/^ 
Mungli, and Sf>a-mo, by the Chinefe, bends about China ; and KoU, «r 
iihrger and more frightful towards the weft (B). Cerbill<mi*fa>t. 
pifled it in four dliFereot parts. From its caftem extremity 
to die mountains qorth of the great wall, it is about one 
bmdred leagues, not including the country beyond the Kerlon ; 
vbkfa, though thinly inhabited, cfpeciaHy the weftem part, 
abounds with water and pafturage. The Kobi is much larger 
&om north to fouth, and above 100 In^gnes over, jtu fome 
parts it is quite bare, without trees, grafs, or water, except- 
ing certain ponds and marihes made by the rains, with here 
utd chete % well of water, far firqm bdng good. 

* X>v Haldb, p. 253, 365. * See before, p. 10, te (cq. 

(A) It is laid. p. 26; of Du (6) This is the great defart 
BaltU'i Miftory mChina, vol. 2. of which Marco Peh hat given 
dMttbey extend from ealttowell us fucb frightful ideas ; and of 
zz d^eei, and but ; deg. and which .till lately, our geographers 
lulf Com north to Iboth. )iad hut very Imper^A abtioni. 


Wji^ tf the Moguls ««/ f aitara, B. IL 

tft-E Kalkas are rfie defctfildiirts of the MuMgh ; who, 

aboiit the year 1368, were expelled CtewtyZ/an^i'i!, founder 

of the Ming family (which the Mancknet (ucceeded) ; and, re- 

■^ treating northward beyond the great* AdAn, lettled chiefly 

aloi>g the livers Selinga. Orkhon, "Pula, and Kerlon : where, 

after bdng long accuuomed to the deliocies of China, they 

rttumcd to the roving and fordid life of thdr ancelhirs ^ 

7foKalka The Ka!ka Pin is not much frequeatnl by the KaHaSf " 

Pi". although they take their name from thence. It flows (C) frcxn 

a famous mouatain callad Suelki, or Stufii, 84 leagues frtnn 

•Parin to the north-north-eaft, and 64 from Tfit/ik(ir, the 

capital of- eaftern ToMr)', to the weft; After palling throngh ' 

a lake called Pu'ir, it changes its name to Ifrfpn, and ri;a» 

due north into a larger called Kiibn Nor. ^ 

7*/ Ker- The Kerhn, . Tma, Twi, and Seiinga, though left favour 

1m. ■ for their origin aidong thefc people, are yet of more account 

for th«r clear and wholcfome waters, funding with trout, 

arid other good fiA ; as well as for tlic "fruitful, large, and- 

fKjpnlous plains they gHde throu^. The Kerlm, or Kerur^- 

ISii, running frata wdt to eaftj ^Bs alfo into die(D) lalte 

Kukn Nor -, which difcharges ttfetf inm AtSaghaiian UUc by 

the river Ergona, or Argitn, the boundary of^the Manehew 

empire on that fide. The Kerbn, which is about fixty feet 

broad, and n6t deep, wafhes the richeft paAures in aS Ta- ' 


Shi Tola. The river Ttda, or 7o!a (E), rans from eaft to wrft, and 

in moA places is larger, deeper, and more rapid, than tlic 

- Kerhn ; has finer meadows, and more woods : the moontsuns 

alfo on the north fide arc covered with large fir. This river, 

having joined itfelf to the Organ, Orkhon, or Urkan, which 

conies from the'fonth-wcft, rnns towards the nordi; and; 

after being increafcd with fevcral others, as the SeUngha Pira, 

at fength falls into the greateft lake in all Tatnry, called Bay- 

khl, or Paykal, in diat part of SSitria belonging to tbtf 


*> Dv Haldb China, vol. ii. p. 259', 

(C) The Aioft Couth part is (E) The Trfa, or ?■»&, ailed 
in lat. 47' 18' 48" obfervcd, foimetly Kel/tmnatr. As foon 
i^S' 3° ' ^^ '°°^ north part ai the karawaoi - from Siberia 
in lat. 48° 5' long. 1"* 48' eaft pafs this river, they enter tlw 
of Pe-iing. tErritorict depending on China. 

(D) Month of tiie Kfrlon, Btnlixi, efud JiU'/giaid Kbam 
lat. obferved 48" 50' 24," long. hiJI. Turii, tiC. p. J15, & feq. 
o* 45' eaft o( Pc-king. Head of . Thefourceof thii river is about 
it in about lat. 48° long. 7" lat. 48* 10' long. '8° 30' weft. 
jo' weft. 


C. ■.' -A*«tf Jd^^ KhioT "its 

The TwiPirii, ■vAofe'raterirdfimblcthc^of.tbeXfriaf.Kalka 
makes its way through fertile plains, wid,,alter.B pretty loBgMungls, 
courii^ lofes itfclfia' the ground neara'tille late, without'*^^^ 
appearing any more '. ' ' <■ .^ y"y* 

The river Stliaglkfhas {ereral Ibnices; the ch^ offi/Se- 
which, called WerJbSt^gha, iflbcs from alak^, named byliBg*. 
the MungU Ko/ogal{F). Its courie is nca^y in a line freai ' ' 

ibuth to north through very fertile plains ; and, after rcceiv- 
log many other rivers, &11$ into the lake SayiaL Its waters .r 

are good, but do not afiord plenty of.£ih: both its baokf, ' j 

-fiom Its ^ags till within one day of SeSngbinJioj/ (a city of 
.the J?u^uu built on its fouth (ide), are in the hands of th^ 
JHuagu i but the na^bouring country, from that city to the 
lake, belongs to the Xujiam. 

The Orli/ion above-meptloned, fccrmerly called J^ij^ 7"^ Ork- 
nuu (G) Dwth-north-wcA into the SeSagia; and on i^hoa. 
i>ank$ the KbSn of the KaJia MungU, and thai khutukt^, 
(or bigh-prieft) ufoally make their abode. 

The river Mtcy, atprefent called Sibd, baa its Qiring to- Altay, «- . 
wards the frontiers of the Kalmyks, or Ehtths, in tha mout>-$iba. 
taxoa called Ufitm-dug-tugra, to the fouth <;^ the ilpilngs of 
the river Jemfia ; and, running from tboncc eaA-norch-ea^ , 

lofes itlelf to the north of tlw ICobi, or'delart, and Ibuihr 
ioath-eaH of the fpcings of the Orkbon. A pet^ IQiaa cf 
ibe Muifgit uftiaily refides about the Siba. 

The T^, or fofiMArtn, has its fourth ui the numntainsjan Mh' . 
which crols the /irciii;Aod,ciiniui^lbuth-&)Uth-e«ft, .tills uit»rea. 
the Whtuig'ho, on the frootivg of Tibet. Two petty £haiu 
dwell ,(Hi its bAoke. 

' Thc river t4rgun (or Ergona) rifes in .the country of the^'^ Ar- 
MtmgU (H), from a lake called ^rgua Dalay, or Kuhn Aor.gun- 
Its courfc k nearly eaU-north'eaft ; and, havli^ run about 
J oo leagues, £alls into the great river y^nur t^, s^ihsBoJlam 
pall the Sagiaiian Ula. 

' The. princes of the Kalka Mungh ufually inhabit the - 
l^aoks (£ the rivers already dcfcribed, -xulth thofe of Hv*, 

* Cu Halde, vol. ii. p. 3JO, & fc<^. . ' Bektihk ap, 

Abnlghazi Khan. tuft. Tnik. Sec. p. ;■$, & fc^. 

(F) Or KnfiM, called alfo is in Ut. about 49° 40' lon^; 
Kutuitn-nor. Kal, m Ool, and ij" to'. 

Jl/pr, fignify ahke, in theJUiirij^/ (G) Soarce about lat. 47* 
or 7«r-ti7J languages, which are long. 15° well. , 

in cffefl riie ^me. Its foaice (H) About lat. 49° long. 1^ 
30! eaft. 


^ifi'6 Hifiory ef the Mt^Is iH^Itattmi ;B. 11. 

Kalka at Sara Pira, Iben PiraiX), v^ch falls into tKe Orkhm, 
Mungh Kartugir, Ira Pira, Patarik Pira, aod the TegiiM Pira (K), 
^tniMtrj. towards ^rhe fource of the Jrlijb, and dty of If ami; or Jtt«- 
•"■"v"*^)!!!/, in LittU Bukharia '. ' . ■ 

Xbio/ y There were formerly federal cities in this part of Tatary 
tiiiti. poOefled by the Kalkas. The mtflioners' who (urveyed Cinnefe 
Tatary, by order of the emperor Kang-hi, met wlrfi the 
mins of a large fqaare city, two leagues in circuit, named 
P«« Ho- Para Hotun (L), that is the Tiger's City, from the cry of 
too. that animal, which was thought a good omen. Not^ from 

thence b a place called Kara UJfon, with a fmall laKe and fine 
fpring,-in a fertile plain abounding with deer, mules, isc. all 
■wild. There may be other monuments in thefc quarters of 
the early times of the Mungh under. Jenghiz Khdn, and his 
four immediate fucceflbrs ; but there do not appear to be any 
footfteps of Karakoram, the capital of, the whole empire 
.■dtiring that time ; at leaft thofe milEoners were wholly at a 
lols about it, fuppofuig it to be Kara Ujfon above-mentioned, 
although the fituation no ways agrees with that which authors 
have given of Karakoram. 
Kirako- However, Cauhil, ajcfuit who fettled at Pe-king fom©* 
nm ciiy, time after his brethren retnm from Tatary, by confuhing the 
Chinefe hiflorians and aftrooomers, found out the iitnation of 
riiat city, which they call Ho-Un (M), It was in bang before 
the time of Jengl^z Khin, hanog been the refldence of the 
Kh^ of the Kara-its, the &mo3s Van -Khait, or Ung Khan i 
but vdien Jenghiz Khin took it from that prince it was a 
very inconfiderable place. The conqueror much improved it, 
and his fun Oktay Khan rebuilt and made it a &mous city ' : 
with this account the Chinefe hiftory agrees'. So that whea 
Abti'lfaraj, who fays it is fame with OrdubilUr, aflirms that 
it was built by Oitay \ it is to be underflood of the improve- 
ments of that prince, who made of it a new dty, and built a 
BUgoificent palace there, in the yeari 225'. Yu. Ruhruquist 

• * Do Haldb dbi fapr. rol. ii. p. 'a6;. ^ De la Croiz 
hilt. Gengh. Can. p. 37, 361. > Ap. SoTciETTobferr. 
natficraat. &c. p. i86. ' Hifi. dynaft. p. 310, jzo. 

* SouciBT ibid. p. 19a. AbQ'lghazi KMn hlit. Turk. &c. 
p. JS4.5'3- 

(I) Refidentt of the khft- (L) Lat. 48° 4' 48" long, a* 

Mttctft 'of the Kaiiai on ibis 49' 30". 

river; lai. obrerved49°i6'47" (M) Latitude obferved by the 

lone. 10° 59'. ^tUars 44" 1 1' long, 10° 1 1' by 

(K) Lut. obrerved 4z° 53' computation. S»utUt. obfenr. 

long. 21° 13' 10". inathem. (^t. p. 185. 

S ■ > the 

C. 3; Shut Jenghte KWi* 'tSy 

the miooilte friar, who vas at Karakaram in 1253; fays itKalka 
had then only a mud wall ; sad thai the place itfeU', aad thcMongli 
■Khan's palace, compared with the fwro^an, were but poor""^'?' 
buildings ; however, he allows it to have been very populous, ^ •~^~^ 
&nd to cohrain a great many palaces, temples, ifc^. 

KHRJKORAM flood to the north of the great^ 
or fandy defart, and near lh« hk« Kurahan Ulen (N), marked ridatd. 
by the jefliits in dwir map of- Talary, although th^looked 
for It A Para tiotun, 420 miles dlAaai to the noith-eafl. It 
was the imperial feat of the Khins, till Kublay removed it to 
Sbang-tu already mentioned ; wluch continued to be the place 
ot their fummer refidenoe as long as the Mungh were in pof- 
leFion of China : but after their expuliioB, about the year 
1 368, it is probable Karakoram became again the feat of the 
Khans; although, according to Df ia Croix, tJjey relidod 
ever fince the time of Oktay {Jenghiz Khan's'maaeAim fuo- 
ceffor) at Vlug Tvrt (O), a city not far diftapt ', if it be not 
the fame place. Here jlchi Ttmir, the thirteenth from /Cui>- 
lay, afcvnded the throne in 1405 ; and wc find it fubfiAing 
in the time of jftiay, the fifteenth fuccellbr : but after that 
we are told no more is heard of Vlug Turt In the oriental 
RUthoTs '". Yet neither the time dot occafion of the dcflruc- 
don of that city, or of Karakcram, is mentioned by any'hifto^ 
rlan yet known to ui. 

TAT/iRT, according to Regit the jefnit, abonndc •wi\.\\ Store »f 
all (brts of game, evtrn o& the kinds common in Europe; aa£tme. 
hares, phealants, . deer, and the likes the yellow goats arc 
leldom fcen in the plains, except in large herds. They are cf 
the Ihape and fize of common goats, only thdr hair is yellow, 
and not fo fmooth : they are likcwife extremely fleet, which 
makes It diificuh to catch them. The wild mules go in fmall *''/■' 
herds, but arerut like the tame ones, nor can be braught to""*"- 
^carry burthens. Their flefh is of an agreeable tade ; and^ in the 
opinion of the Tatars, as nourilhing and wholdbme a« the 
wild boar's (P). This laA animal frequents the woods and^i/^^7«r: 


* PuRCK. pilgrim, vol. iii. p. J9. ' • HIA. Gcnghif Can, 
p. 386. " Ibid. p. 401. ■ 

the Koii from noith-M'cft l« 

;, flood fouth-eail. 
raihe'rintheraidftof the-Alii., (O) Ulug Turt figai£ei the 

on the river Owabia (which runs great city. 
fooiheaSimotfaelkidlakel.and (P) GerhUlm, in hia fecond 

about JO miles oorih-eaft of a journey into -rn/fln.fsw a young * 

chain of muuntaini which craf> Mild mule, of a kind uhicb pia- 

L I,.,. t.L.OO'^iC 

2S8 Hijiery of tbt Moguls and TaTtars, E D; 

Kalka plains beycmd the river Tula, and U traced by thceardi it 

Mungis tunw up to come at the roots on which it feeds. 

country. Thk wld h«^e, and dromedary, which is a native of tbit 

■Jr||^'~'™^eigioii, are like the tame, Thcfe are fonnd chiefly in the 

/^V^ wcftern paf ts of great Tatary, although IbcKtimea they are 

^■^_ met with in the territories of the Kalkiu, bordering oo Kha- 

mil mUttU BukharU. The wild horfes go in large droves i 

and wbcD they meet with tame ones, furroand and force then 

away: they are fb very fleet, that the fwifteft hunters can liel- 

dom reach them with their arrows. 

ThtHautf The Hautehan is an animal wluch re{emblet an elk : the 

ion. miffimers &w fomc, which, wboi lulled, were b^ger thaa 

the lugeA ox. They are found only in particular diftrifls 

about mount Sutlki, in boggy grounds, who-e they deljgtit 

lo report; and are very ealily kJlJ«dr their great wei^c pto- 

Mntlng their flight. 

Th* thtlh The cholcui, or chdi&m, is about the lize of a wolf, and 

fiu. -leemed to Regis a fort of lynx. It has long, foft, and thick 

' hair, of a greyifh cdour ; and their furs are valued at the 

txmrta both of Cbitia and Ritffia, which laft i^HMtuds with 

' them. 

T'^T'.YXr itiafeftedwitb%nandle0pard3. Thetigen 
Ibund caftwards are furpriiiogly laige and nimble. Tbdr 
flcins are commonly of a fallow red, frriped mth black liAs { 
fbme are wUte, 'srith black and grq* lilu. The fluns of the 
leopards are whitifli, fpotted with t«d and black. Although 
they have the head and eyes of tigers, they are not fo krge, 
and have a digjbrent cry. 
j)tef The deer, which louldply exceedingly in the de£uts and 

bmtiwg. foreAj, di£er is colour, bignefs, and fluipe of their horns, 
according to the difierent quarters of this vaft region ; and 
fome are like the deer of Europe. One way of hnntitig them, 
termed the fbg-call, is thus; the huntlmen, catrying {tau 
flags-heads, counterfeit the cry of the iuod, which bru^ the 
largell Aags towards the [dace from, whonce they hear the 
cry : they then Aop, and look about ; till, perceiving the flags 
heads, they tear up the ground vith then- hcxns, and im* 
fnediately run forward, but are Ihot by ((mt who lie in am- 
buAi. The emperor Kang-Jii to(^ great delight m this di-{ 
Hor/is. verfion. The intrepidity of Tatarian horfes in encountering 
tigers is furprlzing j and yet it is owii^ wholly to ufe ; for 

E agates. This was a female, hoofi and Feet uncloTCc, like 
ad Urge ears, a long hea*l, ihofe of other males. Collefi. 
Acniier body, and long leg*; voyag. i: traV. <]uRn. vol. ir. 
ic! hair wai alh-colonr, and its p. 6S6. 


C. »." . StH^e JenghlE Khan."" ■■■•> sSg 

the/ are ^s fearful of them at firft as other horfcs-v TIjfi K>lk« 
Mungh are very expert in taming and breaking, as well as Mungl^ 
catching them ruiin'iag, with the flip-knot of a corJ. They "'^"7- 
underftand their diffempei-s, but ufe fach rcmedios as would '-'"■"'-' 
no more agree with -the hories of Europe, than their foods; 
They arc of a ' middle fize, yet fome,are large 'as well'as 
fmall; but ,the.7^/flrj wifely prefer flrength and hardinefs tq 
other largcnefs or beauty. 

The Ki7Aa/ 'are not rich in fable fluns, but have plenty ofTi* /«Z. 
f^uirrels, foxes, and a creature as fmall as an, ermine, callei^- 

- tacl-pc ; of whofe Jkins at Pe-king they make mantles to keep 
out cold. Thefe anjinals are a iOnd.C!f land rata, and dig in 
the earth a range of as many littlt holts as there are males in 
the cooipany j one of whom ^ways keeps watch aljove, bat 
JUes undcF^gTOUitdatanytiody's approach. When the hunters 
difcover their neft, they farround it ; and, opening the earth 
in two or three places, throw in fiamlng ftraw to frighten 
them out :' thus they take great numbers, u4uch makes their- 
fldn cheap. 

Tbb riwrs In the counh7 of the Mungh do not 2^arA.7hef^: 
any great vari^y or plenty- of fifti, like thofc of eaftem 7a- 
tary. The ftui^eonj wMth they fotnctimes find in the Tulot 
comes from'the lake Bsykel', ii.aA the Urfon, falling into the 
SaghaHan Ub, or Amur, rcttfivos from thence the fiih which. 
13 found in the eaAern rivers. In the feme river you meet- 
with an flmphibioDS animal calted Tarieg'^o, refembEng an 
otter ; bat the Befli is tender, ^lod almoft as d<£dous as that 
of the nDc-bnck ". 

As to uncommcm bbds, there ar«:bred vaft quantities oiSbgnkari 
an extraordinary beanty in the ptains of grand Tatary. Thattir-^* 
mentioned h^ Ab&'lghazi Khin" fecms to be a kind of hcroo,' 
which is fbtmd in the country of the Mungh towards the 
Aonners of China, 4t is all over white, except the beak,' 
wngs, and tail (Q^ ) ; which are of a very fine red. The flefh- 
is very deBcioas, and taftes fomewhatlike that of the wood- 
hen. However, as the bird which that author fpeaks of is' 
very rare, Bentint thinks it may be the ftnrk, which is very 
fcarce all over Rii^a, Siberia, and great Tatary : yet fome arc . 

, found in the Mungh country near China, which are for the 

" Du Haldi's Chira, &c. vol. ii. p. 2;;. * Hift. 

Turks, Itt. p. J7, & 86. P Ibid. p. 500, it fcq. 

{Q_^) jihulghim KhSn fays, and p. 86, that the head, feet, 
in his hiftory, p. j;, that the bill, and eyes are red. 
fett, eyes, and bill are red ; 

MoD.HisT.VoL.IV. U general 

L i,.< t.L.OO'^iC 

ijjti Hiftory of the Moguls dttd Tartars, ^ B. If* 

Eiath general all over ■white''. As Abu' Ighazi Khan hys, this bird is 
Mungis called {huDgar in the Turii/h language (and kratzfliet by the 
^ ■eswttry. RuJJiani), it is doubtlefe the fame with the (hookar, which was 
*-'^<t'—^ prefeoted to Jenghiz Kban by the ambafladors of Kipcfiai, 
Oq this occalioD we are told, that the ibonkar is a bird of 
prey, prclcnted to kings, adoroed with precious flones, as « 
inark of homage { and that the' Ruffiaru, as weU as KrM Ta- 
tars, are obliged, by thdr laft treaties with the OthmAn Turhf 
to fend one every year to Confiantinopie, adorned with z cer*, 
tiin number of dlsimoads *). ' 


The Countries beknging te the Elmh^ ar Eltith 
Mungls. .- ' 

TH E countries belong^i^ to the Alutht, ot£lvthx, nkk'- 
named Kalmyks, arc to be confidered, as tl(»t nation 
is at prdenc divided into three bniticfaes,:v/z. the 
P/ongari or Jangari, the Kejboti, and the Torptiiti. . 

Elnthjon- , I. The Elutfu jongari, who are the moft' cortfiderablc 

g^T'' brtoch of the three, pqfleTs tbe Jarger hsif otwhatfunj^e-. 

f^ry^ ahs cail the wcflcm Tatary : ewen^ing fron tfic Ca/j^an fci 
and river Ja'ik, in 72 degrees of longitude, fpbm Fern, toi 
mount Altay, io, 1 10 degrees^ and fuorn the'4t> the 52d- 
(l^ree <rf la:tiJ»de. Wh^eit m;(y be:cotnpBted abont 1930- 
miles in length, from weft to eaft ; and ia Ict^th,. at jnoft^ 
from rdoth to fiorth, 650 miles. It ia bcHindAdDOitke north 
■ . by J!uJ^a and Siteria, from whidi kit f^arabeiib^a diaiifc 
of moiinnihs; on the eaft by mDant>^/M^'; 00 the fouth by; 
the countriea of Karazm and the two Bukkariaj (A) ; from 
vhich alfo it is fcparated partly by another chain-of moun- 
tains, and fbme rivers, pardcularly the Sir ; and on the *-eft- 
by the river Jaik and the Cc^pian fca ; or rather by Turkefthi,- 
which lies between. 

Maw There ire, in the conntiy of the Ehitbs or Kabniis,- 

tains. three confiderable chains of mountains, viz. the Tuira Tu~. 

Tubra- bujluk, the Uflutibik Tugra, and the Altay. Thefirft, which. 

(ubulluk, makes -its northern frontier, and is called alfo UlugtAg, or the 
grtat mnuntain, begins at the eaftern batik of the Irtijb, to 

V Hill. Torki, p. 50°! & M- ' ^' ^* Croii hill. Timor 
. Bee, vol. i. p- 3S°' 

(A) Littit Bukbaria, though yet under the dominion of the 
qiit of the boundi of jatarj, a Kt>an of the Eluthi. 

' ■, the. 

G. 3.* Since JenghJz Khin.' 

the north of the lake Say/an, through which that river pafles, 
■aod runs due eaft, u fer as the Selinga, which it coafts north- 
ward, to the \i\i& Baykal 1 then turning eaft, it proceeds to 
the Jmur, or Saghalian Ula, about Nerchinfioy j and follows "■ 
the'courfe of that river, on thp north fide, to the eailera 

The fccond branch, called VJhinluk Tugra, bears alfo theUlkonlnk 
vzmt vi Kichik'tig, or the little mountain ^ it commences id Tugra, 
the confines of Turkejlin and Great Bukhiria, to the fouth of 
the river Sir ; and running nearly eaft, makes the bounds be- 
tween Great Bui/fdria and the country of the Ekilhs. It con- 
tinues its courfe on the fame line, till, arriving to the fquih <X 
the fprings of the Jenifea, it ftrikes off to the fouth-eaft ; and 
fells in with the frontiers of China, as far as the province of 
Lyau-tong, There making an elbow to. the tiorth-caft, it fe- 
p'arates that province, and Korea, from the country of the 
MungU ; and ends at lad 00 the fbore of the Tea of Japan, 
about the 42d degree of latitude. 

The mouDtaIn Altay (by fome called Kahay, and in ^WV- Menmt 
gbazi RhSri'% hiftory Kut) is a branch of the UJhuniuk Tugra, Mayi 
taking its rife to the weft of the fpring of the Jenifea. It 
run5^ a ftrait line. from fouth to north; conftaotljr 
marching along the weftem bank of that great river, at a 
diftance of one or two days journey, till it j<Hat the 7ugra 
TiA^bik, in abcjut 50 degrees of latitude. 

For all this region of the Eluthi is bounded by mountains, Rivtri. 
yet it is watered by very few rivers which defcend from themi. 
The moft confiderable known to us are the TekSs, and Hi (B), ^*' Tokii 
the Chid, aod Talai, According to the Jefuits map, the Te- «"^Ili. 
Mi rifes in the mountain bounding Little Bukhdria on the 
north (C) ; and having run about 70 miles nortb-eafi, &]Is, 
by fereral months, into the Hi, which has its fource in the 
£i'me hnis, and runs north-weft about 150 miles : then, ftiap- 
inig its courfe north 1 50 miles farther, falls into the lake PaU 
iati (D), in about 48 degrees of latitude. On this river the 
Kh^ of the Eluths has his chief refidcoce or camp, which is 
called ffarkas, or, as others fpcll it, l/rga. 

The Chui and Talas, according 10 the fame map, defcend ^u' "^ 
from the above-mentioned mountain ; and running north-weft Tala*. 

(B) Benthi nukes them the (C) Wticli feems to be the 
^iul aod lallafl,, mentioned Ufiunlui Tugra. 
iajlbulebaxi kbanWii&..oittit (D) In Strahlcabtrg'i map 
^uris, &c. p. 33. But the mif- named Chi. 
fionera msp makes the Tal/afi 
defcend from the other two. 

V 2 about 

atf2 tiijl6r} of the Moguls and Tartars, S. H^ 

Eliich about i8o leagues each, fall into dUFerent lakes, the Chui in- 
MungU to Kalkol, and the Talai into Sikirlii Mr'. 
cauntry. BESIDES the rivcTS already defcribed, wc meet with none 

^""V"*^of any great note, except thelrtijb; nor does ingre than a 
part of it run through this country. 

?>« IrtiDi. This river, which is the morf confidcratrte in the north 
of //fin, hath its rife (E) from two lakes, thirty miles afuQ- 
der -, ill about 45 degrees 1 5 minutes of latitudtf, and 1 1 3 of 
longitude, on the weil ftde of mount ^Itay, and to the north 
of the province of Khamil, or Hami, in UttU liuhhAria., in- 
clining to the eaft. The rivers formed by them ruft weft- 
tt'ard. The northern ftream is called Khar Irtijh \ the Ibuthera 
Klior Irtijb : and, about 30 miles dillance from their fources 
uniting, form' the river called IrtUb, Irlis, or Erchis, as the 
Eluths pronounce it. This riv<i^ having run weft about 50 
leagues, makes the lakeS'iy^n {+), that \i, of the nobility, 40 
iniles long, and 20 broad. Paffing out of the lake it turn» 
llorth\»ard, as far as Uflanun, the firft Ruffian fort and fct- 
tlement on this river, in the borders of the Eluths country oft 
. . that fide. The reft of the /rtijh belongs to Siberia ; where,.. 
after paftiog by the capital toboljhy, it joins the Obi,i little, 
above Samara. 

tht Obi. StRAHLENSERG places the fources of the Obi, or 
Obi (Fj, alfo in the country of the Eluths. It is formed like 
the Irtijb, by the confluence of two rivers, the Khatiin and 
Ba, from which laft it derives its name. The Ba, or Si, takes 
its beginning in a lake, to which that author gives the pame» 
^Itun Nor, Jitun Kurke, ^Itin, and Telejioy ; perhaps the 
fame called in the Jcfuits map Kirkir. But both maps fecm . 
to have been made, in this part, from vtry uncertain reports. 

Sail and The vaft region ofTaiary, bdng filuaied under the fineft 

fradttct. climate in the world, is every-where of an extraordinary 
goodnefs and. fertility. But though almoft all the great ri- 
verg oi Afia have their fprings in the mountains of this coun- 
try, yet the land being perhaps the higheft any-where oa 
earth, it is, in feveral parts, deftitute of water ; fo that it is 
inhabitable only near the rivers and lakes. Vcrbieji, the Je- 
fuit, in the country of the Mungh, about 80 leagues to the 
north of the great wall, towards the fpring of the river Kar' 
ga, found the ground to be 3000 geometrical paces, or three 
miles, higher than the fea-coaft nearcft Peking. lience it is 

■ Hift. Turk», &c. p. jii, 524, 526. 

(E) In about lat. 46° 4' long. (F) Source in about lat. 49° 
31° 30' weft oiPi-king. 30' lojg. 18° 30' well. 

(+) MioKorxana, by the Ruf- 

C. ^7 5^e Jenghiz JChan.' ' 293 

that Geeat Tatdry appears fo mnch colder than other coun- Elflth 
tries in the fame latitude. Our author was even aJTuicd, by MungU 
perfons of credit, who had travelled there, that in Mid/iimmer «"""7- 
lUe nortlv-eafl wind is fo piercing, that one muft cover him- " ■ ' '; -'' 
felf well in the night j and often in ^uguft one night produces 
ice the thicknefs of a crown-piece, and fometlmes of two. 
Nay, dig where you will, in fumirier, in the country, of the 
Afungls, four -or five feet deep, and you find clods of earth 
quite congealed, and even intirc heaps of ice ; which Ver- 
Siejl afcribes to the falt-pctrc with which the foil is hnpreg> 

t The fame extraordinary elevation of the earth is alfo thcGrrat/er- 
reafon why there are fo many defarts in Grand Tatary : hat''li'y- 
thefe defarts are not altogether fo frightful as Europeans fan- 
cy them. For fetting afide the vaft KaM, or Gobi, before- 
mentioned, and a feW other (inall fandy defarts, all the reft 
aiTord excellent pafture ; producing grais in abundance, as 
high at one's middle, which would grow to the'height of , 
a man, if it was not for want of water : but, through that 
defe^, moft of it decays prefently at the root ; and as withered 
grafs quite choaks up the young, the inhabitants, in fpring, 
fet tire to the old herbage, which fometimes fprcads above 
too leagues round. In lefs than fifteen days after, the new 
grafs Ihoot* up every-where to the height of a fpan ; which 
proves the great fertility of the foil : and fo much of this 
vaft country, as is fupplied with water, is fufikient for the 
(upport of, four times the number of its pretcnt inhabitants, 
if it wag but well cultivated. But then none, befides the 
Mohammsdari Tatars, till thek lands (G) ; while the Ekiths, 
and moft part of the Mungls, have not the ufe of agricul* 
ture, fubfifting intircly upon their cattle (H) : this is the rea-- 
fon why they can have no fixed habitations, being obliged 
to change their quarters, according .as the feafons change. 
Yet, for all the foil is fo luxuriant. Great Tatary does notNs/orifi 
produce a fingle wood of tall trees,, of any kind whatever, '^'w- 
excepting in fomc few places towards the frontiers : all the 

(G) The miConers fay, that (H) There are no plant! l» 

die lanija of Tatary, from the befoundfa theircountry, When 

eountiy of the Manchfws, or the miflioncrs afked ihcm why 

Ka&aaTatary, }vellward, as far they would not at leaH culiivaie. 

as the Caffi-tn iea, are, for the fomc liicle herb-garden j they 

generality.uofitfor tillage; and replied, brrbserifer tht iiafti 

thoie of Kiirthin,Ohaii,*n^Ntn, af thi Md, and ibt heajti J»r 

fum, in the country of the mtn. DuHalde China, iScyal, 

Mungli, worll of atl. Da Haldt ii. p. 15^, 
(^/m,.vd1. ii. p. i^. ^ 

V 3 wood, 

L „., ..L.OOQlC 

394- llijlory of the Moguls ani Tartars, B. tt. 

EIQth wood, that is found in the heart of the country, conlifts in 
, MuDgIs ihrubs, which never exceed the hdght of a pike; and ttiefe 

etUHtry. jfg Y^y j^^g h 

Tltfh- ''■' '^^^ Khan of the Ehtths dwells conrinnally under tents, 

nhtM^ although hepoffefTes Little Bukharia, with its dependencies, 

■^^ ' wherdn there are a good many towns ; only when his afiairl 

call htin thither, he reCdes at Tarkien, or Tartan, -the captal 

of that country. He has continued about tiie rircr Ha and 

Teilt for Ibme years paft ; that he m^ht be near at hand to 

watch the motions of his coufin j4^i Kbht, as well as the 

Mahaimtudan Tatars and Mungls, between whom the Ehitht 

are Jituated. His camp is a great curiofity : it is difb-tbnted 

into (ereral quarters, iqaares, and fVreets, juA like a town ; is a 

good le^ue in compats ; and able, at a minute's warning, ta 

lend into the £eld 1 5,000 horfe. The quarter where the Khan 

refldes, is in the middle of the camp. His tent is ma^le d 

Kitayka, a ftrong fort of callico ; which, beii^ raiied very 

high, and of all Torts of lively colours, exceedingly delights 

the eye at a diAance. In winter tlie tent is covered wth felt, 

which makes it impenetrable by tlie weather. His wives are 

lodged in little wooden houfcs, which may be taken down 

in an inftani, and fet on wagons, when they are g<»ng ta 

decamp '. 

Plenty ef ' Althodgh, according to the accouiit of the mlllicniers 

rhubarb, who furvcyed Chinefe Tatary, there arc no plants to be axt 

with in that region ; yet we arc ailiired, by a certain oirioua 

author, that, in the parts about the dvcrs Orkhcn and 5Wur> 

gba, towards SeSnghinJioy, rhubarb grows in great abundance i 

and that all which Sv^ furniflies foreign countries with, 

comes fram ihaat this city ; the diftrif^ of which yields 

fuch plenty, that the vceMlary a[ Siieaa{dh i^,ooolh.-vei^t 

of it at a time *. 

7i* glut- The animals in this diviiion of wcftera Tatary are much 

ion usi- the fame with thofc to be found in the two former parts ; 

**■ unlefs we may except one, called, by Sentink, the glaiten, 

wfiich jibounds in the country of the Ehtths. It is a comi- 

Torous beafl, not quite fo tail as a wolf, and peculiar to the 

mountains of northern Afia ; rfic iiair, which is flrong and 

long, is of a very fine dark brown all over its back. This 

^ beaft is exceedingly mifchievous : for it climbs the trees, and 

-Watching the game, which paOes underneath, leaps down on 

its back, where it fafiens with its paws, and makes a great 

** Hift.Turfc», p. 381, ft fcq. alfo coHcA. trav. 410. vol. iv. p. 
^.^i- ' Abu'lc. biiL Tarks, &c. p. {43, Sc fcq. 

* Ibid. p. 501. 

hole 1 

, ... , L.OIWIC 

hole : while .the poor creature, quite fp^t with aogiuA and £lu^ 
nrii^ling Eo get rid of its enemy, at le( falls on tbc M^Qgl* 
ground, and becomes his prey. It requires three llout dogs C'"^^- 
lo ^ttaclt this beafl, ImzU as tt is ; and very often they com^ - *>"■ "* 
off ftiungely mauled. The Suffiant make gire^t account of 
its Ikip, whidi they ufe for meas muffs, and. borders tA boa- 
nets '. We leave our readers to Judge whether this, be the 
ebuka, found \a the country of the Mungis ,- as well as the 
iame with the arkhora, mendoned by Ah^'ghazi Khtn \ lince 
the glutton leaves fiich narrow paths in the hills aid forefts 
'«$ an; made by tha^t animal ^ 

2. ThE Eluthi Kojbott poflers all the kmgdom of TaBgw^Elothi 
snd are fubjefl to the Dalay Lama, or great pontiiFof Tibet, TLoOia^ 
who governs them by two Khins ; of whom one has the go- 
vernment of Tibet, the othcf T)f Kako N6r «. Thefe latter are , 
cwUcd, bf the Mancbeut a3iA.Sb!n^, Tatars cifCoko Ntfr. 

The countiT d'KokoNor, <x Koiaiwl, is fo^ called by thefcKokoNot 
£/uth froma lake of the iamc name, termed by the Ctine/eseamiry. 
Si'bay, that is, tbe loe^tm fit. It is one of the largeft ^ 
aUTa/or^, being above twenty ^aiFrench lea^ies in length, 
and more than ten in tx:cadiii; iituatcd between the 36th 
and 37th degrees of latitude, and between the l6tb aad 17th' 
of longitude, vie& oi PekineK 

.This country lies between Tibet on the weft, and ChiaaExteanmd - 
on the eaft, bc^eriog on tbc provinces of Sbm-Ji and Se-fi'*' 
cbwen. It is pretty large, extending from north to fonth 
above feven degrees. It is leparatcd from China by moun- 
tains, fo high and ftecp, that they ferve almoft every-whcre 
loftead of the great vail. Thoie to the~fonth, which iepa- 
rate it from the kingdoms of Pegu and Jva, are frightful and 
ioacceflible, inhabit^ by a lavage people. They alio make fo 
ftrong a barrier to China, by their great length and breadth, 
that tbe entrances on that fide are Uft unfortified '. 

3. The Elutbs TorgaUti are the lead confidenible of theEkths 
three branches. They dwelt heretofore towards Tai-A^aniTorga. 
and were fubjcft to Kontaijb ; but about the b^nnii^ of^t"- 
the prefeni century, /fyHia, or Jyiiki, one of his coufins, 
n)'ing from his court, under pretence that he was in fear qf 

ms Itfie, palTed the river Jojif, wdth the tribe of the Terg^ 
iiti, and put himfelf under the protection of Rujjia. In "vi'ta- 
UX/tyAka KhM iifually encamped with his thefaody 
ground about JJirakhAn, to the eafl of the river Wolga, be- 

• Bhmt. ap. AboTg. hift. Toricj, p. 518. * Ibid, p.' *€. 

Clbid. p. ;J8,. >>DtjHALDi's China, vol. ii. f. 265. 

* Ibid. vol. 1. p. 29, U vol. ii. p. 2;8. 

U 4 tw-eeil 

L „.. , L.OOQlC 

S96 Hijlory of the Moguls and TirtarS, B. ti* 

Mongh, tween it and the Jatk \ and in fcntmcr he i^ttD Iwcnt to rc- 

tbtir en- fide on the banks of ^s river, about Sardtqf and Zaritza 

/•*"■ , (t). Although the Kojbati and TorgaSti E/ttthi hare thdr 

^'■"'''■'"'own KhBD3, yet JTimtot/ft preferves a kind of fovCTdgnty we^ 

and draws condierable aid from them, when he is at 'war ' 

-with his Ddghbom-s the Mungh, Cbine/e, or MiAamwadan 

tstOTi ». 


Of the Mungls, 'Qt Moguls, and their JeyeraJ 

S E C T. I. 

Tbtir NavUy Ferfinst Manners, Cufiomst tFay ef- 

living. Habitations^ Language. 

Kim* 'TT^ ^ ^ Moguls, or rather Mungis, derive their name 
Munglj, I frOTn Mungl Kbm, one of their ancient emperors ; 
"^ and one branch of them fVill retain it, called, by our 
anthors, Mungah or Mengalt, of which the word Unguis, 
commonly nled by the Afiatics, as well as Eunpeans, is a 
corruption. Thcfc ptople arc frequently confoufided with 
,„ the Tatars, which may be owing to the followng caufes : 
** . "" Hrft, The people of the north of Jfla having been known, 
vihinct: ^°' many ages, by the name of Tatars, to the inhabitants of 
the fouthcrn conntries, particularly the Chinefe and Perjiani% 
thcfe latter, feeing the Mungis come from the feme qaar- 
ters, and no way diiFercnt as to features, language, and man- 
ners, from the Tatars, confidcred t)oth as the fame people, 
under diiFercnt names (A). Secondly, there were, in the 
army of JtngMz Khin, when he invaded ihofe countriesj' 
tribes of Tatars as well as Mungis -, which made thofe na- 
tions, who were acquainted with the Tatars before, give 
both names, ladiHerently, to die followers of that conqueror. 
Laftly, the Tatars having been very ferviceable to Jenghts 
ASfln in the battle agaihfl funp Khan, or £/nf Khin, vhichi 
put him in pofleJIion of the fovereignty, to reward them,- 

* Bbrtink ap. Abu'Ighazi's hilL Turks, &c. p. 538, te feq. 

(J) Thefe ElMibs flill have, {A) The Cbimfi, fay lUlia 
or had, coofiderable territories fmlta-i and Bluth Tatars, as well 
to the eaft of 7<iifi, and bonier, at Kulia Mung/s and ElM 
mg weftward on the Jmim-i Mungis. ■" 1 ' 



■C. ^ Sfw< Jenghiz KhJri.' - -"' 297. 

jcrined A^ name * with that of the Munph, In the title Mnogls. 
which he thereupon alTinned, filling hhnfelf^rj/«f KhM of thtir cu- 
the Muogls and Tatars. j?wm. , 

Whatever was the caufe of introducing this cnftom, '*^J7X~^ 
is certain that it ohtained, and flill continues in force. . T^^/LlJ/ 
is what gives a faDJllon to the liberty taken by moft aathors/ ■'' 
who, by Munglt and Tatars ^can the fame people (J) . Th& 
we ipention, to prevent our readers from falling into any mif- _ . , 
■<afce on this head, in the cburfcof their hiftory. It muft be 
"cohfeflcd, it would he much better to lay afide a praiflJcc 
which tends to breed great confulion, and at leaft to confine 
<he name of Tiifii/'j to thofe commonly called Mohammedaa ■ ^ 

Tatars, tg whom another cuftoih has in efieft appropriated 
It. After all, thofe names (hould be applied only for di- 
ftinflion fake, neither of ihem being llriftly due to the pe6T; 
{^ who enjoy it. For as the name of Tatars is given to 
many tribes who are not Tatars j fo that of Moguls extends 
w many who are not Moguli : the name of the conquering, 
or mofl powerful trib^, having paded to the conquered, or 
lefs powerful tribes. 

The Moguls or Mtmgls are, at prefcut, divided into threerj^w 
great branches ; the Mutigls, properly fo called, the Khalkas, Mogul 
and the Aluths, or Ehiths. The firft branch retains the an-*r'"'f^Av 
oent name of the nation, which has been already accounted '••■ 

bx. The Kalkas, which may alfo be written Kiilkha, and 
f/dlha, as the firft letter is a deep guttural, derive their name 
from the- river Kalka, already defciibed, which runs in their 
pjuntry. Whence the Elulhs (B), jlluths, or j^luts, derive 
thdr name, it is not fo eafy to determine. Thefe are the 
people commonly knoy^n by the name of Katm^, or Kahn&k, 
whofe etymology is alfo unknown to us. AU which we are 
certain of is, mat it Is la nick'name given to them by the Mo- 
hammedan Tatars, in hatred of their Idolatrous r^K^on (C) ;. 
• Dz LA Croix, hift.Gengh;p.63. 
{%) An^.after all, they we, in The Oirett fcem to be t^eFhets 
?ffe£l,thefainepeoplc-.asbeing of AH' IgbaKi Kian. 
the defcendaflttof thcKiuu, or (C) Math, a Mitoia Jt Sar* 
Turks. See before, p. 4}. matia Afiwta. cap. 3. and Her- 

(B) We are told by Sirahlen- hrtftein in rmait Mu/ifv, tarn' 
berg, that they call thcmfelves ment. in the article de Tartaris, 
Pirhm Oirit, or Ofreti, that is, towards th« end, fay, that they 
thefourO(ra/i0irtribe|:and,by. are (i\led' Kalmuis, btcaufi thtf 
the Engtifi tcaaflator of him, an tie eMlyTama natiamieh Itt 
that they are called Eiith, and iteir hair gmv. But this feem^ 
corruptly £i((^ SeeStrail. iek. very triiliagi fiocc the hair they 
of Tartaiy, mtrod. p. 83 tc 8^. wear is nomore than a lock om 
the crown of their heads. 

or ' 

- ^"-'"81^ 

z^S Hfjiory af the Mogals and Tartars,^ B. H, 

Mungit, or for Tome other caufe. The Rujfutas took U -from thole 

their tu- Tatars, aad from the Ruffians it came la ufe among Eun^- 

jism. ans ; wh3e the name of Eluth was uaknown tt> them. Thay 

^T'^'^take it as aa afiont to be called Kahrwks, aad (ay, they have 

* better title to the name of Mungh. than their oe^Umur^ 

who at preTeat enjoy it ; as thefe ktter are fprung from that 

iungls and Tatars who were expelled China, by 

; founder of the itfin^ family, in 1368 ''. 

' Mungli >^> t^t although the two laft . branches haviQ, 

ffutriU. R fake, or fome other rcafon, aHumed diSereot 

he iirli, yet they lUll retain the name oiMungU^ 

ighly honour ; as the J^ws did that of IfratUtts^ 

ir origin and defccnt. Whether the nnmetoni 

rhich each of the three branches is divided, be 

the fame Aock, is a qucftion which we have dif- 

:re^ But let that be as it may; as they have 

cufloms, language, religion, and form of go^ 

th little or no variation, what may be {aid d 

,'ill ferve for the other two. For this rcafon we 

together, under the general name of MungU, 

what materials die bcft travellers, and other authors, aftard 

us, coaceraing the afore&id three branches ; only difUngmOt- 

ing fuch dungs as may be peculiar to each of them. 

■ Titir The Munglsi'm general, are of a middle iize, but exceeding 

fi^: rohuA, and well-fet ; they have big and broad heads, flat ^ce$, 

and complexions of a dark olive colour, pretty near that of Ame' 

ricaa copper ; very black and fparkiing eyes, but too fxr- afun* 

der, and opening but a little, altho' they are very long ; th« 

bridge of their nofe is quite fbt, and almoll level with the face, 

to that there is nothing of a nofe to be fccn but the end, which 

i^ very (Ut alfo, wlu two great holes', which form the nof- 

trils (D) : their cars are very large, though without the rims : 

their beards very thin ; hair black,, and ftron^ like horfe-' 

har ; but they (have all off, excepting a lock on the crown of 

thor heads, which falls down their backs, and is let grow to 

ks natural length. To make amends for all this homelinefs, 

ihcy have very pretty mouths, with fmatl teeth, as' white tS 

irory, and are p.a'fcflly Well limbed. Thdr Women have 

* Abu'lg. hiit. Turks, ic. p. x^g^tc feq. ' See before, 

p. 61. 

with regard to their cyet and 

^ ^ nofes, faysonly, that their nofci. 

Iffop* Mungl) and Kaliai, at arc flat,buttheiteyei h'ack and 
well as the £i'.i/^j, yet Oor su- full, Strtink ap.AB^lih. hift. 
thor, fpeakiog of the l-'t^Jt, larh, (3(. p. 502. 


L .....M.L.OO'^IC' 

'C. 4i Siaee JoigMz Ktian. 2g^ 

ffiBch ihe fame fcj^ttfu, odIj not fo laije : but tbes the; tie Mnngb, 
commonly of a very .derer fat, and w5l-Ihaped '. '^^ «- 

GERBILhON, the jefuit, fays they are quite rude and , fi"^' 
nnpolifhed in their manners i yet honeft and good-natured jVT'V"^ 
the Elutht, in particukr, do ill «> nobody, if not firll P™-,^/''"** 
▼oked : and although extremely brare, yet they do not live 
by robbery, like thdr neighbours the Mohanmudan Tatarr, 
with whom they are condaually at war. The proper JHungls 
and Kaikai are naiVy and flovenly in their tents aud clothe^ 
living amidl) the dung d thdr^beaAs ( which fenes them for 
fiie), for they have no wood (£). They excel id horfemaor 
Qup and hunting ; and are dextrous archers, cither on fo«H or 
on horfeback. In gene: al they lead a wretched life : aud, b^ 
ing averfe to labour, they prefer grazing to archite^ure *. - 

REGIS, another of the mif&oners, obferves, that the ut-'*"''^'i 
ntoA amtntioD of the Mia^h a to prcferve the rank of thdr*""^' 
femiUes. They value things only for tbetr nfe i having do 
re^rd to their rarity or beauty : are naturally of an eafy 
cbearfiil temper, always dHpofed to laugh, and nev«- difturt^- 
ed ^th melancholy. Indeed, they fibd little occaHoB fot 
caie : having generally nadier neighboara to manage, enemlet 
to fear, nor lords to pleaie, Ptrplexed mth no difficult af&ir^ 
nor bufinefs of coollraint, they divert themfelves wholly with 
hunting, JiSiing, and other bodily exerclfes. However, thefe^M/fsfwi 
people are capable not only of the fciences, but the greatqA 
nadertakiogs : witnds thdr fubdoing China, in 1264 ; which 
they governed, even jn the ojniuon of die Cbimji, with givat 
judgment and addref) '. 

Al to tbeir drefs, according to Bentitik, they vreai vaythiirit^, 
large Jhirts, and callicq drawers ; their hat^ts . are commcmly 
made of callicp^ called Kiuyka, w fome oth^ fliglit Au^ 
which they line uridi (heep-fltin : and fometimes they wear ;^ 

entire garments of Iheep-flda (F). They fafteo their gar- 
ments, which reach to the ancles, with leatlier ftraps about ' 
the waiA. Thdr boots are exceeding large, and ufudly 
ntade of Ruffia leather : their bonnets fiiall and ronnd, with 
a for of four Angers tveadth. The women's drefs is ncarip 
d>e Aine, excepting that their garments are longer, their 

'BBHT.ay. Abu'lg. hiA, Tnrk^&e. p- 53^,4^9. .oQa 
Hald* ibid. p. 256. ' Ibid. p. 153. 

(E) Hencetbprtentihavea (F) According to Sf^//, the. 
rankiih fmell, hardly tolerable, ufual clothing of the Maiifli 
{aytXtgitduUalAiMhififr. f. and Kalkai'u Iheep and Iamb- 
s' Jkint, the wool next th; body. 


'^ Hifiory tf/*i« Moguls fl»if Tartars, R II. 

■Mung!«i TjdotS generally rsd, and their bonnets flat, with fome little 
a*ri> fK- ornaments ^. Regis fays, they know how to drefe and wiuCen 
,^*"TV^tfiSfe'jlvms, as well as tlie fldns of ftags, deer, wild-gosts, 
'^-^' ':' -ire'. ^Ich ferve the rich for under-gsrments Jn the fpring ; 
^ . yet, TtM-all their care, ' yon feell them' as loon as they come 
near you ; whence the Cbincfe hains ^vcn them the name of 
•Xfan-ta-tfi (G), that is, Jiinking Tatars \ 
vumitrani THE Eluihs wear much the lame kind of cloches with the 
fimm.r, yropcr Mungis and Kalkas. In the fouthern provinces they 
ulc no (hirts in fiimmer, contenting themfelves wiih a kind 
■of (heep-fldn ■ doublet, without Ileeves ; which they put on 
next their fltin, with the woolly fide out; tucking their (hirt 
■within their breeches ; fo that all the arm is l^t bare up to 
' . ithe fhouLder. In winter they wear a ihcep-ikin o\'er their 
jdoublet, which reaches to the calf of the leg, and turn the 
, ■ woollen fide inward, Thcfe upper fltins have flcevcs fo long, 
that they are obliged to turn them up, when going about 
any work. Their bonnet is red, and coramorly fet off with 
a tuft of lilk or hair, of a bright red. Their women go ha- 
bited mudi after the fame manner ; their callico fhlft making 
all their clothing in fummer, and a Img (hecp-ncin gown, 
with a bonnet, the fame with their hutbands, fufficing^ them 
Ml winter '. 
&/aw rej RED is the colaiir in grcateft eftecm with the Tatars ; and 
4fitmid. how ill clothed foever their princes may be, in other re* 
fpefts, they never fell to have a fcarlet robe for ilate occ»- 
fions. Th«r chiefs would rath^ be without a (hirt, than a 
fcarlet coat j and the women of quality do not think them- 
felves well dreflcd, if the fcarlet gown be wanting. The ve- 
ry meaneft people affeft to wear red cloaths^ although the 
cloth be ever fo ordinary. This humour has fpread even 
amoftg the Inhabitants of Sihrla. In (hort, all over the north 
oi'Jfia, a man may do moi^ wjih a piece of red clotl^, thaa 
four times its value in filver ". 
Mungl The arms of the Mungli coRfilV in the bow and arrows, 

«r«i. the pike and fabrc, which they wear after the Cbine/e manner. 

And they always go to war on horfeback. 
Thireat- THESE people live intirely on their cattle ; which cocfift 
fit. of hones, dromedaries, oxen, cows, and fliecp. Their hories 

arc very good and mettlefome ; their Mien larger than thoie 

'=BEKT.ap.Abu'ig.hift.TurkB,&c. p. joj. bDuH^iP'! 
ubi fupr. p. 254. ' Abo'lgh. hill, ubi lupr. p. 533, * fpi- 
* ibid. p. 409. 

[G) The T/udetfii of AVm- q^ TJau-ta-ift. See Ojrfl. Cij^ 
/e^' a^e tiojbtkfs a corruption na, p. 114. . 


C. 4(1 Shut jenghtz lihaiu - fot 

of the Ukraiit, and. the tailed in the world. Their "Jiomed?- .Manglv 
ries are large and Ilrong. Their ftieep are vety large alfo,biil''*"'' '•' 
have very fliort tails; which are buried in a c^e of "fat'j, /"""■ 
weighing feveral pounds, and hanging perpendicularly : the^-^—V'^"^, 
wool ofihem is very long and coarfe ; tney have a bunch o'r 
rifing on the nofe. Tike the camels, and hanging ears, lik«'. 
hounds '. This Is to be linderflood properly of tlie ElUth ; . 
for although the Mvgh apA Kalkai have the fame fort' of, 
cattle with them, yet "they are far inferior, both for goodnels 
and appearance, except the fticep j whofe tails are about twp 
fpans long, and near as much in cbmpafs, wdghing com- 
monly between ten and eleven poundsi it is almoft onein;- 
tire piece of very rank fat. ' They,, above all things, Ahhavfhdr JUti 
fwine"; and the Elulh 'vsver eat either them or poultry. 
They, in general, eaj nothing but horfe-flefh ^nd mutton ; not 
efteeming that of bullocks or cows fo good; ' They are alfo 
fonder of mare's than'cow's milX, being' much better and 
richer. Indeed, the cows, after 'their calves are taken from 
them, will fuffer none to draw their , teate : they litewifo. 
quickly lofe their milk ;^ fo that neccffi^ h^ inttoduccd the 
^e of mare's milk ". . 

CERBILLON fays,..that, in fummer, the iWan^/t. .'feed 
Oti milk meats ; ufing indifferently that of cows, marcs, ewes, 
^ts, and camels. . Their drink, is water, boiled with the 
worft fort of Chinefe tea, in which they put crcani, butter, 
or milk. They make a fpirituous liquor from four milk, ^""^ .^'- 
which is didilled after fermentationr The rich lay mutton "'"*•' "' 
to ferment wth their four milk. This liquor is ftrong and'"*'"'' 
nourifliing, and they delight to get drunk with it. They al- 
fo fmoke a great deal of tobacco '. Smtlnk informs us, that 
the KalmMs have a way of iftaking the milk four In two 
nights time ; after which, pouring it into an earthen pot, they 
, flop it very clofe, and putting a funnel to it, fct it on the 
fire. This fpirit is as clear and good a^ that which in Eu- 
rope is diftiiled from grain : but to make It fo, It taad be fct 
twice over the fire. They call it arai, in Imitat'ion of the ' 
Indians their ndghbours, who give all their ftrong liquors that 

RUBRU^IS tells us, that. In the time of /Uin^JCo^,iv 
Khin, the Mungh, befides wines which xame from foreign Al'*'". 
countries, made excellent drink of rice, millet, and honey; be- 
ing well-fiavourcd, and high-coloured, like wine : but that 

' Asu'LCK-ubi fupr. p. 536. » Ibid, p. 52J. "* Ibid. 

p. 40J, J36. • Dw HALDE,tibi fujir. p, 2^(3. ' Abu'lo. 
Mbi fupr. p. 403, J j6, 


L i,.< t.L.OO'^iC 

got: Hijofy if the Mt^uls and Tartars, B. II; 

Mungis, tfieir cbief liquors were the kofmos {H} and karalcoTmos ; ■which, 

to'iir til- according to that author, are made in the following manners. 

^ fi» pis. For the kofmos, they fill a great (kin-bag with mare's-milk, and 

ii — ti*^ beat upon it with a club, which has a knob at the end, as 

big as a man's head, but hollow. As foon as they beat, the 

Ifi'dk be^os to boil (or ferment) like new wine, and turn 

four : they continue this labour till the butter conies : then 

tailing the whey, if it be pretty (harp, it is fit to drink ; for 

it pricks the tongue like rape-wice, and leaves a fiavonr Uke 

that of almond-milk. It intoxicates weak heads j is very 

jjftafa'nt, and diuretic. 

, Karakosmos, or blackkofmbs,!! the drink of great lords, 

and made thus : they beat the milk, till the grofler part fub- 

fidin.g, like white-wine lees, the purer remains at top, like 

new whey. The. fettllngs are given to fervants; who flccp 

Very found ^er it. This, Tays our author, is a very plea- 

lant and wholefomc liquor '. 

' TftE inhabitants oi Great Tdtary, itf general, are fbhd of 
firong liquors ; for ,when they cah get any, they never let it 
refl; while they are able to ftand. When they have a mind 
brings what liquor be can procure ; and' 
'es to diink night and day, nevei- fHrfing 
' They, are no lei? fond of fmokiog ; 
1 moH, in proportion as they live more 

iving no manufactures, exchange their 

IS, BukhSrs, and other neighbours, for 

is it poflible commerce could flourUh' 

time of JetigMz KhSn, fo long as the 

'it remain divided among feveral princes; 

always oppofe the defigns of others. . 

" the Mohan-.meian Tatars, who rob the 

karaw^ns, keep off the merchants of the weft. However, on 

the fide oiSiberm, China, and the Indies, they may arrive 10 

full fafcty, Thofe from China, refo'rt in great numbers to the 

Muttgls, bringing them rice, bohea-tea, which they call kara- 

chay, tobacco, cotton, cibth, and other ordinaiy fluffs ; be- 

. fides feveral forts of houfhold utenfjls, and other Decell&- > 

rics '. . " 

VeJIavt As the heathen Tatars lead a vary harmlefs life, they ar? 

trade. not fo earneft to procure flav?s for their fervice as the Jtia- 

fSecPuRCH. pilgr. vol. iii. p. j, & feq. •■ Aew'tcB. 

(ibifupr.p. 403, 536. • Ibid. p. 412,505, k $$6. 

(H) By other aadion called Kauii, or Kimii. * 

^ bammtdan 





C.'4-' 5fc« JengMz KhSn. '30* 

Bamme'dan Tatars. Bcfides, having no need of more than Mangh, 
their bWti'familie's' to guard their cattle, which are all thdrV/wV m- 
lichcs, they do not carC to burthea themfelves with ufclefs /.o^'- 
mouths. Hence it is, that none, except the KhSns and the^'^'""*^ 
Tayk, is to hatfe iToves. When they taite any from their ene- 
mies, all, except thofe v.hom they keep, are diftributed 
among their fubjefts, in order to augment their number;, 
which, "at ihe'.fame time, incrcafes their revenue. On the, 
contrary; the Mohammedan Tatars often make war with their 
ne'ighboufsi on no other fCore but to get flaves ; felliiig thcrfa. 
they do not keep. Which humour prevails fo much with the. 
Chircajfian, ' Daghcfl&n, .and Nogay Tatars, that, when they, 
can't meet with grown lip people, they (leaJ children to fell;', 
and, if they cannot get other people's, do not fcruple to feU^' 
their own : efpecially their daughters,iFbeautiful; as they do, 
tfitir "wives, oh the Ilighteft difgufl. In (hort, the trade of. 
flaves being all* their wealth, they (pare neither friends nor 
foes, when they meet with a fair opportutilty of carrying: 
l|icm off', 

The Eluibs take as many wives as. they Will fl), \xMe.t?*^imttft ' 
cphcuBines, ,whom they chufe out of their flai'es. ; . anjj 
whereas, th* Mohammtdan Tatars mufl:' not contraft '.wltlvn' 
detail) degrees, the Pa^an may mai'ryaJiybf their ktndreclf 
ekcept ; their natui-al mother?. In this our authoi; fuppofcs' 
tjiey.ifrc retrained, j-ather by the age of their feijfiali5,p;u-ehts,' 
t^an by any Jaw ; becaufe it 13 not unufual, among the Eli^tht. 
zo^Mifigltt for the Either to take his daughter to wife :' &^_ 
they give over lying with their wives When they draw near 
forty'; conJidering them thenceforih as no other than ferranfi,' 
tt> wbotp they give vlftuals, i<x taking care bV the houfe, antj. 
tending' the young wives who fucceed in their places. 

The children borp of concubines are eqiially l^itImate,W"*V- 
and- capable of inheriting : only If the has been Khan^**'*- 
or chief of, fome tribej , fhc iiTue of the wives fucceed beforf 
thofe born of concubines. The offspring of common pro-' 
flitutes are looked on with a fort of contempt by every-tody ), 
anti very rarely fucceed their fathers, efpecially if people of 
dlflinftion : becaufe there is no knowing if the perfon, mch a,' 
creature lays the child to, be the real fatiier. Polygamy Is not 
fo -iocoDvenieat to the Inhablunts of Tatdry, as it is tv t}ie' 

• Abu'io. nbifapr. p. 411, 505, & jj6. 

(I) Gtrhil/tii Cayt, thataltho* generally but one uife. bu 
polygamy i* noi forbidden a- llttlJti Chha, <sc. vol ii. p.' 
mODg the Murgli, yti they have 256. 

' . t'So^lc 

30+ Hijiory t^ the MoguIs.<sab/ Tartars, B. IK 

Moiigl!, reft of "Ors. Aftat'tcs; their wives being of great trie, and lit- 
thnr ca- tic expeiice, to them. For the old ooes maiuge the houfe- 
* ■^?"' . wifry, take care of the cattle, and, iii (hort, provide. iatirdf 
. ' t:* for the fubfillence of the family; fo that the hufband has 

nothing to do but deep, and foUow his diversions. . 
Greotflial NoTHiKG equals the refpcft paid by children, of all agt* 
re/fta. and conditions, to their Others, who are confidercd as klngd 
of their families : but they malce little account of their mo- 
thers, unlets under fomc particular obligations to thein._ 
They muft lament a father foF niany days, and deny them- 
felvcs (rf all forts of pleafnre duruig the whole time. The 
fons muft even abftain from the company of their wives for 
feveral months. Nothing muft be fpared to render his fu- 
Oeral honourable ; and at leaft once a year they muft pay thdr 
devotions at his tomb, calling to mind the infinite obligations! 
svhich they owe to liim : but the Mt>h<immedan Tatan are 
not fo exad as to their duties paid the dead ", 
XuriaU The Mungli burn the'ir dead, aijd interr their .-ithcs on fome 
and eminence ; 'where, raifing a heap of ftones, they place therfcoii 

p-M/ti. little banno-s ". The greater pan of jhe Pagan Tatars bury 
" ,- along with the deceafed his beft horfe and moveables, fuch as 
Wooden porringers, for lus ufe in die' other world, ' Iri maiiy 
parts, towards the' borders of Siberia, there are to be fcen' 
little hills, under which are found .(kcletons of men, accoih-' 
panied with horfe-bones, and many forts of fmall veflels, ' be- 
fides jewels of gold and lilver. Likewifc the Ikelefons of 
ifromen, with gold-rings on their fingers. As this does not 
a^ee with the condition of the prefent inhabitants, they are 
doubtlefg the graves of the old MunglSj who died after their 
itturnwith the plunder of the fouchern countries of /ffia, 
into thefe defarts, where they burled veflels of gold and fil- 
■rer, with other riches, fo long as they had any left. The 
§-wediJb prifoners in Siberia, as well as the Ruffians, ufftdit tO 
■go in great troops to fearch thofe ton>bs, which lie far v^thla 
the lands of the Elutbs : but a good number of them hir- 
ing been flain by thofe people, all farther expeditions *erc 
forbidden, under feverc penalties. This behaviour of the 
Eluihs, otherwife fo very peaceable, Ihews, that they coiiri- 
dered them as the tombs of^ their ancefior*; for which all ihe 
Pagan Tatars have an extraordinary veneration ''. 
jtaiicnl On this occafioii it may be proper to mention what frier" 
fefuidires. Rubniquis, who, in lajj,' was at the court of VWnw^ A'.^^w, 

« A bv'lc. ubi fupr. p. 4,06, Jt feq. " Dn Halde'b Chi- 

na) &c. p. ij5, y Abu'lo. ubi fupr. p. 556, tc feij. 


C 4^ SiMei. Jcaghtz Ehin.' 1305 

writes, ecaeernli^ the fepolchres of the Komaniaits, or peo- Mbngb, 
pie of Kipchik. Th^ build a lu^ tomb over thnr dead, '^V ^- 
and fet his Image npoQ it, with its fece foVards the e&ll, and/"**' *^* 
holding a drinking-cup before bis belly. On the moaumenc^ — V*^ 
of rich men they ere^ pyramids, <m- Bttle ceoiic houlcs. In 
feme places the author met with vaft brick towers : in others,- 
fione pyramids ; although there are no ftiHies foond in thp 
neigbbaarhood. Near Hx grave they generally leave one of 
the defun^s horfes. At one be &w fixtem Ivarfe-hides hung 
up on high poAs, four towards each cardinal point ; with 
lcofiDOS'(eir klmis), let fix- the deceafed to drink, and Aeflt 
to ^t : l?iil could never learn, th«t they buried treafijres 
vith die corps. lie (Served other kinds of fepulcfares t^ 
-wards the eaA ; namdy, ^rge ftoue Soon, or pavements, 
iome round, others f^uare ; with four tall nones ereAed at 
the fides, fadng the cardioid.pcunts *. 

Thb Mttnglt dwell eitber in teats, or Iktle moveable hats-tteir 
fiegis, fpcaking of the Mungl tents, lays, thu they SKlntti 
round, and covered ^th a thick grey or white felt, up- 
lield'Within by poles, with one end ^ round a hoop. They 
thus form the fupcrfides of a brtdcen cmic ; with a' round 
liole at top, to let out the finoke, which aJcends fr(»n ^ 
Itearth,^ ^aced in the middle underneath. While the lire 
lifts they are warm enough, and then grow cold again ; and, 
in wwter, woold, ^thout care, &eeze in their beds. To 
avoid diis, as -well as other inconvenicndes, they have tlidr 
tent door very nairoiw, and To low that they cannot enter 
iridiout ftooinng. TTiey have alfo the art to joia thcfc loofe 
|ieces Co nicely, as to keep out the pierdng blafts of the 
north wind*. 

The Ehtthi, according to Bmtink, have, in fummer, greatMwvMiZr 
Cents of ketayka, a fort of callico; and, in winter, lhed9^<^t) 
Siade of boards, and covered with felt ; which they can fct 
op and tdu down in ^efs than an hour's time. The huts, 
€ir boofes. ufed both by them and the Mungb, are made 
roand, wrti great poles of light wood, jcnned together with 
leather tboi^ (K), fcK* the more eafily fitting np and re- 
monng tfaem. They cover them on the ontTidc untb a 
dd(^ jelt, for defeace ^ainft the cold and bad weather. In 

* Poacn. jnlg. vol. iii. p. 6, 7, S. ■ Do Halpe abi 

%n, p. 254. 

(K) In the time of Xmirit. (or Aeor) sf tht Jaote oa- 
f«Ji, they were interwoven with Iciiali. 
wicken ; and the Awndaiiei 

Moo.H»T. Voi,.IV. X tiie 

3o£ Hi/iory.vftbtMoQi\iendT3LftAn, .B.If. 

Mangls, the middle of the roof, which is conical, they leave an <^ea- 
ihiir tM- ing, which fervcs both for a window and chimney : the 6re- 
/«<w,&c. place being dire^lyundemeath, and the (leeping places round 
*— V*^ the hat againft the wall. The chiefs, and perwns of dillinc- 

tion, have huts larger and more convenient ". 
aa-riedon THESE moveable habitations (in their removals) ve car- 
«"£!»!"- ried on wagons, with four wheels. Thefe carriages have two 
Ibafts, made of a very pUablelight wood, and failened to the 
axle-tree of the fore-wheels, by means of oat of their ends, 
which is turned back. They put them between the body of 
the waggon and the wheels, tying a cord a fpao dilUnce 
from the foremoft end of the-ihafts. This cord goes into the 
. end of the axle-tree, which palles through the nave of the 
^vheel ; fo that the wheels, which are pretty {inall, play aa 
both fides of the waggon, between the fliafts . and the cord. 
The horie marches between the {hafts ; and over his bac^ 
- there goes an exceeding pliable piece of wood, in form of a 
femicircle, which is faftcned on both fides to the hame6, 
and the Ihafts to its two ends. They pretend, that in this 
■ manner the beaft is much ealed ; and indeed one horfe will 
draw a waggon, well loaded, above a hundred leagues : but 
it mufl be obferved, that thefe machines are not very laige. 
. When they put more horfes, they either place them before 
the firft, or fa/len them to the hindmoA axle-tree.. The 
, Su/Jitini and Kojfaki make ufe of mudi the lame fort of car- 
riages '. 
Jafiut The houfes, in the time of Ruhruquis, were thirty feet in 
htafts , diameter, ftretching on each lide five feet beyond the wheels. 
Over the felt they laid mortar, marie, or bone-alhes, to make 
it Ihine white ; adorning the roof \iith beautiful pifbires, 
and hanging^ before the door a fell painted with birds, trees, 
and bealls. That traveller counted nventy-two oxen dra\^< 
ing one cart, eleven on a fide. The axle-tree wax as big as 
the maCt of a Ihlp, and the driver ftood at the door of il)e 
houfe. Their houfiiold llufT and treafure were kept in fquacc 
wiclier chells, rounded at top, and covered with felt, greafed 
. over, to keep out ran. They were adorned with paintings, 
or feathers, and fixed on carts, c^ried by camels, for crof' 
iing rivers ; but never taken down like the houfes. 
fow These houfes, when fet on the ground, are placed, as all 

flaetd. their hatnutions are, with the door lacnng the fouih, to avoid 
the north winds, which are very piercing all over great TV* 
iary. Then they range the cheil-carts at u little diftance, on 
each fide, as it were two walls. ' One rich MungI had one 

^ Aau'LOB.hiJi. Turks, tc. p.^og. • Ibid. 


- ^■'-'"8i^- 

C. 4^ Sinte jenghtz Khia. ^07 

or two hoDdred fucb carts with che&s ; (b that fuch a great Mnnglf, 
man's court looked like a great village ■*. '^> em- 

The fixed habitations of the Elutht, which ara but few, /•*'» *=■ 
excepting the roof, which is in the iorm of a dome, ate'r.^^^ 
built in ail tefpefts like the moveable huts ; without either fffr 
chambers, windows, or garrets ; the whole confifting ol one 
Jingle room, about twelve feet high. But thcfe boufes are not 
near (o lai'ge and convenient as thefe of the Manthevij, 'who 
build them fquare *. 

In the year 1721, feme perfons, fent by the emperor f^^ 
RuJJia, Ptter I. to difcover plants, Rear the river ToMiim {fxj^ru. 
Ghulimj, to die well <^ the town of Krafnoyar ; found created, 
about die middle of the great IVep or ddart, a Juod of 
needle, or f[nre, cut out' of one white Hone, about llxteen 
feet hig^ ; furrounded by Ibme hundred fmaU ones, four or 
five feet high. There is an iofcriptbn on one fide of the 
great needle, and feverat charaflen on the leifer ones ; whkh 
time has already defaced in many places, and feem to have no 
refemblance of any nfed in the north parts of Ajia, As theix 
arc no Aones within an hundred testes of tfae^ monuments, . 
and fuch works do not agree with the gentusof the.preleat loha-' 
bitants of T'dfizr)', 5ra(in;^'feems to think, that theycould not 
have been executed dihcr by them or th^ anceftors. But this 
C(mctu{ioD will not hold good, if we confider what has beoi 
already quoted from RUrvquis, who found tombs, in that 
form (L) iu his journey through the fame parti of Tatary. 

In thit part of the country between die Ja'ik and Str,AJtfiritd 
which is inhabited by the Ehths, towards the bwders of thc(Mu«. 
Ka{fatcha Orda, who poflefs the other part, the Rt^tans% 
about 1714, difcovcred a town, quite deferted ; in the midlt 
of tbA iandy grounds, eleven days jpumey to the (buth-weft 
(M) of ramyia, and eight to the weft of Sm^iaiat (N). It 

" "* PvRCK. obi fupra, p. 3, & £(q. *■ ABU*Lort. ubi. fu- 

pra, p. 410. 

(L] PaulLnees, m his fecODd. have b^en built by dw T^tvs, 
To/age to the Levant, torn, i.' in one of their ej^ditions oa 

Liz6, faw a furprizing tium- that fide, 
of pyramids, no fewer than tM) It (hould be fonth-eaft, 
20,000, within two days joflt' accordihgio^^rB^/cH^^'simp, 
ney of Or/area, in /fjia Miinr \ which places this town in th« 
with doors, ftairs, roonis, and neighbourhbodof J'm^jLi/, and 
windows j and in the tapper part Mlukft, both on the Irti&. 
of each a cor^fe. Which, from ' (N) SimfaJai, o StMipalt^t 
their uniformity with thoTc in that is, tht fmin paiaeti, is a 
Tiitary, toAy w prefumed to Ru^itiB fetilcmcnt on the I^i^ 
2£j 1, 

$oi JJifiory ef the MoguU d«f Tartars/ B: tL 

Muogis, is dbottt half a league Id compafs, \rith walls five feet tbkk, 

fbtir cu- and fixtccD high ; the foondaium frceftone, and fup«rftruc- 

/^'' *!C.ture. brick, flanked with towers in iineral places. The > 

*■ r*""^houfcs'were all built with rua-barm bricks, ind fids-poibc^ 

wood; mnch after the cdmmon fiihion in Poland. The laet- 

ter fort had fcveml chambCTS, - There were likc«^e great 

Brick buildings, wHh each a to*er ; which, in all Ukeliboodr 

ftrved for temples. Thefe buildings were in pretty gooii 

Condidon, without the leafl eppearance of .Tiolenct havii^ 

*"■ been ufod to them. 

Writinii In moft of the houfes was found e great qaantity of 

feuati writmgs done up in roUs. One fort wu in China ink and 

ti'tfff Hfc paper, white and thick. The Icares wSre two feet bog, 

snd nine inches broad, written on )x>th fides ; and the lin^ 

reo from the right to left acrofi the lame. The writii^ 

was bounded ^th two block Hoes, which left a two-iad> 

itiar|^. The fecond ion was engrofled upon fine blue ftlk 

paper, in gold and filver. Kith a line round each, in one or 

the other. TTie lines were written length-ways, from rwht 

to left ; waA ^amifbed over, to preferve them. The firft tort 

tKre found to be in the Mungl language : the fecond in that 

r^ing ftrof Tamgut (or Tibet} ; both treating of relipous mattCTs. 

dtvthtt. Since then, two other towns were dilcovcred, deferted in 

the fame manner by the Ebrtis ; yrt^jAAy on account of 

didrwars with t\K MmtgU. Much of the lame kind wa» 

the difcovery made in 1721. Some mitics. fait from ?»• 

Soljioy, by the governor of Siberia, privately to look (or 

luins and ancient fqHilchres, found certain imi^cs of gold, 

filrer, and brafe, in alt the tombs. And, having advanced 

r2offffffw»mtles toward the <7rt/^WMfea, met with the ruins 

of rplcndid baiMings ; among which were fome chambers. 

under -ground, whoje floors and fides coofifted of moft fhine- 

ing ftone. Th«y faw here and there black ebony chcfb ; 

' wirich, inftead of treafuic, contained trritii^i or Wdcs. Of 

ihefe they CH'ried away only five leaves : one whereof, being . 

tderably well prefcrved, was made publick (0). The Icanietf 

t^ Europe, towhom the emperor Prfur I.- ^o communicatedt 

■ rftefe writings, were much puzzled about them j but at once 

wore known l>y mellieurs Freret xiA-Faurmont, of the acadc- 

iny of lofcriptions at Paris (F) to be the lai^age and cha- 

.(0) Id t}x J3» EraJUarzat, (P? In tke hiftory of that 
tol. xIvL p. J75, Juiy 1712, acadenr, for the year 1725* 
afd in the literary oews of Ltip- thcte it x faH accouiit of ibefe- 
_fiijt, ibe i^Hiof Jmit, tkc lame writing 
yw, p. 414, - -■ .■ 


nfter of -SSIM. They fbaad it to be a ituKnl f«iaoB, 'with Mungli, 
a mcHral oa the ot^er life, wdl hutdled % '^^ <**- 

The iaiignage fpokcn by thp auaieroiu tnbcs of Mun^ /'^•^ 
is fimply called the Mungi tODgnc. They hav« indeed Te- i ""'■' 
veral flhUefts ( O ) ; bit underftani «cli other wy weU «, "»i^W- 
The chareften round on the antieat moailmeBts 9re the fame 
^th thofc in prefent ufc; but dlSlKeiit from the Mattcf>ev>s, 
which are bo (dder than the family now reigning. Th^ 
have not the leaft refemblance of the Chmefe letters, «ni are 
no more dlfBcnlt than Ac Raman. They are written on ta- 
bles with nn iron })encil : for iriiidi rcafiia a bode hs a gieat 
rarity amoog the JUungli. The emperor Kang-bi, to ^ea& 
them, had bme of their anthors tnnfltted, and [Minted tk 
Pe-kiag. But tlK chief book among them h the Kekadan 
))ubli£ed by the mathematical tribunal ta that capital, -and 
graved in Mutigl charaftert *■ 

The Mun^, in the fknuMUiw timea of thnr empire, jt^A-Mf.' 
xnltiracd arts and fcicDce* ; which diei learned from th* 
fouihern nations of Jfiat whom they coofiered. Among thfc 
teft, aftronrtny, geography, and other puts of maljicmttics, 
are much indebted to the labours ^ th^ countrymen. Bat, 
with thdr dominion out of Tatary, they loft thdr low fbfr 
learning ; and, at prefait, are Inv^red in dieir antient igno^ 
Cancc. , However, as diey are ftsdious to pre&rve the Itnow- 
\ege of th^r gcn^ogies, tribes, and other matters t^iertain- 
Ing to their own hiuory, diey ftiU retain ■ method peculiar 
to themtclTcs of coai]>nting time, and fettling the dates cf 
tvents. This is a cycle of twelve lunar years, which xvtCjdi tf 
meet widi in t wtwk ilcrlbed to one of dieir emperors, who tivtbit 
reigned la PerJU and Great Bttkharia, widi each its namq^""^'* 
taken from bme animal, in the follawiag order : i , Jf^, 
or the moult. 2. Out, the ok. 3. PAn, the leopard. 4, 
T^Jhkdn, the hare. 5. La'i, the crocodile, 6. Tuldn, the 
(erpent. 7. Tunad, the horfe. 8. Kui, or Kty, the Ifaeep. 
9, Pichin, the ape. 10. Dakfli, the hen. Ii. Eyt, the 
dog. I J. TongAt, the hog '. The Mungh took this cycle 
from the Igirs, Oygiri, os Vig&rt *, the only peojJc in alt 

f Asu'toB-hift. Turks, &C. p. j-je, fc'fcq. « DuHai.b» 
nbi fupra, p. 2j6, fc fcq. " Ibid, p. 15}. -' Ulug. 

Beigh Epoch, celeb, p. 6. ". Hydb rel. vet. PerC p. izj. 

Hiths are the only people &leq. Among them .i^^T^^m/ 
of Grfnd 7atary who preTerve Kidn learned the fmrkijh )a»- 
fhe antieni M^igl or Turkipj eoage. tn which be wrote Iv* 
lW^>ge in all lU purity. J- hiftory, ikid, p. }i. 

X 3 7alarj 

3 io Hiftirj »f the Moguk MiTartan, B. n. 

Mongls, Tatary vho had ddier learning or kttcn bdoK the time of 
f£A> »' Jenghtz Kbin. And from the Jl^n^Zt die Ja^at^ took 
/um.Jtc. their Jena, or twelve figns '. 

SECT n, 

RtiiguB of the MuDgU. 

Mnael rt- T ^ ^ Mmgb, before the time of Ja^tia Khin, woe, la 
j^^n; -*■ all probability, ftri£l deifts ; fince that cooqiKror, at die 
bead of his ¥al&, or lawi, ordained the belief of Ok God, 
the ci:e»tOf- of . bpivea and earth. Bnt, in the rogpi of fail 
fuoxflbrs, the Lanus of Tibet found admiflion into Tstarj ; 
and, by degrees, io infe^cd the iohabiUnts, that, atfrdoi^ 
fXi bnt the Mohattmaian Tatars profefs the reli^^ ai f^, 
called in their laogaage Fe-Jbaii .- which, befides the doc- 
trine of the tnpOalgiration of Ibuls (A), teaches the b^ 
c^ a futoTc Aate, purgatory, invocation of fiunts, worihipcf 
im^es, confefllon)lpardons, abfolutipo, and other doffatact. 
fo very conformable to ±ofe of the Amtu^ religion, that it Eeau 
the connter-part of it, as well in eflcntials as ceremonief, cn> 
to crofling, die beads, and holy water. Tt^ey have not, indeed, 
any thins fo abfurd as tranfubflantiaticHi ; but they have u f 
ttde of faith etjuivalest to it : for they believe, that the God 
Fo, whcon they call God incarnate, not only aJTuipes a faomia 
ti^ */ form, and actually refidcs in. 7~iiet, where he is v/orOappd 
Tibft. ftj the true Deity, or Soverdgq (joih of heaven and m^ i 
but that he comciucucates his divinity to bis chofen {enaoD, 
who officiate, io the feveral pafts ol his fpirit^al dc^B^HU) 
in his ftead. Thefc are the vicars, or deputies, rf die J^* 
ietian god, and are called, in the Mung! language, ^atuitlL 
•rhere are feveral of them in Grtat Tatary. The Mmgli 
have one, who rel^des amoug and prefides over thpn. lie 
KhaOuu another. The E))ut(iktu, or vicar of the Mia^ 
has his abode at f^h^k^ H^tun, mentioned before in tk 
geography of their country ; where he lives in great (bl^ 
Md receives the adorations of the Mtmgh^ who inake pil- 
crimages thither, to vilit him, \vith as inuch devoti<Hi u ibc 
f^manijit do to Sa^. 

' ^EMpr. hift. Japaji, p. 15$. 

(A) S§pt fvft, they do not but more of wild Aaa X»aa\ 

hold the tranriiiigration of the animab. Dm HmUii Cfea^l 

font, at leaft into brutes : for &c. vol. ii. p. 157. 
that they eat the flefli of beaAs; 


C.4' 5/W* Jtnghiz Khan. . 3.1 1 

CERBILLOff tbs]^mt, v/ho vrza aX KMkM If otSn k MangU, 
1688, \rith the emperor Kang-hi, law the Khutdlau, wlio '*«> «- 
was then about twenty-five years old. For although they fi""' *c. 
bcUcFc he never dies, yet they fay he from time to time dif- n-iP'^'Cf. 
appears ; in which hiterva!, his Toul, being feparated from his ,^^,a 
body, immediately enters that of fome child, who is difco- 
Tcred by the Lamas, or priefts. Hence they are called FA- 
fieki, or the Living Fo (B) ; and worihipped as God on earth. ■ 
He was flat faced, and very long vilaged ; bx ia an alcove, at 
die end of the temple, on two large cufhions, one brocade, 
the other yellow fattin. There were fcverai lamps on each ' 
hand ; but only one lighted. He was coreml all over with 
a gown or mantle of yellow damaflc, fo that nothii^ could 
be feen but his head, which was quite bare. His hair was 
cnrled, and his mantle edged with a parti-colonred galoon, 
four or five inches broad, like a pridt's c^m.; which ihn»f the 
veftment nearly refembled. All the civility, he ihewed theMungls) 
emperor's amba/Tadors was, to recdve ftani^ng their compli- 
ments, or rather adorations ; for when they were advanced 
\^thin fix paces of him, they cafl their caps oa the ground, 
and proftrated themfelves thrice, Icnocking the earth 'vrich 
dieir foreheads. After tlds, kneding by turns at his feet, he 
pnt his hand on thdr heads, and made them .touch his- chap- 
let, or beads. The ambafladors then paid a lecond adc«a- 
tion, and, the pretended immortal bdng firfl feated, took -■ 
their places in dcoves, one on each fide. Some of their re- 
tinue alfo, after paying their adorations, received the Impofi- 
tion of hands and touch of the beads. Then an entertain- . . 
stent was fet ; and while the counterfeit god reached a cup 
gi Tatarian teOi, ferved in plate, our author obferved, thatiu hi- 
his arms were bare up to the fiioulders ; and that he iud aabavititr. 
other clothes underneath but red and yellow fcarfs, wrapped > 
about his body. The collation being over, and the tables 
removed, they converfed for fome time. Durjjig which the 
Ihing idc4 kept his gravity very WcU : he fpoke no more thao 
five or fix words, and thofe very foftly, in anfwer to the. 
ambafl^oTs qacllions ; but was coniinuaily rolling his eyes, 
looking earnehly, now at one, then at another ; and fome- 
limes TOocbiafed to linile. In this temple were no image*. 

(B) TheC&fw/iistf(r-F«. la vol. iv. p. 653. He ii called 
Tilei he is called Lama Konju ; alfo Lama Lamala ; that is. the 
and. by the Chimfi and Taiart, LamaofLamasjandDalay La- 
God the Father,' according to ma, or the Great Lamaj being 
t)ie)ci\iaGriitbir. Seecolleft. the pope of thofe countriea. 
royaees and travclt in quarto, ' 

X 4 » 

^11- BifiorftftbeMofffMatdTvim^, 

Mangh, «3 la other templei; but piftures df tiuii dtities, fipei on 
thtir tk- the walls. In a dumber they law a chil4. of fcrcn or dgj^HE- 
JfcHM, ftc.yeirs (AA, wWi a Ump bnnung befide lunii Affled v)A ftat- 
*'— v-*-^cd like dieKhfttOkta, and fo(aied deilgned for hia fiicceffor^ 
When the ambftflidors totdc thck leave of this ntpdc dejtjt^ 
he iteitfaer ftiircd from Ms {»% fifX paid tbem the kaft ^- 
KhAtftktfi jTsB Chatakt& of the Kalkas i) not fnt^cA lo the Dtkf 
»f tht Lama of Tlfa/, tfaongh ori^nally a dnnty &opi him to thenk 
Kalkaii and the itAtfiftj ; bat, havine taited tiic fwcets of rpiiinal com- 
mand, he nude bold (towsrcu the ytsr 1 680) to fet ap for bimt 
ftlf. This he performed with lb much addrefs, that there it 
fcarce anj mention made at prcleat tA the Daisy Lama among 
the Kt^ias ; who bfli^e th^ Uving ^0 to be no le& divine anq 
immortil than him of TAtt. Thf court ^Chma, had a greai 
hand in this new apoth<»fi9, in order to divide the Kaika^ 
from the Eiathi \ which they faw cpuld not wdl be done io! 
long as bodi nations continue attached to th? lame head of 
rcl^on ; wito would, it all times, in cafe of difference, pir 
dieavour, for his own lake, to r«conf:i]p tbem ''. Witfa dtb; 
view the emperor Kang-U, at the intreaty of the KhutuktA, 
affiA«d the Kaikas agaJofl xMan Pejuktv, Ehan <^ the 
Ebahs, in ^688. But before the Chitiefe forpes arrived, JPaAr 
dan b^ made great ravages in the country of the K^kai % 
a&d, ^moog the red, deftroyed the magnificent temple, whidt 
the Khur&lct& bad b41i near the riTer' TmU^ with yeUotr, 
yarmlhed bricks 
hit r*Ji' This living Fo, who was the chief occali<Hi of the war, 
Jact: by his cmelty tod injoltice, was named Chemitxun T^mJtf 
KbAt^A -, zoA. brttthcr to the Eh^ cX the Kalkas, called 
yybetu KhOn. After hi$ temple was deilroyfd, aikd Ktdi_ 
f&n was repoUed by help cf the imperial troops, he went 
and dwdt ia tents, o;i ti^ bapks of the Hm Pint, a littla 
river, whidi falls jntp the Sefinga. As the v«ieratioil whichj 
the K&lkat had for him drew crouds of peopk thither, tha 
idace, in a Unle time, might be called a large dty of teon ; th«i 
hurry bdng much greater there than any-where die in that 
fxct of T-aiary : for it is reforted to by the Rifffians, and other 
nttiiHK, fat the fake of trade, a$ well as by the priefls of 
all ranks, from HindoftM, Pegu, Tiiet, and China '. Gerhillon, 
fkV this KhStWftus, in 1691, at an audience c^ the emperor 
£ang-hi ; who obliged that pretended god to pay him tiwn- 
ftrfia «!(</ age. He was a corpulent man, aiid the only hit Kalka out 

' DvHaldb. China, tx. vol. li. p. 179. > Abu*lch. 

ilia. Twrks, Jtc. p. 508. e Dy Haxds ubi fupra, p. ajz. 


Author M oKT (lea: of « iiu<i(U¥ Audr t as^ tllo^ «p^ ^''V^ 
if«rds of fifty, had t T^ry niddy complex^. , He wu.dtTW **"''" »»* 
}b a toqg gown of ydtow. fiiuia, wid) b border of tkii fsf, A^ -**^ 
twd cdlir of tbf fiiai*. Ovp- his Ihpulder hfc wane & grctt*'*V^ 
iinen fcarf, of a. <lark Nd, His head ^d beard Wcrtibm^ 
Hu boBKt wu a kifid of aiitrrt, of yellov laicm (G), wMh. 
£[Hv red comers tf rued up, and fooed with oattrnte Sm 
■ black fable. He had oa red boots, peaked at the toe^ « Mr*. 
row saloon ninoing along the feams, H4 was fdlowed hj 
two fervanu ; and (amdoued by the nvfideat of the tribunal 
pf the MungU. After this, bang feat for by the tmperor, 
he, for all his prtde, (wt an the mbiti^Cere^ay appointed 
him by his Chine/t majofty, and rectived a prefent of about 
330 poands*. 

These Khfitfiktfls ar? attended by Umas, tJr prififts. Who Umki, O-^ 
\mz a great afccndant over the peofJc, and Sit held in ^a-tfritfii i 
veneradoa by them : although the Jefuits tell ns, tf they mjiy 
^ credited, that they are commonly not only ignorant (D), 
(being accounted leaJ-ficd, if they can but read thfclr lacred'^Vr'*' 
tMoks in thcTTtrfwfi lajiguage); but alfo great liberfiDes ;'■«*«- 
debaadiing women, with impunity. They fiog their pray. 
ft%, Vhich they (bffce midernand, with 2 lolento ytt harmo- 
nions air : and this (bakes almofl the whole of thdr rdigioua 
worfhip. Theynukeno Sacrifice, or oflferiogi but du^oiTc 
^bfoludon to the ffcople, irtio demand it, bare-head«d. on theu- 
kiiees : and are fo btgoticd 10 them, dut the oulEoAers fij, 
^lere are very little hope* of courerdt^ them to the Jiomijb 
ftith. It it-geaerally believed, that they c&n call down haQ 
and r^. This wa( teftified to the Jrfuiu by feVeraJ Maa- 
»rins, at eye-vrttneftes ; and they Were told at Pe-king, that 
^ Lamas pnflilcd forcery (E). Thpy pret^d alio t6 phjr 
* I>t> HAL9t ibi fapra, p. 3)8, tt fe\. 

(C) The ctjtottr of yellow 4c- fclBb^im thtt he lufl nmclk' 
pott* being in ^e incereA of adp to Wing kimfelf off with 
fke CKpnor of China, wliflfc li»nouT. ASlgh. hllL T'st-jK 
JiTMy t)i«t i». " &c.p. 489. wi*. i/tbey are 

fD) On fhe connvy, we an fo well acqu^inteditith the nJi- 
told by Bniini, that one of his giona of other nationt, it ii not 
popifh frJencT), in hii way thrQ' fikely they are ignorant of their 
the Mungh country, iiavingre- own. 

imached fpnc Lamt* for de- (E) The antietttrawnen, a» 
cciving tl^e vulgar, in making S^,Jfe9!lt 
them believe the divipity of the much of their forccry apd ma- 
fialay'Lama,aiidtlieKMikAtfl; gic ; hut no womlM-, fince 
fhey 10 fffiattly rctoittd oa him that fupFrlliiion it ftill beK^vcd 
the Xflii^ doorinet, reining to by the Rsmiji ^Wr^. 
the pope's fupremacy aad in- 1 

■■ J? ' fiC( . 

. „.. . L.OOQIC 

|z4 Bijtory of the Moguls imjTartars, B. If,' 

Maaf^ fie ; i^iicb they praAioe. Their drHs is like that in which 
ibdr em- the. apoftles are punted ; and they wear a mitre and c^, 
/**"'**-Uke biflnps. They do not live in community in Tataty: 
^^V^^bot, in Jbffle {dacxs, have a kind of prebends ; beii^ die 

lands and docks of thofe whom they fncceed ; of whom they 
■■are generally the difdples or companions. ' They go from 

tent to tent, and repeat certain pray^-s ; for which they have' 


S E C T. III. 

Government of tie Mungls. 

Avmiki T^ order rightly to underfland the nature <^ government ia 
amJOi- ■*■ ufe among the Mungh, it muft be obfcrved', that each of 
dac the three great branches is divided into Ajinaks, or tribes,^ 

, and although any one of them comes to fubdivide into fcveral' 
- Idler branches, yet they are always reckoned as belonging to 
fiich.' tribe. Every Aymak is compofed of a number of fa-, 
milies, who ufually encamp together; and. never feparate, 
witlio'^it acquainting their chief, that he may know where to 
find them. When an Aymak, or tribe, is afTembled, whe- 
ther to go fight their enemies, or for any other particular 
reafon, it is called Orda, or, as Europeans term it, an hord. 
Txyki Evert tribe, or branch feparated from it, has its particu- 

«s^Khin,lar chief, who is called Tayki (or Tayghi) t which dignity 
defcends regularly to the eldeft fon. Thefe are all their no-' 
bility : and, riches being equally divided among them, there 
is no other diSerence between one head of a tribe and an- 
other, but that of merit, or the number of families in his 
Orda». Thefe chiefs of tribes are fubjc£l to fome Khan, 
whofe vaffals they are, as well as by birth his generals and' 
counfellors. Ehan, or H3n, is a tide given to the fovereign of 
any ftate, great or &nall (A) : thus, fevo-al petty Mungl princes 
»re filled Khans, though tributary to the Khan of the KaJka 
Mungh; whoishimfelf undertheproteftionofthccmperorof 
Ctnna ; and this laft monarch, ori^nally coming from Tatary,- 
is alfo called Khan ; being confidered as the Great KhSn of 
the Manchrwt, proper Mungls, and Kalkas, who are fubjeA to 

■ DtrHALDB nbi foprt, p. i;i,.&fe(|. Sc p. j6^. » Ibid, 
p. 397, U fcq. 

(A) In the time of Jengtix were then called Khan, as being 

Khaaevery uihc feemed to have iDdependeni, till they were fub- 

■ts particular Khan ; or thpfe dued by, ot fabmittcd ta, that 

chiefs wtwat^nowcalledTayki cqnqiicTor. 


C, 4; Smti Jtof^zKlAai 315 

hun. It is not permitted to any of the hauiy, escepliDg the Mmigli, 
ragniog prince alone, to alTume the titk o( Kfafln ^ : that titir em- 
which belongs to the princes o( the blood being Taykj *, ftam,SeK, 

When a Khan dies, all the.princes crftherdgmi^fe!iuly,^f''jrT^ 
and heads of tribes; which are,upder the donunion of that ^^' .■*"'!' 
hoofe, meet at the tifoal residence of the deceaied monarch ; * '""'• 
where they proceed to the elc£lioD of a new one. Th^ only 
exaiaine who m^y be the eldeA among thofe princes, -udthout 
rc^rd to th^ fenionty of the feveral branches of the family, or 
to the children of the deceaied ; and the? never ia!A to ded 
htm who appears to be oldefl, uolefs feme extraordinary per- 
fbnal defe^ b$ found in him. It is true, force and usurpa- 
tion may fet this order a£de : but this cafe happens mudi 
f^dom^r among the Pagan than Mohamtnedan Tatars '. 

XK%MuttgU, for fome coniider^le.tiine after theh divide- 7i^ 
ing into three great branches, continued independent underMnngb 
their refpeftive Khan* : bot, at.prefent, only the Eiuths tc-M""* 
uin an abfolute fovereignty j th« Mungls a^ KaJkas having 
become fubjeft to the Manchmi, now r«g^g in Chinas on 
fwo difierent occa^ong. 

After the defcendaats of Jenghiz Kh&n, towards tbaf« ih» 
middle of the fourteenth century, were driven oat of dnna^'^' 
tlie princes of his houfe fdzcd on territories, and formed^^^*"* 
djfierent hords : however, the title of Khan remaned to tho 
chief of them, palled Chahar Kh&n, defcended from Hu- 
btlay, QF Kvblay. To this prince the other Mungl tribes 
(who had continued in Tatary), and even th^ Eluths them- 
felves, werg tributary, till about the begioning of the feven- 
teentb century; when his fubjefts (6),. uo^le to bear his 
cruelties and riots, called in the foiinder of the Manchevt 
moaarf:hy (n China .- who obliged him to quit the tide of 
plan for that of Vang, and incirdy fnbdued the Mungls 
about the great wall '. 

, These new maflers, after thdr conqucft of China, coa- iheir^ 
ferred on die moA powerful of thcnt the tides of Vxag,ver)u»nti 
fey-k, Pey-tfe, Kong, &c. anfwering to thofe of regulo, 
prince, duke, earl, 6rc. ; divided them ioto f^rty-nine Aand- 
ards, and fetded a revenue on each chief; fixed the bounds 
ff their lands, and efhbliflied laws, by which they are go- 

^ Du Halds nbi fupra, p.,39f- * Sduciet. obr, math, 

«. 160, note ]. # Ibid. p. 39S. ^ Do Halde, vol. ii. 

J. 151. 

(6) By thi}, Chabof Kha* ponid not have lived two whole 
]{iii|t' be* only >, title t fince hf centurieB and more. 

■ Tcrned 


S i< tiifiory- 9f ik MqguU «Mf Tartars, B. IT.. 

Mangk, fcmad tt>' tMs day. • lUtort is a gitnk ttibunal -at 'Pe-Ung 
thtit- v«- {taH^A th«T of ffae V^bt»itJ, to wblch appeals arc brat^t 
Jf»<»'i^-fTOBi the JullgiB<nA «f tlie priMct tho&lHvee; «^ ar^ 
"-■■v-^J <Wi^ to •!)?««■, T**wfiti(iMl. TbtK^M, fmce thw fob- 

je^oti, are uBder the Ann t«g«Urion ^ 
friirffj The levem ^MtHes «r diftriAs of the Munglt, ewtt 
mMnm. Abfe ■which 4rc tht *erft, behig dry, fendy, and cold, foch 
As Korchifi, O^tn, NiipHdH, and Tarieda, maintBin s great 
ADmber cf princes. The hciule of Korchm only, at the timd 
when the ihiffiMiers [^ifed throngh it (in 1710], had dght 
or fiine dlitiHgUiftirf by their Several tWes above-mentioned ; 
riie number of ♦hlch tl not SctxA : becaufe they depend tn 
*he wai fif the emptrAr <rf GMna, •ho is, widi rcfpefl tA 
them, the Grand KhSh ; and ifrtio e»dt8 or degrades then, 
according tb ihdr Ofthanft. Wbtea they *re withoot dtlc, 
or military commi^d, Aey are <alled TaJ^ (C) '. nevcrthe- 
Ws, they are cbnfidtred aa maOcTs rf their territories by 
the Mun^s, who are no better thoa ikres m the heads of 
didr tefpeAifV Juuilk). 

These princes have a politenefs vl^<Ji diftiDgoiJlies them 
frbin djcir fcbjeAs : who, though they flile thte)re),Te5 flawes, 
ate not treated with feverity ; but have ready seeds oii-th# 
fi^hteft occafios! : yet, formed by educatjon, this familiarity 
(&£» off noiWng of dicir refpcft ", 
n«Eilk4 It ^'oe^ liot appear at what Smes that part of the Munglt 
Mangls eiUut Kaikas alTnlnried the name. Thefe had at firfl a Kban^ 
Drtro, as wcli as the oiJier Mimgh and Ehiths, was tribntary to 
the Chahiv XhJht abore-mcntioned : but the Kalias Incre^ing 
♦aftly in (hnc, and the defendants of Xirffaj', who bed only 
*hc tide ofTayki, growing numerous; the mote powerful among 
fliem became by degite iridepcndeHt on each other, and rf 
flie Efa&D Mmf^f, to whom tMy paid only a Oight homage. 
Before the year 1688 they are laid to have amounted to 


600,000 families, divided into feven ftaodards, under fo 

jCaDg'hi. Many chiefe ; on three of whom the Dnlay Lama of Tibtt 

' conferred the dtle of Khin : althon^ the Tayki's allowed 

them no farther ftipcriority than the fitfl piace in aficmblies. 

But, in the year ^bore-mcntioncd, fCaldan Pojokta, Khan of the 
E!utfii, ha;ving inraded their territories, to revenge himJelf oh 
the KhutuktQ, l»th for his ufurpation, or revolt from tha 
Dalay Lama, and the death of a Khin, which he had cdni 

' Dv Hald'b, vol. ii. p, t6i, 364, * Ibid. p. jjo. - 

(C) The Chinr/i pronounce it Ta^-ti, jnd llie fiv^mt T^i, 

t. 44 Since Jenghtz Khao. $ 1 7 

Cectad; the f^alkaKhias, after half their {ubjcAshaJbeeOiJe- MungU, 
ftroyed by the snemy, implorod the affiftanoe of the emperor *^''' '*' 
©f Jyftf'na, Kang-bi ; to whom, rfter the war, cwo ef them A"'- *C' 
fubmltted immediately, with th«ir iiibjeAa. Thefe he divided ^""V^ 
Into ShalTaks, or ftaa'dards, Bke the Mimgit ; eonferring nc« 
tides on theii princea, and appointing tfacm bnds fiar tfacit 
main te nance. 

TOSHBTU, oxTiffbclttu, tiiemoft poirerfatof theIiEh!rns^^(^(Mt> 
(D), after hit defeat by the Bhths, fled ; bat leas not kA.-fviirfi»L 
lowed by many of his people : moft of whom retired into 
the wood}, 00 the north fide of the river Tula ; and after- 
toal'ds, fabmitting to the emperor, were divided into three 
flaodvdt, nnder fo many priacet ". Honerer, we an told 
by other authors, that thia fubmiiTIon, obtained b^ the ia- 
triguet of the Lamas, was very pracarioat, and iqcn^ no* 
miiial t for that hie Ion Ti/fUdtv KMh, who, te 1720, ha^ 
his Dt^a, or camp, on the river Orhhony twelve days journey 
10 the fouth-ealt nf SeHnghinftiy, WW very powerful; ana 
had feverai petty Khfins, who dn-elt about the iprings of 
ihe Jfmfea, and the great AoM or defart, tributary to him. 
Likewife, inftead of paying tribtits hlmfdf, the emperor of 
Cfma fends him every year magnificcat prefents ; and the ' 
•omf^ftnce mth whkh he is treated, (bews, that he i« 
feared mnv than any of th« neighbouring princes i for, 
fliould he ever ccnne to an i^reentent with the Blutiu, the 
anion might endanger the pr^nt family rdgning ia £%iiM '. - 

The Ehiths,-vho at firft were tribatary to theCA«6w JtlWn, Eluths 
u well as the Katkas, at length became Indipefident aUb nrvem- 
and are, at preTent, the moft numeroos of all the great 'W'"; 
'branches into which the Mungls arc at [K-efoit divided. 
TWc people grew very formidable in the laft century. After 
fabdning Little Bukkaria, under the famous Kaidon P<^9ktu, '•- - . ^ 
before-nwntioned, they mined the Kalkas ; and even threat-. 
CDed to attack China itfelf, with a handful of men ; but hs 
'Wis overthrown at hA, altho' with much difficulty. SlncS' 
which time they kept themfelves within their proper bounds,- 
and have not been ib troublefome to their netghhour^ at 

The Kh3n (called" JEsn/iifAi, or the great lord) Is a fwteotf*"'"' "'■■■' 
fvinc^ being able to bring into the md above an ^ndred/°""- 

' T>v Haldi, vol. ti. p. ijt. a^g. ' Behtih); jit». 

Abo1g. hilt Turks, &c. p. 505, & feq. 

(D) Hii territories e:i^eaded along the Sfilnga, Orti*ii, and 
7mU, at far as monnc K,^i«y. t 

L ,„..=, L,ooglc 

^i8 Itifiory «//£;MoguIaas^ Tartars^ B.It 

MungU, thoalaDd men ^. Od this occafion it may be proper to ob* 
titi- cu- ferve; that the Taykis are of account to their Khaas only ia 
JItmt, lie. proportion to the number of families in their refpeAlrs 
■^ "-" '-' Aymaks, or tribes ; and the Ehlns fomudable to their neigh- 
boors, only in propwtioo to the number of tribes which ara 
in ftibjefHon to than ; and in which confifts all thdr riches 
and grandeur, as well as power '. 
Jrm »f Thb arms of the Ehabt are chiefly great bows, with Iize- 
ckBladu, able arrows ; which they draw very true, and with great force ; 
it haring been obfcrved, in the diflFerence which the RuJJlans 
had \rith them io 1 7 1 5, on account of f<Mne Icttlements on 
the river Irtifb, that tficy pierced men quite through the 
body ^th thar Ihafts. They hare alTo great arquebulles, 
iix feet long, with barrels an inch thick ; and yet the ball 
they carry is hardly fo much. They iix than on refts, and 
nev£r mils at lix hundred yards diftance ; firing them off 
hew >uF«r*witfa a match. When they march they carry them acrofs 
ij thtm. their backs, faftencd to a ihap ; and the reft hangs on the 
right fide. As they never go u> war but on horfe-back 
(having no infantry), they all ufe lances, and moft of them 
coats of mail, and iron caps. Thrir commanders, but few 
dfe, wear fabres, like the Chmefts, the handle behind, and 
the pcmit before, that they may draw backwards, which is 
the more convcmmt way. Thefe commanders are ufually 
the heads of Ordas : fo that a trpop is fbxmg, according as 
sn Orda is more ac lefs numerous. Moft of the inhabitants 
of Tatary hang thdr bow at the left fide, in a fort of cafe, 
when they take horfe .■ but they carry their quivers at their 
baclu. The left hand b the pkce of honour with moft of 
the oriental people ; particularly the Mohammedan Tatart, 
Wit; tf Tket fhoot their arrows with as much fkill flying as ad- 
fgbiini i vancing t for this rcafon they chufc rather to provoke thdr 
oocDuet at a difbnce, than come to clofe flght with them, 
anlefs they have much the advantage. They hare not the 
method of fighdng in Imes and ranks : but, upon going to 
aCtion, divide therofelves, without any order, into as many 
troops as there are Ordas, which compofc the army ; and in 
this manner each advances, led by its chief, to charge the 
enemy, lance in hand. The Tatan hare been erer very ex- 
pert in fighting flying, as ^intus Curiiui, and other antienc 
authors, relate. In this the fwiftnefs of their horfcs fhnds 
them in great ftead : for cften, when one ciHiclades thorn 
intircly routed, they return, and iaSX upon their enemy witfi 
as much vig»ur as before ; and when their advef fanes are 

* Bent. ip. Abu'lgh. hifl. Turks, Ac- p. ;4J, U feq, 
1 Ibid. p. }c^. 


C4' Shice Jen^^THiSiL 319 

eager to purrne thsm, without preferviog order, they nm Mnag^ 
terrible rifles of beiog defeated. The Elutht arc brxvc be- '*"> «»- 
yoDd what can be imagined, and want nothing bgt European fi*""*^^ 
difciplioe to make them formidable. They haifg not yet'' ■•'■ "^ 
learned the ufe of cannon ; and, indeed, as they confift onjy 
of caralry, it would not be of much fervice to them ■". 

Each Aymak has its particular enfign or banner ; whidl£^jptf 
Is ufually a pieK of Kitayka, or fome other coloured flaff,«r m- 
an eU fqnare, fet upon the top of a lance, twelve feet long.'"^* 
The Eluthi and MvngU exhibit the hgurc of a, dromedary, 
cow, horfe, or other animal, pnttiog under it the name of 
the tribe ; and as all the branches <« the fame tribe Aili re- 
tain the figure reprefented in the enfign thereof, adding 
thereto only the name of the branch for whofe ufe it is de- 
signed, thcfc enfigDS ferre them, in (bme meafurc, inftead of 
a gcnoilog^cal table. When an Aymak is in march, the ea>- 
lign {KXiceeds at the head, immediately after the chief ". ' 

The prefent inhabitants of Creat Tatary in general, whoHnurtf 
have exafUy preferred the manner of living of the antient«'V at 
Mungli, carry their whole fubftance along. with them where- '•*''• 
ever tbey go. Hence it comes, that w^'en they happen to 
Ic^e a Iwittlc, their wives and children commonly remain a 
prey to the vanquifhcr, with tbdr cattle, and generally all 
they poflefs in the world. . They are, in fome metfnre, ne- 
cefGtated to incumber thcmfelves this way ; for othennfe they 
fhould leave their families and efieAs a prey to other Tatars 
their ndghbours '. ' ' 

As there isbut little magnificence ac prdent to be faaaAfhtKiAft 
in the court of a Khan, and their fubjefls are obliged to icA-rtnamt, 
low them to war, on the hopes of fpoil, which is their only 
pay, they have no occalion, or rather pretence, for large 
revenues ; which confift wholly in tythes. The Tatari of all 
denominations pay two tyihes annually of aU thdr e^fb ; 
jfirA to. thdr.Khins, and then to their heads of fribes. The 
Eluths and Mungh, not cultivating their lands, - ^ve the 
^teath of thdr cattle, and the- booty which- they take ia 

With regard to the government of the other twoEIoA* 
branches of the Eluths, the TorgaUti and Kojbctii the firftTor|*lid 
who feparaied from the Jongari, in the Is^nning of the pre- 
fent century, put themfelves under the protection of the 
Ruffians \ and ftill make ufe of it, although they poUefs a 
confiderable exttnt of country, to the eall of the.iuDgdom 

■ BBMT.ap. Abu'lgh. hift. Turics, &c. p. sjj. ' "Ibid, 
p. 401. *tbid. S37. f Ibid. p. 395, 398. 

-pxD H0«y y iit MogdoP Miingl £m^«. B. tL 

Msngt*) a 4/lraJiliin, aad dver ;^. la qtber refpefts Kw under tly 
ffci*- f«- lame form of governnwnt with the r«ft of the Elutbi, dlridwl 
./^^•^••into AymiJt^ or tribes, with thor Tayku, and a Khan o«r all. 
^^^7g^ TaE 5/i/rAj Ao/la// have been fettle^ ii the country of 
hoti (ittV ''^^ ■'^*' ^™^ '''^'^ ^^ Mungli were driven out of China. 
tsfu^. They are fubjefl: to e^ht Taykis, or princes, who havq their 
pf'^, refpci^ve tcrrJtoriei, but are leagued tcvcther for their mii- 
tud prefervatloi). They ^re all of the ume family, and djg- 
nilied by the <mpercH- of Cbintt vtth the titles of regulo, or 
petty king, prince, duke,«od earl : they arc all vaUal* to the 
Khaa, wb() refides »t Tibet, or rather to the Great Lama; oa 
whom oQc of the aoceAors of that Ehin beAowed Tibet 
about the 7«ar i ^30, after be had conquered it from the lav- 
fb) prtoce- Bst after the ijefs^t c^ Kaidan, Khan of the 
Jongafi Bhthi, by the troops of the emperor of China ia 
1691, die emperor Kang-ii (eat to ifivite thefe eight Ta^t^ 
to bftcome his vaTTals. The chief in rank vnong them, accept- 
ing the iDvitatioi], «m made T^iog Vang, or prime regulg. 
Some of the others fubmitted to pay him homage by proxy ; 
tpd the emperor chofc to win the reQ by prefents, and aUowr 
ba them » trade ci^ftom-free ''. 

BOOK in. 

Wfiory 6f the Mt^l or Mungi Empire, 
fata^ad by JcogbSz Kb^n. 

C H A P. I. 
The Utig* ^ TciBujin tiH tkHed Grand MhJi$, 

Mopd ^TT^HE emirfwof thcAfegti/*, iriioft Wftoryweirenow 

ft'''*! I ente^Dg upon, is one of the moA furprizing phano- 

' ' -^ mena which has appeared on the theatre <£ this 

^- world ; and i«4»t dcfcrves more than any other to attraft dw 

reader's adnnratioR, whether he confiders its rife, its oxtentf 

or the rapidity cX its prc^rcfs. It was thought that the 'Ara^ 

fcad carried cqnqneft to its utmoft ftretch ; and thatnohumaa 

^ower could ever do more than a people, who 'm the oompaft 

of feventy years, fubdued more countries than the Romans had 

4 Du Ualob, vf^. i. p. 29, & feq. and vol. x. p. 265- 



C. !• ^t'i" ^Jenghiz Khan: 321 

dpoe ia - 500. But .the Moguls have gone far beyond the A. D. 
^rait, and tmta as fmall a b^^nning acquired a much lai^cr 1 1^3- 
VmpiFe in &r left time : for Jettgblz Khdn, ia a few years,'— V"*;J 
extended his dominions, from a fmaU territory, to more Ihan 
1800 leagues from eafl to \veA, and above 1000 from northiVf tiaft 
to fbnth, . over the moft powerful, as well as wealthy, king-'-"'"? .- 
doihs of ^Jia, Hence he is with juflke acknowle^^ to be 
the greateA prinjce who ever filled the eaflem throne ; and all 
hiftorians have bellowed on him the highefl titles, as well as 
greatest enconuDms, that ever moparph was honoured with. 
They iHIe hiin the conqueror ef the world, the only king of 
kings, the jnal^r of tlurones and. crowns : they likewifb fay, 
that God never inveflcd any fovereign o;i earth with fo great 

Bdt for aU 4f"* f° ^ong refounded with the fiune of thisiVi hifimy 
hero, his nam<: haf been fcarce known to Europeam, till oiliith 
late, that his biftciryhas been ^ven from the oriental authors :^"«^'- 
for although fome early travellers, as Rubruquis and Marco 
Polo, wrote concerning the Moguls,- and thdr conquefts, yet 
they foJmperfea and erroneous amanner, as 
to afford no jufl idea of them ; wbilfl the fables, which their 
relations ai'e minted with, rendered the whole fufpeAcd and 
dcfpifed by men of judgment. 

The (hort but curious account.'which -^M'/'ird/ (A) hasAfiatic 
delivered of yenghiz Ifii^n, and bis immediate fucceflbrs, faHauibtri 
gave the learned of thcfe parts of Europe a deflie to know- 
more of their hiflory. In this D'Herbelot in good meafure 
gratified them in h^ Bibliotheque Orientals (B). Afterwards 
M. Petit de'la Croix, the father, wrote the hiffory oi Jenghiz 
KhtUi, compiled chiefly from the oriental authors, by order 
of Levj'ts XIV. king of France ; to which his fon hath added 
aji abridgment of the hitiory of that monarch's fucccflbrs in 
the leveral parts of his empire (C). Since then a tranflation 
has been publifticd of the genealogical hiftory of the Turks 
and Tatars, written by Mfflghazi Kh^ of Karazm : wherein 
is given the hiftory of Jmghiz Khdn, in fome detail bommaJtmft 
nineteen or nventy oriental authors, of whom Fadlallah is the"/"- ' 

■ De la Croix hill. Gengh. p. 2. 

(A) In his Hijloria nmftn- (B) PubHflied in 1690, in 

diafa Dyna/lkaram, publiihed folia. 

in 1663, by the learned Ijr. Pq- (C) Publifhed ia FrtiKh. in 

tod, with a Latin verljon, and two volumes 8vo, i-zz; and in 

a fuppleoient of his own. EngHJ]:, in one volume, 1 730. 

Mod. Hist, Vol. IV. Y principal. 

324 Hifiory ef the Wo^or Mungl*«f»r*. Bi III. 

A. D. principal, with that of his filccellbrs, diieflf la Grtdt JtiMMd^' 
. it6$. and Kapchak (D). LafUy, Anthony GauhU, a Jefnit tt Pt^ 
*— "v^— ' tfjig, oHiged the wwld wth a h'Jlory of yeng^z f(hhf, in* 
his iucceilors ill China, till theif expulfiba ; tfxtKiaed frbm th* 
Cif'n^c' annals, and illuftrartd -with Very nfcftil notes of hi* 
own (E), Thcfe are the works of arty note, tidieti imttMlfi- 
ately from the Jftatic writers, which have ay yet aJmft td 
hand ; and from them principally have we drawn our ttUtte' 
rials relating to the Mogul af^irs. 
Difagttf But here it mufl be obfervcd, that AM'Ighati ICh^ iS^ 
aunt <- De la Crcix, or the autliors thtfy hare made ufe cf, prMtfcfl 
■M^M-on different plans, or accoitling to diflercnt metacnrs. TTiC 
'*»"■ firft confines hlmfelf to a plshl narration of feiSs, in the or- 
der they happened, without enlirging on any thing : tbi 
latter improves every thing to the adirantage of his hero, to 
order to make his actions appear ivith grater liiftre: The firft 
leavcshiminaftatcof inaflivity, from thedeathof his'ftAer 
till the fortieth year of his age, that 'he bccaoie in a crondltioD 
to reduce his revolted fubjefts, and obtain the eDiplrfc : the 
latter fills np that fpace of time with a great many mrideitt^ 
and even aJfigns them thdr dates, that his ragti (n^t not ap* 
pear with fo great a chafm in it. To inhance hi* future glory 
the more, he makes him, during that interVal| reduced td 
put himfclf under the protection of ffljig Khin, fovereign of 
many nations ; whereas AhA'lgbaz.i XkAK reptefetnt- him as 
quite independent all the while. LaJUy, Dt la Croix pkcet 
Ti/miijini's binh ten years earlier than the otho-, which makes 
a great difference in the chronology, bata tbeuce to the titoi 
' he became Gi'aud Khan. 

(D) lie bring! down the hi- nefled (o ai to ftwm t regtiltt 

fioiy to }ear 1663. Icwastirft account or countries, and thclf 

procured by the Sii-edi^ prifon- prefent intikbitantf. 
en from a BiMar irerchant, (E) This learned and jodi* 

' who brought it to Toie/Ji-ej, ca- cions Jefak tranfinitted two 

pital of Sihrria. Strahlnhirg tfa^s to E. Soudit, of the fame 

gotinraDflatedintothe^B^/a«; fociccy ; who pubiiQied them 

and Mr. Btniini, with his ap- firil in his Obftmj. malh, gfir, 

probation and direflioDS, pub- /Aigr. He. in 410, 1719- It >s 

lilh<:d it in Frend; with curious intituled, A brief hillory of the 

notes,jn 1725. in one volume firft live Jlfcjft/ emperors. The 

izmo; and, in 1730, it was fecond appeared by itfelf, in 

' publilhcd id Ettglijh, with addi- 1739, unJer the title of the hi* 

tional notes, in two volumes (lory of Gnjri-ij/fo», and ill hij 

8vo. The firft contains the hi. fucce£br!,who reigned in C^M' 
fior}' ; the fecond the notes, con- 


- -- ^'""Si^ 

C. I . - i(eigtt of Jcnghiz KhSn. i^% 

- Whence tWs great *&gT«inent arifts it is not cafy to A.D. 
Ji^termintf: dnCi Jbi'tghdzi Khan, though he made ufe of "163. 
twefity autbors, never quotes, or eren mearions, any, except- ^-*v*-J 
iagFadMah; and diat only togive feme accotint of his work,**""" 
as bcinig his principal anthority : od -the other hand, De l&f^'*""' 
Croix commonly Cites his authors in the miu^a, but not di- 
llinftiy' enough 16 kriow what belongs to each. However, 
from thence we arc able to difcover, that he took not only the 
date of Temyjm's birdi, bnt alfo his hiftory, efpedally for the 
beginning of his reign, chiefly from Mirkond, Kondamtrt and 
other oriental authors, rather than Fadiatlah, whom he ftl- 
dom quotes on the occafion. Now as (his is the [»ind|at hi^ 
florian made nfe of by Ab^lghazi Khan, who alfo had re- 
conrfe to fcveral Mogul writers-, it is probaUe he follows them 
in thofe particiflars : 4nd hence may anfc the difirence between 
him and D^ la Cni-e. 

PossiBLT FctdltUtab relates no more concerning die fec^WUcb */ 
yeai's of Temufm's reign than wbat we meet with in yfb^l-ibem 
ghazi Khcht ; and that the latter hiftfflians have fwellcd il 
with incidents, and even inlarged the term of his Ufe, for the 
reafon beforc-mcndoned. Hbwevcr that be, it is certain 
Ab&'lgh'ati Khih took Ms memoirs, fb far at leaft, from othtf 
authors than thole wboOt' Be U Croix has made afe of ; aitd 
his authority, we think, onght to be preferred : not only be> 
caufe, as being a Mogat himfelF, he was better able to judge 
what writers were moft' to be depended on : bnt alfo becanfe 
Che account Ke gives is correfpondent with the Chtnefe hiftory, 
whofe authority onght to take place, had all the Perfian hi' 
ftorians, and even Ft^aitah himfelf, contradicted it. For al- 
thou^ the Wa^ FatSaJlal wrote his cnrions work in the 
year 1 294, at' the comn^nd of Cazthi, or Aiszin Ki^ (lixth 
fncceflbr of IfMiiS, Jenghtz KhMi grandfon, hi Per_fia), 
from the naWDCiIr s of Ptd&l, a flf^t, fent by that monarch 
into Tatary to collcft them ; yet Kublay Kbin, Hilaku'9 bro- 
ther, who r^pied' ifl (be ialtem part of Tatary and China, 
had ordered the hiftory of his predeceUra^ to be written feve- 
Al years bcfbre\ So that, fiippo/ing oral tradition*, nihsr h It frt- 
than written memoirs, were the chief baiis di both hiOoriesc ifirrtis 
yet that let on foot by Kublay Khin may be prelnmed to be' 
more complete and accurate than the other compofed by 
KaS^ Khan's order t as not one perfon mily, but many, doubt-^ , 
teis, were employed to coUeft materials ; and being written oa 

* See Di LA Caoix hift. G'engh. p, 424. < Souciet 

Mkrr. matbcmat, ftc. p. sot. 


324 Hifiorj of ihtMo^l »r M\M^ Empire. B.OT. 

A. D. the {^t, ncourfe might be cafily had, from time to time, to 

1163. proper perfons for infonnatloD and folving difficulties. Not 

k. -J,- .JtQ meDtlon the advantages it muft have received from the 

Chlnefe hiltoTians, who have hota always carefd to record, 

by way of annals, the ajfairs of their ndghbom-s, efpecially 

fuch as they had any tranfaflions with ; fo that whatever de- 

fofts occurred in the Mogul traditions, with refpedj; to dates, 

amdrea- or otherwife, might have been fupplied from thenee. It ic 

fins •a.hy. for ihefc reafons that, in the following hillory of Jenghlz 

Khan, and the Moguls, we have preferred Jbi'lghazi Khhi's 

hiftory to that of Oe la Croix ; and that given us by Gaabil from 

the Chinefi hif^orians, to both the others ; whojet, with regard 

to the a^airs of the Moguls \a the we£teni parts, for the lame 

reafons* are.prefi^able tohim. 

W& have already ^yca an, accQunt' of the Mogul tribes, 
their ancient hlftory, and Khans, to the time of Jmghiz 
Kh&t; -with remarks on the lame '' : we Ihall therefore, in this' 
place, only touch on fuch matters prccedii^ the dme of that 
conqueror, as more immediately relate to him, and may be 
necelTary to complete his hiflory. 
jeneKi According to the tradition of the itfogu/r, /ef^jS/z AAii 
KhCn'f was of divine defcent, li nee his family can be traced no farther 
Jt/cent. backth^n Alanki,ox J'anka-aia; whs, being got with child by 
a fpirit, brought forth three fans, who from theace obtained the 
fujrname of Niran (F), which their pofierlty enjoyed : thofe of 
her former children bdng called Dirligiin, to denote that they 
Had no miracnlous original. As JengHz Khhi defceoded la 
a right line from BuzenjW (G), the third of Alaniu'i celcltial 
ol&pring, 4nd his predcceflor In the ninth decree, fome au- 
thors call him the Son of the Sun (H). According to Fad- 
lallah (I), who wrote his life, his defcent from Jlankji is as 
follows: .1. Buzen/ir Khan. 2. Buia Khan. 3. Tutumttat 
Khan. 4. Kaydtt Khan. 5. Bayfankar Khan. 6. Tumena 

* See before, p. 19, & 34. tc feq. 

:. . (P) This, tlie oriental authors ias chamber, and afliimed tli» 

. (ty, is a coiraptioD, or contrac- Ihape of a man. 
don, ofNirMrijuu, which figni- (I] This is the G'rft aad moft 

£et children oflight. eminentof all who have written 

(G) Jiu/gha^i Kianinia{- o! Jtnghix. Khan, and his fuc- 

lator; call him ^iuit»^rAfo7i7J. ceflors. An account has been 

(H) According to jfis'^Aflzi already given of lum, i^ol. ir. 

KhoMi hiltary, romeihiiig as p, 20, 
&t£ht as the fun fell into ^/oiv 

.., Google 

C.U Reiine/Jth^izKian. $2$ 

Khan. 7- Kabtd Khan. 8. Purtan Kh&n. (ji. Yefukay (E) A. D. 
Bihadr. lo. Jeughtz Kh^' {h). 1163- 

Among thde princes three or four were particularly fa- ^^;"Vf^ 
mous ; Buzenjir, fumamed the , juft, was KhSn of Kotan.' """ 
Bay/atikar (or Bajjikar, as Ab&'lghazi KhAn calls him) was ^'P^'- 
prince of great conduA, and cosquered many provinces. A'a- 
kal, or Aft^u/ AJhin, mule himfclf the admiradon of all AftA 
by his courage (M) : he had fix fons, in whom the name of 
Kayat, which had been loft for 3000 years, was revived ' (N). 
BiJUJtay (or Teffuki) Behadr, the father of JenghSz Khdn, was 
remarkable for having' brought under his command the greater 
part of die chiefs of tha Megvl ijatioDS, with the kings of Kw 
rakatay, or Karaiitay (O), who troubled his quiet. He van- 
quilhed them, although they were frequently aflifted by the " 
l^ng of Katay, which comprifed the northeni provinces of 

■ Aftek tlm, having received an af&onc from the tribe ofTidr etr- 
Su Moguls (P), or Tatar:, he entered thrir country, which he f »^y . 
piUaged ; aad, being met by Temujm Kh&n, lord of feveral 
tribes, who came Go drive hun thenCe, he put him to flight, 
after a bloody batde, aoA returned with honour to his country* 

■ De la Croix hift. Gengh. p. 9, & feq. ^ Ibid. See 

alfo Abu'lgh. hift. Turks, &c. p. 55, & 63, le Teq. 

' {K) Di la Cratx vintti Pi/u- tbeheroof that nama, mention- 

itf i and Teems to have followed ed vol. iv. p. 4;, & feq. 
itirkmd, and' others, who call ,(N) They weip called M'rvii 

him Sijfalay, or Pi£aiaj. But Kjrfat, of which tribe Jensbi% 

KenJamir, Abi'ltbaxi KUn, and Khan was chief. It 19 callcir&il 

theC£i)ic/raiinars, name him rV' own tribe, p. 18. 
/li-nj which we have followed. (O) The Cbim/t snnats do 

(L) The names in this fuc- not feein to make him fo pow- 

Ceffion differ a little from thofe crful ; it is only faidj that ktf' 

fiven by AbSIghatA Yhdn, pro- was chief of tha principal hotd- 

ably through fome miHakc in of the Megvii. This hord was 

tranfcriblDg. contiguous to that of the Hey-, 

(M) Page ;, it is faJd, that mmii, near the city of H>Un,tit 

the Meguis under him made a Karaitrem, to the north ef tka 

vail progrefi, and advanced ai fandy defart. Smnti obfcrv. 

far as Karakaiaj, where they mat^emat. ClTr.p. i9{. andGm- 

obllgedfomcKhanstopaytbem iiVhiftoirc de Gentchifc.p. a. ■ 
tribute: but that, in the twelfth (P) It may be quettioned, if 

century, in which Jingbix. Khan this diftinCUon,of 5« MtgtL, or 

was born, they were tributary tatmn, i) to be found in any 

to the Kara-its. The Tumtnti oriental author; for it fenni to 

Khin, in this lift of anceflori, be taken tVom Carftn the frier^ 

maA be a different perfon from who was fent into Tatery by the 

' popeiiniz^ti, 

t 3 -feat. 

j z 5 Hifiory of tie Mogai ^ Mung^ E^ire. B. HI. 

a'. D. feat, where he commonly refided, called TlUwi IldakiQJi, "» 

1 163. Teia MqguUJI&n. To commefflonte this ri^ory, he give the 

V ■^ — J name of the vanquilh^ Khan to a Con, trf wbotn Oton Ayia (R), 

^4 ' f»^'' ^^ ^^ **^ ^'* '*'™*' '*^ '°°° *^'^ delivered (S), calling him 

P' Temujin{T). Ashe was bom with congealed blood in hit 

" '■ hands, SSghujin, the Khan's relation and' firft mioifler, £are* 

fold, by his Ikill in allrdc^, that he fhould overcome Ut 

^cmies in battle, and, at length, arrive to be Qrand Khan 

of all Tatary. On the death of SAghujin, Pifuka choSe his 

fon Karajher Nevian, a man of great parts and leamlsg, to 

educate Temujin; who had fcarce attuned his ninth year, 

f when he would apply Mmfelf to no other exercife than that 

of arms*. 

TESUKAr at length was unfortnnately t^keo prifi»er 
by the Khan of ^ra>'{U) J but ?fter a long unpriionment, 
making his efcape by bribing his guard, he refolved to re- 
Venge himfelf : in order to which, he married Teaugin, though 
A. D. ^°^ thirteen years old, to the Kh^ of the Naymans danght£r ; 
1 1 -jc. but died (X) before he could execute his dcfign ''. 
Stett of Before we proceed, it will be proper to acqnaiat our 
Afu. readers with the ftate of Tatary, and the neighbouring 
countries, at the time of this prince's death. The whole re- 
gion between mount Altay and the eaftem Tataiy, was di- 
vided among a great number of aymaks, or tribes ; who had 
each cuie or more Khans, according as it vias more qr l^s 

t Db LA Cuoix hift. Gengh. p. 12, & feq. ' Ibid. p. 11;. 

(CL) The fame, probably, (T) According tg the Chi^e/t 

called \a Ahulghazi khin'a)ii' annalj,be was lirlTnamedigi«u'- 

ititay Wuttjvl^ali- "wtn : but afterwards, in m^mQ- 

.{R) Iq Abilgbata Kban'i hi. ry of tfap viflory over Ttvujin, 

^ry^ p. 4$, & 67^ file is cal- diief of aTiWarhord, whom&is 

\iAUIimIga. The fumame of father )>/s)(iiy toolc prifoner, be 

Iga, in the Mogul language, fig- was called Temujin. He wai 

u£ei great. She had alfo the born at a mouniain near tKe 

furname of Kujin, which, in the river Ovm, or Amir, wliere Ti'- 

'^ngoagf of Kitay. is an bU-wb- fukay incamped after the batile. 

nftn. Sh? was of the tribe of Gaubil hUt. dc Gtintchifc. ^e, 

AUA*v», aad had a vail deal of p. z. 

wit. (U) J?^ la Omx places thi* 

'' ($) This date ii according to in ifizof ^^z^cj^ab, afChnJl 

AtulgiaxJ iCtan; and agrees 1166. 

nearly wilji the Chine/t hiftory, {X} Accntding to the Cliinc/t^ 

which puts itinii6£; Mm Dt . he died in the Hower of bis age;. 

/« Gro/> places his birth in 549, left five fons and a daughieri 

ten years highei^ ffom Mirhii^^; and ajjpolntcd •Icmujin chief of 

and other hillorians. , ., t^c hord." 

; *' (lomerous, 

L ... .=,l.,otwlc 

C ti Rtiifi */JeBghfc Kb4n. 327 

AWKivua, (tad divided into iMKbes- Ancoig tbeJc, thuot A D. 
Utra-iti wu TCK^ powetfol* vhoia prince smtmcd tfae tide ■ i75' 
•f Grand Khto: toWmmoftof the other tribes, and, amoi:^*—>~*^ 
4w rcA tbe i)^piit, vers tribvtary ; but. itcoordiDg to the 
Qka^ JriAori^ns, bE>tk one ui4 ti)£ other jwid tribute to the 
tfspcror of KUay, or Kat^, 

. CHINA ftt$ at tbut time divided into tero parts : tbeEmfhrtf 
silH fiMttem promcn were is die haodt of the CMmeJi cm-Eitay ; , 
fm>n of itoe Jim^ family, who kept their cooit « Hang- 
fkev, th« ca[Httl of the praruiC* of Cie-kymng : the £ve 
Acrthcn) fTOTinuce, oKnt part «i SJmt-^, vith theadfouui^ 
(»rUof 7i)fdr>'iVere ptmcfltd by tbe Jwt, a people of eanero 
^atury, fnm whom tbe JKancifw, at pn^ot nuiAers o£ 
CbtM, are defccn^. This vail domiiiion was aamed Kit^, 
or Katay, nod llivided ioto cvo parti : that which belonged 
H> China vnt fTopaly aiitid Kitty, and the part which be- 
longfd to TaUrjf vas named KarMt&y ; in vhich ibme even 
include the territonei of the/Mt*^;, Kara-its, and other 
naiioDs, steotiaaed in "du* biiWf . 

The wcftero part of proper Kitay was pofieflod by tj/'Hyaj 
prince of. Tuf^iZ&extiwftioo, who had lately formed an em- 
pire thete, called by the C!^^ Hys and Si Hya \ whole ca- 
pital city wu Hya-cbnu, at pielcnt /fiag-fya, ia Shenfi, from 
vtmric the kingdom took in Dame. To the weft of Hya ky 
Tangut ; t connay of grett exteqi, and formerly very power- 
ful: but at that time reduced to a kwftate,as(l divided among 
feveral prison ; fome of whom were fubJeCl to th¥ emperor 
of ffytt, and others to him of China. 

All Tahtry to the weft of mount j4&ay, aa far ts the Caf-anJ Tar* 
fi»n fea, with the greater ptrt of Little Buih^ria, ^ich thenlccMu | 
paflcd under the general same of Tari^dn, was fubjeft to 
Curkbin, KurhtfAn, or Kavar Ktjkt ; tp whom the Oyg^rj, 
Vig^s, or Igh-t, and even die Karaan Sh$hj who reined 
over Crtat Bukhiria, Karaxm, and moft part of lr4n, or 
pfi^. Vm vifjDtwy. This Gttrhii» im been prjnq^ of 
the Vefterii AV/in, or Lyta ; who, driven tfOt of KJlay by 
lilt J(itt,' fiKtkd la Litti BukUtrittf and tbe country tq the 
Borth, -betwteui Turftn (sboiit w1^ die OygUrt inhabiRd) 
wid KAJhgtr, vh^e they feundfld a pQWpl^ ftate in the 
yearn24. ' ' ■. 

This Witt the ftate of the niTtii part of ^ at fray's «pifq. 
(¥) de«ar«t atw)uit'tUw.b«tv^ Uurty a^d 6}rty tl^uliuidlcaxV 

. (Y) InDfiiiCmVtliiftarjr it fcript, in putting three point* 
is wricicD thaat pfrhuii.liy ^ uit4ntlwnr$l^ter/.'i&fieadof 
miltaice 4f (he , Biiental iiiaa»« two. 

T4 fiualliet, 

... , L,0.>^IC 

Hifioty of the Mogul «^"Mu^g^^EwJ^/«, B. III. 
^mllies, all from the fame AoOK, were under his <j}edieace. 
Eut Temujin bdng fo young, the Tayjuts- firft, and thca two 
■^thirds of the reft, defcning hiiii, went ovtr to one Burgani 
Kariltuk. All the Katagunj, the Jipjtits (Z), ±o Jayghe- 
rats (or Jajerats), and the Nirons, excepting a few families, 
joined him to a man. Hereupon the Markali, who never 
would fnbmit to Yefughi (or Pi/Aka) Bahadr, fnbmltted to him. 
They who continued faithful M Temujin were the t^fcendaatt 
of his great grandfather, half the tribe of the Mariati, and 
fcreral families of the other tribes :' there remaining oat i^ 
fome fifty femilies, one or two hnndred OQt of others, and 
no more thgn ten or fl»e out of maay. It 1^ true, Temujin 
did allhe could to remedy this evilln-theb^ioniDg: fortius 
end, while fcarcc thirte«i years <AA, he took the field againft 
thofe revolterS) and fought a bloody battle ; but, ia rward it 
was not decifive, h^ was oUlged to temporize till the fortieth 
year of his age. This b all which Abi'tghazi Kh&n relates 
concerning him till that period -, but many remarkable tranf- 
aftions happened durii^ th^t iaterral, which are mentioned 
by other authors '■ 
Temnjin PISUKA'& death threw thii^ into confiilioo : fcrlboq 
Jit(cttdi: after the Kh&ns of 7fln/n» f A),A^*ri(r, . and feversl other 
Niron tribes, his relations, ''whain he had fubdued, with his 
coufm Jemuia (B), revolting, came to attack Temt^ .- who, 
encouraged by his mother, fet up his Aandard, whkh dif- 
played a horfe's tail, and 4nkrched along with her at the head 
of his forces ;. which fought the enemy with good fnccels ". 

This alfair is related more particuhrly in theCbinefi hi> 
ftory : which takes notice, that Temujin bang very young, 
hb mother Vlun governed in his ftead, and brought Ixtck Mi 
vcral of his vailals, who had gone owr to Tayeiot (C) an(| 

.' Aiu'lghaei Khah hiftL Tatkifp. ^$, £cfa]. >= De la 
Cuoix ubi fiipra, p. !$■ 

(Z) Th tbe tranflation written Ciha ^ere formetly known to 

ZifMli; thee being commonly them. 

tiled infteadof tbe EMgiiJh j \h) MSlgtaxi' lOS*, p. 70^ 

(onfon«Bt; -J ■■■ ca|tihiai7A)Mwf«3^.;.whKii 

(A) Thel^tnewhi<^iT4//K'|C^ iaA word Bgnifies (^si«7. Thq 

^azi Khan is written 'Titv/b/i; dnne/t annals name bun Cia- 

by foDiB ni^ake, perhaps, in »mi^. 

pointing thc'letter for aj Lnfiead (C) 'thh'Tejel^t (eemi to be 

of an «, or' the- contrary. If the Su^gMi fCarihai of Jii'f. 

Tavjuthe t[ienaQie, it naypol!- ritaa JS%i;r, . m^n^oopi a little 

libly be tbe fame with Tan-ju, oefife; but he'Mys" not what 

jn the Qnireje liiftorics-i by wliich be<^ame of him. ' PerKaps alfo "ti* 

. the Tmotj to the north-weffof h^ 7tt}i/iri,in.'nate [A)- 

: -; Cktmtiin 

- ^.oiwlc^ 

C. I. - Reigit of }tii%h,h Khka. 329 

Cbojlmkh two princes, enemies to his family. Thele, having A. I>. 
formed aa armj 30,000 Arong, of f<ddlers chofeo out m 1176- 
leven herds, came u> attack Tanujia ; but bdng allied by his^'TV-'*' 
mother, who led a body of tioops herfelf, tmd by Poiyi, a^^"'* 
young lord c^ the hord of 0r/a, bat thirteen years old ; after *'^'^* 
^ bloody battle, in which thofc three did wonders, Tayciot 
was, ilain, and Cha.muka put to flight. This aAion made 
^ noife.all over Tatary, greatly to the advantage of the 
yooag Mo^l prince : who difcovered on this occafion much 
grandeur pf foul, in the manner of rewarding his officers and 
foldiers, niakjug than ride his own horfes, g^^ng them ha- 
bits, and the hke. Almoft all Taycbet'a bard, which was 
very Quinerons, and pollefled a lai^ country, fubmitted to 
the viftor ; and Pot& (D), who was lord of the country about 
the river Ergena ' (or Argun), became his faH ally, mariTing 
his Hfter TimaJun ; upon whofe death JengfAz KhJhi gave him 
his daughter to Wifein. But after this we are told, that, far> 
tune turning againll Termjjin, he was beaten ; and fell feveral 
times into the bai>ds.of ius advcrlkries ; yet had always th« 
luck to efcape. 

In bis fourteenth year he cfpoufed Purta Kiijin, daughter &/Jj tU 
to the Khan of the KongoratJ, and kinfwoman to f^ang (or Ung) ivi/i. 
Khan af the Kara-iti{E) ; by whom he had a daughter tt^t 
lame ye«r. But next year, while he was on fome expedidon A- D; . 
from- home, the Merkitt entered Nirmi Kayat, wMch be- "7"-. 
lo^ed to one of his tribes ; and, havii^ defeated the few 
forces who guarded it, carried off* all that was valuable, -oAth 
the princefs Purta Kujih, who was big of her fecond child, 
tier they fent to King-Zirj^, and her hulbaad'a enemies prefled 
^im to njvry her : but, though ibe was very beautiful, he 
decUned it, laying. He could not marry his fon's wife. He 
fpoke thus, bosiufe, at the tuns when he made a league of 
amity with Yefukay, he called Tfmujin hU fon. 

So foon as the Mogul prince heard of his wile's czptinty,'J'i* Mo^ 
he fent an ambaflador to Karaiorom, to demand her o£ thdg°'* **' 
Khan(F); who immediately granted his requeft, Happening^^"* 
to bo delivered oi a Ion on the road, Ihe wrapped Mm ia 
pdle -, and fa carried bun to her lap, without hnrtii^ his 

? See before, p. aSj, It feq. " Gaubil, nbi fupra, p. », 

(D] Afterwards faid to be been in the year 1176, 
lord of I-iifyt-t/t hord. 1177. 

(E) Thi».followingthca/- (F) Htjrab^^jiJ.D. iibi, 
pifi and Ayilgbaxi V£ani coni' tit la Crm«, 
putatioR of hu birth, mult hav^ 


J30 Ii0ory^ the lAt:^orMjfa^ Empire. BvUL 

A. D. Uockr luabs, to the palsce of her ha&ond, w)to ogJM Ua 

1178- Jyi(G). Tvo years after this, his own uibei of iVirfft Aji}M#r 

^■■"w'— * fefluced by Twi/a fi^, Khaa of the Merkiti, hi« meit p«w»- 

ifu^ «(wiDy, took op arms figaiDft him t iuid he was- himMf 

rithti tf nude prifoner by the tribe ci Tanjut (or Ttyjiit). H« h«d 

Karaluj- hoivcver the addrds to efcape again from tbe handc <»f hk 

torn. ' cDeouet. After this, rcBeHmg on the bad pc^urc <rf lib 

aflnirs, he o&red the Khans aH they could dellre to preout« 

Uaccommodatbo; but their (le£gn being eatirely to roia the 

h^tjfe of Te/ukay, they rejefted all his propofals. and foJzed tht 

greater p^t of his domiaiEns. HereupoB, refcJviog to oke 

refuge uoder the Grand Khan, he fent a Nerian, or priace 

ipf htf court (H)> to Karoikorom, to implore the protc^tioa of 

-Vang Khio, -who readily granted it ; in conlidenOkM, as he 

faid, of the fignal obligations which he lay under to his £atber 

fiJUka. Upon this Tenaijiit married his mother UUk Jyka 

tt Bhxrak (I), an eminent man, whom fa« placed on his i^ht 

|i9nd above all the princes; and leaving tiu naasy of his 

(ungdom to his ancle Ut^tUn, dspaitod with &r4ylMr, tsA 

all his faitb^l fervants, efcorted by a guard of 6000 men, 

fpr th^ coart (if the Grand Khan ° ; ttf whom it may be pro* 

per to {pra fame afxonnt. 

Vug Tat. predeceflbn of this prince, whofc origin^ name was 

l^tianV Tagrvl, had been powerful lords in Miiguiiftin, Jelayr, 'Tir- 

i^tnt. k^dn, and Karaiittty. Some o£ his anceAws had tma af- 

fumed the title of onperor ; hvx thdr greaio^ hi time dci 

nyed. His family, one of the moft illnftrious in KaraMtay, 

contained ilx great tribes of Derlighut M*guU ; annng «4ic»i 

ttfire the Kara-its, who made war with thdr ndghbours. 

MergAt (K), the gnuid£i|lher of Tagtvl, whpfe tribe refidtd 

* MisKOND MAiuit:A>Hi. sp. De U Crols, nbl (itft. p. 16, 
& feq. 

(G) That is, in the M>ph/ aiprefigDTlngtQhiintlieentpirf 

langDagc, hafpilj erri^ti. ao of two parts of the world. Mi- 

^ys ht la CrMx: bnt JlmU- rallf/bi. 

jAatsi KhiM fay* it figaifisi « (1) In &/•&«> be i«ed]*4 

pitfi. This priq^c w^s named Amir Siau-ai ; in MS'l^Mi 

iXiaTupi'i. Khan.Mingliklxka. Hebrougbt 

(H) AbotM tl\u time he the whole u-ibe of K^ti^imtrs, 

dreamed, that Ms arms were of which he was, to fubmit to 

erown of an extraoidinsry yirvjA/n ICiaa ; and »tifara)e4 

Kngth i and that, holding a him of fang Kkaiit dcfign 41 

ftvord in each hand, thattat'i^ gaialtbjin- 

right pointed to the ealt, the (K) Merf^m Hit in ^jk 4V- 

other to the we&. Which the fi K/.'en'i h^Ory. 
queen, hit mother, interpreted. 


«t Kurahrm, wai flue ,(tf the moft q)afi^«»l^ 9«d m)iM» A- P- 
KhjuK of the Kara-itt, but »t the (ame lime uirfGrqiiUiti* f "^g- ^ 
for fwBTBl KWns of lUrakitay fegving cQnjl)in#d ft^^ofti m4 **V"' 
twice Taiiqnilhi»] bin ; on? of t^p, naffiod A'4n'r, bis tvigt 
tion, drew him inxo w fimbufcad^, and foat J^m to the king 
of k&rga (L) in China, who caufed him tp be fewed vp, booiori. 
ia a fade, aiid ^t to expire on » wooden a6. 

KUrUKl, thewidowof ^r^J.ejiragcdatihedwbenTwwJV 
•f Niruir, yet feigaiag to be angry ^itji appc but the Mog ^e»ar^t. 
XArea, fifteen mondis after fent to teU the fanner, th«t Ob 
IW&nately dcijr^ to divert herfelf in his company ; and that, 
if he retained the a0t^oa w(uch.he prqfelJccl few her before 
her marriage v^th Mfrgi't, the would not fcruple to msjv bun 
ber hufbapd. Na-mr, falling into the fnws, the lady inupe- 
4iately feu out, attended by waggons iadien with great Teflcll 
Blade of ox-hides, filled vnth Kamme? (or Kious), a huodn^ 
toscp, and ten mares, which were ordered to be dreflcd^ 
The £han nKt the pttnceis with all the dcmonftratioiu of 
joy ; and bari^ dniik pteotifuUy of the liqam- wliidi &« 
pre^tcd bim, fiie g«ve.the fignal to fa«r attendaat; : tbcfit 
opening the great tHurelf, there caqie forth amwd moii 
and cof to pieces Aii-u>r (whom ihe had already ftabtied). with 
all his domtflio. After this, (be made hErrstreat, witbonl 
the ieaft fufpidon ; and for fo grpa; an a^po was highly 
cfteemed by all the princes of that age. 

ME ROUS KhAt left two fons by his princeft, K^a Bay-Vmg 
rui and G^rkhan. The firft at his death left feveral chUd- KhanV 
cen ; the eldeft of whom was" oamed Togntl (M) t at teo/*''''*^ ■ 
]fean of age he accompanied his &ther in the w^s, ud wu 
in that oxpedttioD where his grandfather was taken by A^niir, 
^od with much difficulty dcaped himfelf. As he had mors 
nicrit than the reft of his brothers, he fncceeded his father, 
which made them hate bim (N). After this, having freqaeot 
qnarrels with his brpthcrs and couiine, he put fom« of them 
u> death ; which rigorous treatment inoTed bis uncle GarkbAt 

(^) Dt la Crtix fayt, fomc iiimi_ff)g, and Juiamiu, viinil 

pretend that this Kirga was Ko- c^IeS t/aiiniu by othen. 
rta: bat ihat couocry is too far (N) Icis added here. thatthia 

. diftant. ' averlion was increafed by the 

(M) Called, in Jhu'tshaai king of Ci.aa's (or radier Ai'- 

Jjh»ji'>hvftory,Ta7fr/,perhapsby ta)\ honouring him with the 

fomemiftake. ThefetraDflatioiu title of UngKiai. 

namehim alfo y/ufifli, which is cordiag to the Chine/t hiftory, 

aicofToptionof /'jtn^; and fay happened not till aftemards, 

liis brotheri were Jakaiara in tbe Hw^ of Tsmnjin i as will 

{,by othertj Erkikara), Bajtiimr, be related pidCently . 


Kifiory ef the Mogul or Mvogt Empire. B. Illt 
to nuke war upon him. yatig Khan, being yanquUhed, and 
difpoflei^ of his dominions, fled to pifuka, Temujin's 
•^ &tner ; by whc^e affiftance he recovered his throne, and ptir- 
fiied Ctirkhin even to the IdHgdom of Ka/hin '. 
Ti/Prelter This VangKh&ti (or, as it is commonly written, VngKhSn) 
Johni was the prince who made To great a noife in the ChfiJtiaa 
world towards the end of the twelfth cetitury, nnder the dtls 
of the Prefter John of /IJia, which the Neftarians firft con- 
ferred on him : and there are four letters extant, faid to be 
fent by him to pope Alexander III. Lev^'u VII. of France^ '^ 
emperor of Conjinntinople, and the king of Portugal. That 
to the king of France, of which There is a frracA copy, begins, 
" Prefter John, by the grace of God, the moft powerful mo- 
" narch, king of ^Chriftian kings, wilheth health, i!c" He 
boafis of his great wealth, and the vallnefs of his dominions ; 
fpeaking of fevcnty kings who ferve him, and vaunting of the 
tribnte which he extorts from an Ifrae&tijb king, who is lord 
of many dukes and Jeviijb princes. He invites the king of 
France to come and fee him, prtHnifing to gjve him great do- 
minions, and make him his fucceflbr. He proceeds to name 
the dif&rent kinds of people and rarities that are in his king- 
doms. He calls himfcif a pricft, becanfc he perfbmis the la- 
crifice of the altar ; and a king, as he executes th9oi!ice of a 
fovcrcign judge. He fpcaks of St. Tiomas according the fe- 
bulous notions of the Indians ; and, at the conclulion, de-- 
- fires the king to fend him fame vaJiant cavalier of flench gt' 
Iteration f. 
«Ntfto- Bdt it is not difficult to difcover that this letter is fpOrionS, 
rian /c- and written, not by f^ang Khan, but the Nejlorian miffionaries; 
turn. who were very numerous, and had been eftablilhfid there ia 
die year 737, by means of thofe of Mu/ol and Ba/rah. Thefe,- 
by thar emilfaries, had fpread a report all over ChriAendtMn, 
tliat they had converted the greater part of the inhabitants of 
Tufflrji, and wen the Great Khan himfelf; who, they faid, was 
a£hiaUy become a priefl, and had aHumed the name of Johiu 
They invented thefe febles to make their zeal more confpicuouf, 
and render their fefl more refpcftcd. There is alfo a letter of 
the pope's, which ftiles' him, a moji holy prieji ; although, in 
reafity, there is not the leiift appearance that he was a Chrif- 
tian ; but only, that he permitted Chriftians to live in his do- 
minions, with their blfbops ;. and that fonie of his fubjcA^ 
had unbraced their religion. 

WALLAH ap, De la Croix, p. z\, ts feq, » Math, 

euad. p. 24, & ie^, 

D,=,i, Google 

C. i*' ilwfrflf Jcngbfc-Khan- ■ 333 

All that can be allowed as true, is, that this prince was. A. D. 
the mod powerful Kt^ of the coaatry tiorA <^ Kitay ; and iiSz> 
that a great many fovcrign princes paid him tribute. /SiiiV- ^*"*-~' 
■ /araj obferves, that he was lord over all the eaftero Turks ; Yjj^, 
for, in his time, the greater part of the inhabiunts of y**-^?"' 
tarjr were called TVrij, Vang Kkda:w^ a native df the tribe'"**'' 
of Kara-its, whofe dependants were' the Inhabitants oi Jelayr 
and Teaduk, who podened the largefl parts of that r^on. 
The capital of this kingdom was Karaiorom (O), fituate about 
ten days journey frQip. the place where Temujin firll kept his 
court, and about twenty days from the borders of China. 
This cit)^, after Vang_ Kh&n's rdgn, became the refidence of 
the Mogul emperors, and had the name of OrdSialeg given it 
by Oktay Khan, t(ie fucceflbr of Jenghiz. Kfian \ 

This prince was in his twentieth year (P), when he ar- Temijla 
rived at Karakorom, where he was received with great marks^j^Mw*^ 
of affeOion by the Grand Khan, whom he aHured of his obe- 
dience, profcfQng to devote himfelf intirely to his fervice^ 
Vang Kh&n, on the other hand, promifed him his proteflioD, 
and to force the Mogul Khans to return to their duty. He 
fent lords to menace them with war, if they continued holli- 
lines agalnA Temujin ; and d^ly heaped honours on bis royal 
gueft : called him his Ion, and even phcod him above the 
princes of his own blood : increa&d the ofhcers of his red- 
one ; and committed the conduA of his armies to him, in 
the war he had with the Khan of Tenduk, Temujin made his 
courage appear on this occafion, and humbled Tome Mogul ' 
Kh^ns, who refufed to. pay Vang Khan the ufual tribute. But 
this fucccTs and favour. of the fovereign created him many 
enemies among the courtiers ; who, at nrft, following the ex- 
ample of their mafler, Jlrove who ihould pleafe him moft '.-■ 

This enmity was increafed by another accident, _ Th&Marritt 
princefs Wifiilujine, daughter to the Grand Khan, charmed his d^^h- 
\rith the valour and perftm of the young Mogul prince, fdl'"'- 
in love with him ; and rejected the offers of Jemuia, Khan' 
of the tribe of Jajerat (Q^), who had, with much eameft- 

* Dk la Croix, p- 16, Sc feq, ' Aett'LFAiiAj, ap. eand. 

p. aS.ifeq. ■ 

(O) Dt la Creix fay!, it fig. gta^ Khax, and the CUnffi 

aOiti black /and. In Jbulghaxi compataiion,it will fail iniiSz 

^£n,iarakumi%ii\Alohe'furi- or ii8j. 

ijhiaxblatkfand. Perhaps both {Qj)' \^ AlSlghati Khan't 

name* may Jignify ibe fame hiftory called Joyghtrett. Tiiis 

thing. i$ placed by £>r/i>Cm> in Hcj. 

,(F)Then,accotdingto.^*i'/. j?'- A, D. 1175. 


L ,„.=,l.,otwlc 

4i4 ^il^ory o/fk^'H/io^l 6r WxtH^ Empire. B. Ilfw 

A:D: ifefif, iflied her hi martfege. But fdHg Kh&n haTing given 
1182: her to TiMujiA, ^eMkaViAs fo crti'agea, that he vowed. «f{ 
'^■"V*^ ¥;o^ J alid ftirrel up many perfons, as erlvioQS as Mmfiilf, td _ 
■jbhi *ittt him : yet the cfcdit whkh that youiig prince h^ 
Aiilth tlW Grand Khan, who had marfe him his prim^ mfiil'- 
fter, and the great number of his friends, for a long timri 
defeated all their contrivance*. However, Vang Khin, whd 
l^tej nothing bat HrMDefs of mind, at laft ItiS^ed him(el£ 
h be fedtced with cllumnieis. 

■ This Ik the accoiint giv^n by the Ptrfutn hiftorians ; bttf 
the Chitiefi do not fpeak of Temujin as feeking prOtedkin o^ 
the Kata-it KhaA. On the contrary, they repment him as lA 
friendQiip with, bqt ihJependent of, hinl, and in good dr- 
cumftances ; e\-er fince the defeat of Jdmtitd add Taychot, hf 
his mother's affirtance ; at which time he ieems to hiW re- 
duced the reVohed tribes under his obedience ', 
Tata™ After this, probably about the time that he is f^ to' 

tukcfj. have retij'ed to Karakofom, the CUnefe hiftory informs uS, thal^ ' 
ihe hord of the Tatan, who ufnally encamped along thephon 
01), having revolted againA theemperoi'of AT/i'ttj', this monarch' 
ordered all his tributary princes (S) to affembSe near that river, 
ind iharch againft them. To-li (T), lord of theJTara-iVj (U)", 
and Teinujin, having dtfUnguiOied thcmfelves on this occa- 
iton, the iirft was made a Vang or Wang (XJ, which anfwers 
io KhSn ; whence afterwards called by his fubjefls f^diig 
KhAn ; and ?Vn)ti/in had a conliderable pcA in the army con- 
ferred ttpon him. 

Af+er this, 7i-/rs brother, in difconRDt, fled to the Nay- 
jhSiis, and pre\'ailed on their Khan to atuck him. Thl^ (d>- 
Uged'him to fly to the coaniriesof the Wbey-hu (T), to the' 

* AbuVkatr, ap. Dela Croix, p. 30. 

(R) Or Wa-^ani the fame dilUnguiOi it from the odier 

with the Sagbalian We, or part, wltich wm cultivated, and 

Amir. inhabited monty by Cbintfii. 

(S) From hence it appeirs, (T) Called, by AhSlghoKi 

that the Kgra-Us and Ifitignh KhSn, Tayrei i by others, 7#- 

wcre tributary 16 the emperor grul. 

ofXIt^y. And indeed, what is (U) In theCWayJ, JCf-^«. 

fo often nentioned in Dt la (a) FaMa/lat, zni tite other 

Croix'i hiRory of JmgiiTiKi'ait, authors made ufe of hy Dt la 

from the oriental hiUorian% of Crw'*, do not mention thcocc«- 

the MtguL and other tribes in- fiOD of thia title being given, 

hal^iting KamkBt^, fhcu's this (Y) 7 he princci otthe Ifbrf* 

to be lb i fmcewJth iiitniKan,- ha, at firtl called Whiy h, were 

kmiajvixi part of the empire of pofielfcdof the temiori«to-th« 

^<{>'i ii^iuf) ing blaci Kit^, to north or Doith-weft, and wdl« 


C. t: Reign of Jffightz Kbto.' 

tM^«f die Ifhal^'he, or ytiUaW rtVer, vMch runt 't)irM)|^ 
£Slmlt. In this diflrds Ttmujin kst his troops to VangKhAtii 
iHto, tnaithiog to the river Tvia, defeated the Mtrkks (<# ^ 
MafiJU), \rlK> ^At utighb^tirs tad allld of the Ni^mms t 
then jokiin; 7>ma;m, both tcfjether fell n^a the Nafndnit- 
Aid routed than. But akho' ^an^ Khm gtH mudi fonder 
in thefe afUons, he gave none to his bene&Acr, \riio yet 
dSKdihIed his rerentiiMQt '. The />(yyEMhiAorianf rtkM Oils - 
iflair tadce at lu^ ia the 6dkfwiilg ntumer. T^tai^i 
ntti«f the .Mf^>i'fj (or ^athat), was «t tfats \mi><4 th&f« 
4ttb' fensbt to rnla Tamgin ; and fioAng that th^ plDW 
-dM rtot jncceed, brcte^iendfiyp nith f'aag KhUt, in' order 
l6'cmiipafshisrdefi^b$'foit6 (Z}^ WMidiis riew h« Dladit'ZMyw 
* le^ne \rith th« KMil df Tk^itf (<ir the toyuf/), whd b)jtk.v^ 
Iji^lither aflembled « formidilble ■tiny, into vhidi they id- 'mm. 
BBtted all who Were enemia dther to Temttjin or tik ariteffl:- 
dt : and, t6 ConBhn their nniotl, to6k~ a 'fiMemn datn, itAiU 
'Mth the;)%t^toar^(!h occaJi<MU. AlltbefChiAsandchiefii; 
dr thdr deputies, he«ed in peces- xHlii &i&' fvtotia a h6i^ 
a Wild ox, and a '(feg; rftir ■whiA they pfobWmced' this 
foottoli! " Hear, OG(Jd! O heaven! O earth f tht oath 
*• Aai We fwear apinU fang Khin' ind Temgin .■ tf one <^ 
** xa fpares' than, lirticn occaJGon ofiers, <«■ fails to keep ths 
** promifc which he has made to rnm them, and affift thei^ 
" enendcs agaioft'them, may he became as dieTc bebftft-. " 
- This oath wu long kept fecret : bat at length thc^ (^nd Vang 
Kh&n, and Mogul prince, having been infOTmed of tttl' b^ aKhfio Jf 
KatTgoratkirA, prqNved to prevent tMr enemiel. Tem»jin,ihttiitJ. 
Joining his M^ffufr to ohe-itotf of the JCuia-ef army, Whick ■ 
was' given to him, marched to the borders aS the Tanjttit 
(or ^yuts) ; and, by his ottraordiAary diligence, furpritttl 
tfiem with his arrival. However, their general, to avcnd 
fighting, till feme of the alliesJiad joined him, amufed Te- 
rniijin by various ftrataffems. Mean time the NaymAm- hav- 
ing learned by their, (coots that the Grand Khan had but 
part of his army with him at Karakorom, Erktkara (A), a 

' GximiL, ubi fupr. p. 3, tt k^, 

of TurfSn, in Utih Buibaria, Perhaps tie fame with the 

tDdperhapsio thelbuthof that Jfirr-i^i'v 47- 

clcy. They were defccnded (Z) Thu is placed, by I>f i« 

from the ff'itj-i£, who, duriag Cnix, in Hcjnh 573. A. D. 

tiic C/n'ittfiidyTii&y otTiiB£, were ii77. 

fa powerful, and afterwardi (A) Called Jalmlutra, in 

in the CM«^ annals. 



83^ Hfftory of ihiMo&Aor'Mmt^ Empire. B. tlL' 

A. p. youBge^ brother of his, .who nuny years before had roked 
iiSj. to that tribe,. perfuwial th«r jihan, Tayyan to attack that 
^"■^"^ prince, in Timu/'inla abfeace. Acccvdingly, they entered the 
domioiciiis oi Vang Kh&n, who. thought ^nothiqg lels thaa 
anirrvptioa-froi^l that quarter ; having, the year before, made 
peace with Tayyfih Kh^, on tcrtos very advantageous to the 
Temujiu .: The Grand Eh^y,At'this unexpcfted viiJt, made a bran 
AfiBtt defence; but, after ^n-obftioat^ fights .'"^^^ obliged to fly, to 
'**'■■ avoid £d]logfinto the hands irf the enemy. , -Tlw greater, p^rt; 
of \^ ((4dier3 were other lulled or wounded, and the ca[»tal 
dty pilkged;wher&hisibroUier£r^fitdr<( alccnded the tl^ioa^ 
. -asEMnof.tlieA'iini^fL/TheTeEUViiderofhis fcatwred troops, 
with griiice Sank^)^K, fon, retired, to "die. nouatains (B)| 
:and Vajxg Khta himfelf haili^ %o feeb: his fon-'in-iaw, whom 
be fouadieadytOfiiy^iKittlet9^e7ii(]/«/j ^d th^ confede- 
rates. The Mogul princq was' much aioazed when .he law 
the king in bis camp» and oeafd <^ i^s difailer; but com- 
fbrdi;^ him mth tbo hopes of having now his full rcvei^ ; 
he reigned to {the IChan the .commaiul of the main bodj, 
and put himfelf a^^hc he^ of the' ^ft v^ing, a Kara-it lord 
being tntnit^ed with the right. . The victory was a long time 
doubtful : but at length Temujin brolse in with fuch fury 
upcm the confederate .fefccs, that he p^t, their left wing 
into diforder ; which-amniating the reft , of. the troops, the 
enemy was iatirely xoutcd, and the Tanjiit ^ibe almoft. quite 
deftroyed. ■ , 

K^gret Next yw (C) Ttmujin got together a formidable, army 
tttKim. of Kara-its, ynx^i intt^it to rcftore the Grand Elhan : nor wa* 
tbat of the copfedfrats: Khans iefs considerable. ■ Tuktaiey, 
for want of Taiyfitt, ■ bmught Merkits vitb him. Tayyan 
Khan led the N^ymhnt in perfon, and the tribes which Erke' 
iara had engaged to his part, helped gready to augntcatlus 
army. After ikimilhiDg a while, Tenagin, at the head <^ 
his troops, began a gen^ battle, the moft bloody, perhaps^ 
that was ever fought. At laft the leaders of the enemy gave 
way, and fled, followed by their troops ; of whom the pur- 
fuers made a terrible (laughter. It was not kno'wn what be- 
came of Erkekara (D) : but the Grand Khan, his brother, 

(B) The CWwyi hifloiy fays, (D) Ati'^baia Kt^M {xf^,he 

to ^cWbfy-hic princes, 10 the wac taken and put 10 death; but 

well of the ffhang-bo, » before places this event in the time of 

remarked. Yifuliap 

(C) He}. S7S. A. D. 1179, 
■DtUCraix. ■ 


C. u ■ ke^ 15^ Jcnghiz Khto. 

eotered i^fterJoufly (nto -Kltridierom, in 1179, ind irtS rt* ' 

cftftbMied \a his throne "; 

ABU'LGMjIZI Khan does not mention this reftoratidn^ 
tdiVangKhan hjtemi^n, bntfpeafcs of his dethrdnement byT'""3" 
Jakakard, as &□ event Which hAi>pcilcd in the reign of Teffu-' 
kay Bthadr ". Tiiat author leaves Temujin in a ftatc of in- 
aOion for tiie fpace of twcOty-fevcn years. He tells us, 
diat, after the battle *TiJch he fought when but thirtech 
years old, finding hitnlHf not able to reduce the tribes which 
bad rerrited from him, to BvrgUhi KarilWi, he was oirflged to 
temporize till the year Bart, or' the tiger 1 when entering In-Hq. «•. 
to the fortieth year of his age, a man belonging to the re- *■ "' 
volted tribes came to tell turn, that the Tityjuti and Nironi '*°'* 
\pere joined with the Bayjuts, the Markats, and the Tatars, 
intending to furprize lum. On this news Tetmijin, Who had 
already confiderably augmented his forces, and acquired great 
experience in war, gave a general review to the thirteen tr!t)es, 
wbidi were then under his obedienc^. After [his he ordered 
the biiggwe and cattle to be placed in the middle of the'^' rtyJt- 
camp; ana putting himfelf at the head of his troops, pro-'^'"^'*. 
pofed, in that pouure, to Wait for the enemy : but, at their 
approach, he ranged his 30,000 men in a line, to cover, by 
io large a front, his baggage and beafh. Having in Ihid 
manner engaged his foes, he gained a complete viffrory, \rith 
the flaughcer of 5 or 60O0 llain on the fpoi, and a great 
number taken prifoncrs. 

Immediatelt after the battle, he ordered ftvCnty largeffi'>i<ww 
caldrons of water to be put on the fire, and caMfed the prla-'''*'"f • 
dpal of the revolters to be thrown in headlong, when the 
water was baling hot. After this he marched to the habi- 
tations.of the rev'Mted; abd having plundcrecf them, carried 
away the men, cattle, and all other effefts. He condemned 
to flavery the children of the chief men of the tribes ; and 
diltribated the reft among his troops, to ferve for recruits ^. 

PRtttCE Chamaka (or 7«w/ia)' envying therepuution oiConfe^e* 
Temtfjin, ftirred up feverai princes, ithe chirf .whereof wer«™(cj «- 
thofe of Hatakin, Sachihu, Kibtpan, and Tatar, who refolvedf "'"J^ ^^ 
to frize oD bodi him and i^ang Khdn: Te-in (E), lOrd (rf the 

" Asv'i FAHA), ap. De la Citoix, p. ji, & feq. ■ Afitr't-' 

CIBAZI Khah, p ji. T Ibid. p. 69, & feq. - 

(E) The fame, petiaps, who by a lord of the^mytfntr/.mMl*- 
U by Jbttbha^ Kh&m called tinned before, but ont of itt- 
Turi-iU. Tbit f«m« to be the . place, 
fame confederacy and difcorcry 

MoD:HisT»VoL.IV. Z BtnSiratt 

3}8 tiijiny ef the Mogul drMiuigt Empirt. B' UL 

A. O. ffeakirati (or Kengerati), iriio had been forced into die 

IS02. league, retired to hu own Iwds, uid feot notice to Temtginf 

^"V^who had married his danghter. Hereupon TMut^in and Kor^ 

Klfan took the field, wlien leaft e&pe£ted. and defeated ctw 

• confederates in fereral batdei. The Moguls were cwtiiden- 

bly rrinforced by the acceUion cX the Uhtay, Mangu, Cialar (or 

Jalayr), Honkirats, and I-ki-iyt-t/t. Thefe five hords, whidi 

furnished excellent ofEceri. and Iprnng from the Eve loos of 

Lading Patir, fixth anceftor of TWin, dwelt along the Onen, 

Kerkn, Ergone, Kalkd, and other ndghbonnng rivers. Ar 

this time Temujin and TV-in made a treaty, famons ia the hi- 

fiory of the Moguls ; by virtue of which the cMef (^ each 

family was to take his Brft wife out of the other; which 

treaty was {Iriflly obferved, fo loi^ at ieaft, a« die defcend- 

ants of Temujin reigned In Cfana \ 

raijUly In 1202 Jamuka having aflembled the confederate priacet 

Januka. near the river Tuhi Pir (f ), they elefted him thdr chief, and 

A- D> took an oath to obey him. This lo^e was exceedii^y 

i2«. ftrengthened, by the acceffion of Boyrak (G), Iv^ of the 

NaymAns. Temujin, who was affifted by the pnnces of his 

houfe, and his aWes, had in his army fonr generals, called 

PaUpankidi, ot the four intrepidt, named MuhuU (H), Pof 

(hi, Porvkana, uidChilaJtona (1). Befldes thefe, there was * 

firanger cdlni Say'i, who was e^>crt in the art (^ war ; and 

being a Gre-worOuper, was called CbaPar (K). 

yj"8, ■ Next year Temujin jtnned Vang JUidn, near the mounts 

*f*^**Ki« (L), where Jamuka. and his allies had aflembled thdr 

aiiflaKj. £q,.(^_ Bm Jamuka, fearing the fuccefs of a battle, chofe 

rather to render the Kara-it prince jealous oi Tentyin, by 

■ Gausil. ubi fapr. p< $, & fcq> 

(F) Probably tbe Ten Pira, (KjTlwT'aMrpronunciatioa 
which rife* id lat. 47° and long, of the word Ghtr (or Glutir) : 
3" caft of Pe-iiag. the CiiMtfi word Is Chafm-nl. 

(G) \nt\e CbiMiJi, Pi-hjii% GatJ>. 

be was the eldei brother of ^9- (L) It is, according to tke 

/•> XUi. Chituft geographer!, coo li (or 

(H) Thefe arc the Mnagl $0 leagues], weft of tnc mooD. 

aamei. In which langaaee they tain Tu-ldm ; which Itft ii aboQt 

were iatitled ^w^/, which ii the 45^1 or 46th degree of lati- 

At^afitattofM.Pala.Gautil. tade, and the iich or ijlh of 

(I) The firft and laft were of longitude, weft of />r-ii»f,where 

thahord oiChatar (or Jf/ajw) i tbekingsof dteTa-fWiOrTsrl/, 

Ptrthi belonged to that oTOrlai nfed to ennmp, in the fifth ces* 

andPfrf^MMtothehordof/^y. tory. GomA. 
b^M. GmM. 


C. I* Reign efjenghit Khan. 339 

fiiggefting to him that he was oot to be trailed, yang X^dri A. D. 
hereopoD fecredy decamped m the night, .and retired firft to 1202. 
the river ffa/ifi (M), and thence to Sail, between the Tuii'— 'V*' 
aitd OnM. They lud fcarce feparatcd, when the Khan of the 
Naymint attached fcveral parties of die Kara-ttt, and plan- 
dered die habitations of that hord. On this Vang Khht dif- 
patcbed couriers toTetmgin, deJiring the aid of his fbar in- 
trepids ; vbo, on their arrival, beat the NaymAns, and re- 
covefed the booty. This feifonable a^ilaoce b^t a firm^ 
anion than ever between the two ; and each promlfed a 
danghter in marriage to the other's Ion. 

Mban time Ilaho (N), Vang Khan's fon, who had longllako*/ 
envied Ttmujin's reputation, by the instigation of yamukk'iv- 
(O), ' perfmiled his father, ever wavering and diftruflful, that 
the prince <rf the Mungh had betraytS him. In this belief 
"be refolved to deftroy Tftnajin by artifice ; with which view 
lie invited him to his camp, with his foa Chuchi (or Juji), 
and the princel^ his danghter ; under pretence of accomplifb' 
ing the double marriage before agreed on. Temujin indeed 
let forward ; but returning again, fent an officer to put off 
the ceremony till another opportunity. Soon after, being in- 
formed of the whc^ plot, he fent to his allies, and tocA pro- 
per meafnres to prevent a furprize *. 

The reafoD tn Ternvjird fudden return is not mentioned ?/»/«- 
in the C^nefe hiAory ; nor does Gaubil inform us from thince;«'>^ Ta* 
In what manner he came to know of the plot : but both areiouj>i>i 
leUted by Ab&'Ighazi Khan (P). Accordii^ to thla aadior, 

*Oavbil. p. 6,fr feq. 

(M) Which rifei lit. 47° jo' danghter he had married in Ua 

long, is" 40' weft of Ft-Ung, minority. That yoang ^MufKs 

and falls into the SrAa^Jji, Ul. hereupon, in ii8(t wrote hit ' 

49° 10' long. 13° 2c'. Gaub. father an accouDti who, with 

(N) Or lUki i called by D* relnaaDCe, at laft, in Hej. cS8. 

/■ Crtix, Ilake; Smghln and A. D. 1192. refolved to leizc 

Snagbia, by JhfflgbaKi Ki^. Timufin. Di la Craix, hift. * 

[O] According to i>«ZitCrsi'x, Gmg. p- }4, & feq. altoJiSl- 

in 1 1 So, the year after Vang gbaid KhM, p. 70,72. 
Kbax'* reftoration by Ttm^in, (P) Who, p. 6g, placet thia 

ytmmia, by ^lurivs's mediation, aff^in or after the year itoi, 

obtained leave to retora to agreeable to the Ci&ia//^annali; 

court, where be perfaaded Soh- whereai Di la Creix, in Hejrah 

fim that9V»ui;iVg dcfign wai to ^90. A. D. iigj.eightyearsear - 

deprive bim of the fucccffioni lier; ^ichmuftbcowing to the 

and, for that end, correfponded trror in placing Temujia's birth 

withtTmiM, Khan of die A^sf- foroanyyeari too early. 
«MWr ^»; ££•»'■ enemy, whne 

Z a Vang 

L l,_< l;,L.OO'^IC 

Ai i>% P'ang KbAt, at the fame tiioe that he iavited Tewujui, nnrkr 

iioz. pretence of makjog a more ftrtfl altiaoce by tfas mairiagc, 

V*^"^uSQt to tell Mtttglik Izka, T^ujin's father-in-law t that, as 

BOthtog ftood betweeo him aod the crowo but his wife's fon, 

be would coise and help him to put that pri&ce to deajt^ and 

theo divide hb ponellions bctweea them. As yai^ XiJm 

Vas an intimaie friend of Pi/uJd, and owed ^-eat obligUMm 

to him, Temvfin, after recdving his ambaJlador with honour, 

let forward to go to hk court : but meeting on the roftd 

hevi Jifit-with hi* father-in-law, who difcovercd the Gj^md Khaa't 

wv^' propofal to him, he returned back, and di&iilled the ast^ 

ballador, with aa apolt^ to hie roafter for patting off his 

vifit fix the prefent. 

Five or flx days after the lutbaJlador's departortt, BaJit 

and Kijhlik, two brothers (C^), who kept the hories of ooe 

of yang Khin's chief domeiiks, came and informed ttnatfini 

that the grand Khan, finding he had mlfTed his pcHUt, was 

refolved to fet out inlVantly, and furprize him next moffaii^ 

before he could fufpe^ any danger. They laid they heard 

their mailer tell this to his wife, the day b^ore, when they 

vent bi carry iqillt to his houle ; and, without deUy, camc: 

tP'give him notice *. 

Tcmi^in TEMUJIN was then, according to De la Croix, eaaanp- 

/*"* od at fomc dilboce from Karaiorom, by ^aitg Khan's order ; 

who had feot him from court, under pretence that his pre- 

fence was neceffary in the army (R) ; but, in reality, to get 

him away from his own guards ■ for all the foldicrs aclgted 

him for his brave aflions in the field, and liberality to them. 

Although the Mogul prince could hardly believe what Badu 

and Kijhlik had told him, he thanked them for their aiTefUon ; 

- and hanng confulted Kara/har, imth the reft d his friends, 

it was refblved that they fhontd lie in ambulcade. And as the. 

flaves had alTured him that he was to be his tent, he 

»«^ 2u ordered all things of value to be removed out of it ; that all 

wmard, ^^ domeftics and officers fhould quit theirs ; and that tires 

* Awuld. be left bunuDg all night in the camp (S). After which 

^ Abu'lokazi, ubifup. p. 49, 72, & feq, 

{<X^ Al^lgh^^ Khant'o. yt. (R) Z>« /a Cm^r places Aisia 

make* them ofthe tribe of A^- Hej. 5S4. A. D. 1193. 

ijV.whicb, befaytifpning from . \^)AhSlghaKiKhaxia.yi,Vtf 

the third ion of MmgUk l%ka, on this occa£on, feat his wo- 

hy a former wife I but tbit does men, and children, and e£:fis, 

BOt fcem probable. P. 6a, he outof theway.toaplacecalled 

fayc, ttaagin then catered hit Sa^iaa-beUJt, 
fbrticd) ytrar. 


Ci.' RUgme/^ngbiiKlAn. $it 

he narched, with all his troops, to poflcTs Umfelf of a DfU-- A. D. 
row kne or pafs, called Jtrmigttt, two tx three leagues i»x- 
diftant. *-"»%p«Ai 

Thtbt ware ibarce departed ban the place, when yartg 
Kh&n'iioKks arrived, commaadcd by Sankiin and yanJUta (T). 
The pmce rode foil fpeed up to the illuminated tents, and, 
■with his JbUowers, fhot a proctiglotis number of arrowG it 
T/ntf^'tn's t not doabting bat the ctics of the wounded wouM 
foon drive oat bim Aty wanted : but hearing no nd(«, tii^ 
.tateni the tents ; where, to thdr rorprize, they fowd d6- 
body. Heimpon, concluding that be had fled through fea^ 
■and gtrilt, tbey fottowedkim by the ffack of his troopc, Ih 
great harry and diforder. 

Mean time Temvjin had polVed himfelf at the foot of iiDifiatt 
mountain, in the narrow pals, which was covered by a yHoS, Vang 
vrith s bro(ric bcibre him : but when he fow the enemy 'ad- J^*'^' "^ 
vandng in diJbrder, although much inferior in fcnxe, having ■■■■'■•■ — 
iwly 6000 men againft 10,000 (U), he crofied the ftreao^ 
and attacked them £> hotly, that, after a very Qlght refiftuc^ 
tfaey fled before him. In this fight they lo^ a grCst nutnb^ 
<jt foldiers and officers : prince Sankin, who, with the r«l^ 
fled back to f^araiorom, was wounded in the lace wldi aA 
arrow. This, aftion happened when TgTtmjin was forty year* 
of age (X), and had been dghteen years In f^ang Xbm'^ 

AccoKOlNC to ihtC/nnefi faiftory, when yang Kfi^ pa-SenJittrf 
Blared that his plot was difcovered, he openly attacked 7>./ro«(i 
tmifiit on all fides : but the Mogul prince got the advantage^""' 
In four battles, in the laft of which he fouglit with P^atr^ 
XhAn hhi^f ; and liakot being wounded «^th an arrow,. r«^ 
dred ont of the engagement. Ttmujin, after tfa)s> went- anil 
encamped at the lake Tong-ko, front whence he lent an c^cer 
to reproach TM \li tht foUovdng manner : " When yoitf 

. * Da LA Ckoix, p. yj, & (iiq. ' Abu'lghazi, p, 74. 

fT] Dt laCrtix placet thtA more than t;oo Aien ; buftt^ 

action inHej. 590, A. D. 119^1 KiaahaA i2|Oao wichliim. 
but av dw yc^r 589 of the Hej- (X) Dt ia Croix, at bit tu- 

lah i* al£a refamd to th« foma tfaois, plaoe tbit aAkn- H«jl 

J 'car of Ckrift. it nnftbe ob- |9a, A.D. 1193, whenk6waa 

erved, that 589 besan the 6tk forty yean oU : ^t If Tetim/ii 

•f Jam^, 59O' tSe a6th of wai bom io 1 16>, (hat battld 

DMtmitr, 1 19|. will fall in i3oz, aear tkte tima 

(U) AoceMiag to Jiu'lgbtMi to which it is referred by AkSi^ 

Kbatt, b> wold g« tfigellw so thoKi IU4ni and dw CU^ au^ 
thort, I 

Bijltrj «/ j£<Mc^ul «* MuDgl Empiri. B. IIL 

* nude Kiw (Y) defeated you at ffala-vrbttt (Z) yoo kA 

* your pode^DS. My fttber defeated JiTior ia£[»-_fi, and le- 
' Aored you. When your brother armed the Ni^fmJbu 
' againft yon, and you were obliged to retire wcftward, I 
' fent my troops, who beat the Ahriats, and hindered the 

" Naymam from defeating yoo. When you were'VedtKXd 
" to lb great mi&ry, I gave-you part of my flocks, and eroy 
*' thing eUe that I tud ; yet you fent me nothing t^ all the 
" great plunder which yon got &om the Markatj : althoog^ 
-'" it was by the help of my officers that you became &> rich, 
" and my four generals brought you oai ot the phii^c yoa 
" wat in. You know what I hare done to prevent the 
" ill defigns which the confederate princes fo often formed 
" againft you ; will you, after fo many oUigaiio&s, attempt 
" to deflfoy me in fo bafe a manner i " 
JJFFuwy The rupture between Temujin and Vang Khan pot moft 
fa matitm. of the princes of Tatary in motion : the iiA was joined by 
.his brotb«-in-Iaw Hafar-lVhacbin (A), prince of the Hong* 
^ratt (or Kougoratj), aad Putu, prince of /-jb'-/f*-(^; ^udi, 
Vang Khan's brother t Chapar, and feveral other lonls. Aiar 
many confultations with his four geoends, the army fet far< 
ward ; apd being arrived at the river Panchimi, or LoHg-ht, 
LtagiKf/ whofe water was very muddy, Hafor caufed a horfe to be 
ranchttoi.jjyj^^ ^[j^ Tctku^im, talung up fome of thewater, drank it j 
and, invoking heaven, promifed to Aiare with his officers, 
.: during his Ufe, hifh thejweet and the titter ; wilhii^, in cale> 

he ever Ihould be fo unhappy as to violate his oath, that he 
might become at the water which he drank. All hb allies and 
onicers did the lame after him. This cerenlony linked them 
exceedingly firm to his intercd; apd the families ot tht^ 
who dranl( die water on that occaiion, valued theni^vM much 
on account of their fideUty : nor were they hold in lefs efteen 
Vy others. After this they marched to fight the enemy <>. 

These natters are related with no fmail variation, and 
incre (ircnmftances, by the weftero hiftorian^ Accarding 

' Gacbil, hid. Geateb. Kan, p. 8. 

(Y) K!or, according t» prince (Z) Strain ef the mmtntabn 

Sanlemir \Oibm. Mfl. p 30;, Iboth of the river Or;j£r; lit. ' 

IKK 48), lignifiei ODC who ii 48*! 20' long, is" 15^ weft of 

hi,9J, or hu tut ant tyt. This Pi-king. Gaubil. 

tetms to hcGurii^M of De ia (A) Thii wai dooblleri tin 

CroctrAjitirigbaxiKliaH. ?bp- fon of Te-in, Khln of the Hn- 

kap^ he was blind. We will not iirati ; probably the liinie wit)^ 

foy ha* tha weftem hiftoriaas Tm-A-iti, whowatd«ad. 
have )na4eCw evtofXisr, 

C I. Riigm «/ Jenghlz Kh&n. 

to AbA'lghazi Kh6n, Tmttgin, ifter the above-meatloiKd bat- 
tle, coatenting himTelf iridi the hooonr of faavif^ beatea the 
enemy vrilh fnch a handful of men, jn<lged it coovenient to "^ 
retreat, before all thor forces came down npcHi him ; and 
fliifdng his coorfe to Bt^una-baiak, iriiere tie had feat hi* 
family and cSeAs for lecurity the night before, found fo lit- 
de water tbere^ that he was conihuned to march towards the 
river KaiUfid (B). As the tribe of Kunkurats (or Kmgorati), W* Enn- 
at thii time dwelt on that river, and had a chief nam^ Turk- i^^f^/nt- 
iC, who was a rcladon of Timujin, he fcnt an officer to ac- •''" 
qnaint him; that he intended to vilit him, and Ihonld be glad 
to know if be was difpofed to keep up the fnendlhip which 
had long fabfifted between them. Upon this method Turk- 
ik (who ferais to*be Hafar above-mentioned), thougiht pro- 
per to fnbmit to Tentujin, and join him with all the Kunhirat 
tribe. Frcm dience they marched towards the river Kolia- 
Ruwr (C), on whofe banks they ftopped for fome time. Af- 
ter thte, he lent Arkayjum Behadr to upbraid Vcmg KiJn 
with bit ingratitmle ; who confeiled the charge : yet as the 
war had been entered apon by the advice of liis Ton, be fent 
die envoy to him for an anfwer i but Sungun, refolving to Sanghin 
be rcvoiged for bit late hurt, would hear c^ no accommo- iMxartUk^ 
dation *, 

DS la Croix relates this afPdr with a greater number of 
circumftances, and ftill farther variation from the Chintfe hi- 
ftory, as follows i Teimgin, after the battle, retired with his 
troops to the lake Batata (D),. of &lt water, and in no great 
qaandty t where his friends and the dlfcontented Kara-itt 
telbrdDg to Mm, he %^ent and encamped on the frontiers c£ 
Chinoi at the river Kakid (£), near a hi^ mountain. Frc»n . 
that place, after fome fby, be marched for Mogulifian 
(F), wfaer* he was joyfully recdved by his ftit^efV) of Teka- 
Mogul, attd Mrmi Kayai. After dils, in fcvoral kuriltles, of 

. ■ A>v'LeHit Kmak, nbi fupr. p. 7^. 

(B) Now callod OriiMk or miflake tbe fauw letter bmng 
OrJMi, according to Bt»iinki marked forar ioltead of *. 
whercu it ought to be the river .(E) D* l» Crate fays, it wa» 
which he Qamct'^|>^t o^ alfo called Ktvaamrt*: thera 
the £r{M(t, according to clie i> fnch a rivo^ which raos from. 
Cbini/t hiftory. north to foath, within a litde of 

(C) Now called r.&, or r*- ^ IFban^-ta. ■ 

U, according to btnthii. [F) Thii ii placed Ilej. 591. 

(D)ThitiniiftbetheB«j^- A.D. 1194. 
itJak of Jbi'l^baKi Khin i b/ 

Z-4 aiKfflblies, 

u,.,i,z<..t. Cookie 

144 H^erj of the Mog^Ur M^n^ jSprpir/. B, UL 

A- D. ^ITcmblies, fummooed to {aund apd animate die people (G), 

1 201. be propofed thromng oiT the yoke qf the Kara-itst tellii^ 

feaff*? them they l>ad now a fair ppponunicy ; 4od, to ioduQc them 

(be fooner, preteadcd he wiis leot from God for that purpo^. 

ThtlAo- This fp«ech had the deAred eSe£t : for ^pplaadiag his taXtS" 

gaUfHiVf. prize, they promifed to o))cy him. Hereupon he nufed oa- 

\y 4500 foldiers mora than he had before ; luid tbiea feat 

to propofe a league wth the Khaq of the KmgoK*tt, (ob ta 

hifi &ther-iD-lqw, vfho was dead; aUbmth [!^10ian of tha 

I(^lat ! but chofe of the iS^ Migult, or Tatt^rji ii^ufing hift 

ifKcrs, he coafb-alaed them by fottx of nftaa. The Khia« 

of Merial, fceiag chi^, chof^ xo do freely whu th^y would 

Qtherwife have been compelled to : aad kveni othar tribea 

followed their e:umple> ^though foliicited to Aaijd out by 

fiime Khans, particularly diofe of Markit ; pi whom THOa;^ 

bjy^ Teifiujin's mortal enemy, was the moft powec^Hl. 

9tf»J>tKj- . Afterwards,, all cheaUicd^iians,,hy prodatnadon, for- 

/ȣ tribute, bjii paying any more tribute to Vang K^Aa; who, aa ^tI^jB, tried 

gentle nieans. But finding nothing, would re^im tbjetlL, freed 

the Merkits from oil tribute, and made large pitiml&s to 

Tuktabey (H) ; . hojHi>g . that this party, of Mollis would halt 

laoce the power of the other. -Itl^u^ timcTVmK/vtt.feratiQfl 

to be for peace, advifed fendiiig to prbpofe an accopuaoda-i 

don to Vang Kh^, on condidon that be fhould relcftfe tbem 

£ixmi all taxes, as he had done the Merits ^ , 

Temu]in As they left the manageooent of this ^tr tc* .hinifeif, hft 

frafafii pitched on jfmifin to be the ambaflndor j who, iftw reatH|} ' 

ftate ; ^^ obligationa he owed to his mafler, ^ Vaag KHa'a nn-i 

generous returns, intreatcd him lo^aot pesqft la theiMonoEi. 

:^ul renew his frieodlhip with his fbn-ia-la«ir. ffiifg ^Uk, 

^ring referred the afiair to his copncilt for a whils.(4)l>>* 

oS the envoy; wbo, ia theiofita time, fu^ed «.than(and 

indigaides from the friend^ of Sankun and jftitMa, whM^ he 

loudly complained of : but meetli^ with no redrds, fent an 

tccount of a4 to TtrliufiH, vho oiidared hiib forthwith to 


u'fiffi it The Grand KhAn would wlHioj^/ hwn madt pcwe ] but 

t^tStJ, SankAn, prqndiced by femUia'i fug^sfticxis, oppofed it with 

1^ his might ; aad carrying his Other's aofwer hlfitfelf, told 

Ac ambaf&dor, " that the Moguls were to expeft no peace, 

'* but by fuhmitting ahfolutdy to the EhSp's wiU j f^ llia^ 

fAsu'LKATft ap.De ta Croix, p.^t.Ar&q. 

(G) This is Kfened toHcj. (J) 6aG^*ftjrj fort «**>!• 
■B). A- D. U9+. jMf. 

'(H) Tiie isrtfenfldtulfcj. 
19^ A.O. U97. !* tt 


<* as f^ Timnfrin, he would ikyer. foe: turn b«t ^th fMunl A. D. 
<< ia liaod <I). " The confisderaie Ch&os, exafperated b^ ^'o'- 
fi> hv^ty a tneflage, pngxM^fiar 'varh Henapoa Am-*— "v"^ 
Ads teat troops, to lavvga .Alagu/iJ^i bof thef were al- 
im^ repulfed vith I0&. The Grand Khan, enragod at thk 
dii^iace, iwtcd tnx>p9 all over his domaions, and drew above 
30,000 itaeaout oi the proiinoes of Turif/ldn(K), TeHMIt^ 
and o^etr ports, depeodiDg^oa the kingdom of JrUyr. Theo 
fcndiog to {iimnion the Moguls to fulmnt,: he promifod them 
all the £uitf3dioo they required if tbe7«o«^riM ( but If aotj 
Cfafettened to treat tiieci with the titnooA figour. 

Sons Khans were at £rft oi Ofdnion to accept of Vangfrifaru 
Kh&n's propofals; but others, lefs timorous, nobly oppomt/'ar <ui«r. 
them. At lei^th, anioiated bj 7ttm^'9 ailments, i.'ho 
produced letters iram Karakorant, affnriag then that tlM 
Grand Khin and his fixibad fwom tbc Tiite of the confede- 
rates ; it wks ro<btnd by the whole zflembly, dien met at 
• JitaaieruU, to raife ail the forces their tribes could fui^by 
indlto carry on the wae \ritfi die utmoft vigour. Then 'de^ 
chrir^ femt^in ^«K»a[, they prelented him the Top&z, or 
tnmdteon of anmaad : but he -would not accept of It, but 
•a coodltisa -dut every -mian ihould pun£hially obey his ot^ 
ders ; and that he fliookl have full power to punifb thoft 
who did not do tbdr duty. Having granted alt njs demands, 
they retnnied to thdr «efpe£tive oountrtes, in order te get 
their troops ready to t^u the fidd. 

. TSMl/y/JV, the better to fecare his friends in Ms intc^ BmtfieU 
reft, loaded witii benefits tbofe who had ieft Fang Kkin, tag^Mitudi. 
ibUow him 1 and out of them chofe aU his general offlceraJ 
fint he in a Angular manner rewarded die two {teres wha 
gave him notice of that priiKv's deTigne againft him : for be^ 
fidsa tbe confidcrable pufeatt which be made them, he de> 
Elored theai, TtvUnt (L), wid affigned them a revenue for 

'MJKXQMD.ap. DeUCroix,p.45.&fitq. ABv'bOiiAzi, p;. 
76, & feq. 

(I) This ii pUced, by MS/- eafiem tribei, who probably are 

'£«xr,inHej. {^8 A.D.izoi. iB«Mth<Te. 

iy D»h Creix, in Hej. 596. A. (L) According to AhSlfartg, 

0. 1 199. aDd^aviw's hoilililiei ^Ttrkan,Qx7arkhttB,\i exempt 

ia. 1 20a ' from aitttun j enjoyi his whole 

(K) This cannot be under- booty, withoutgivlH.any'totbc 

JloodoftheconntryoftheT'wrij, Khftn ; goes into his prefence 

ia thcweftof7«f«>7 ; but thore withoot a&ing leave ; and is 

were feme twV^ tdhes who pardoned niu timet, kt the 

bordtrcd weftward on the tcrii- fault tw wiUC it wiH. 
toBet«£th»ii|iifr« md other 


Hifi»yc/.tBeMog<a\orMon%i Empire. B,IIL 
their maiotouuKe ; ordaiiuog tl»t tbefe ^nl^es ihonld ooa- 
dniie to them and thdr dcTceodaiUs to the feventh, fosw an- 
■'thocs fay to the umth, generation. Thcfe aft* of gndtnde 
and libmlicy were of great fervice to him. When all the 
confederate troops were come together ; contrary to the coAom 
■ .of the Moguis, who n&d to attack thdr enenues in ooe maia 
body, he oirided his army into two wmgt, and in the center 
placed his own troops, as a body of leum. Then marcb- 
tng directly towards the Gntod Khan's dtmiinions, be feoad 
, fhat liit arQiy was already in motion -, bat bang incnmbered 
with carriages, was Haw m his march to the (dam of Tat^mt, 
in the cosntry of the Kara-itt, where Temujin waited his 
coming "■. 

. To avmd the confdilcHi which wonld arife from mbdng 
^cording relations together, and to leave onr readers to cbnie 
for themfelves, we have laid before them (eparatdy, as we 
Imtc hitherto done in the like cafes, the accoonts (^ tlie fc- 
yeral authors in new ; and fliall make no remarks on them* - 
£vther than to ob&rre, that odtber thofe made ofe of by 
.^A'lgbaa Khdit, lior De la Croix, fpeak of the famons oath 
taken by Temujin and his cooiederites, at the river PautJmm, 
as nKBtimed by the Cfnnefe biftoriacs, b> whom we fliall now 
Muts tht TEMUJIN baring marched from that river in qneft of 
Kira-iw, the efaemy, the two armies met between the Tula and Kerbtit 
or Ker&hn : and though that of yang Kb&n was by frr tbs 
raoft onmeroas, yet, aner a bloody fight, ToHym gained a 
complete victory ; after which the greater pan of the v»n» 
quilhed troops joined his. Fartg Khan bad much ado to get 
oiF ; and many of his own cheers woold have killed htm. Ht 
was purfued, however, and taken by one of the parties feot 
after him ; but the fame day efcaped, and retired into tbe ter- 
ritories of the Naymint : whers an officer of that coontry 
knowng him, cauret] the nnfortunatc prince to be (Iain. His 
fen Ila^ (or IhJtif $angfnn) retired firft into the kingdom of 
ffya ; from whence bang drivcD, and flying to the country 
cf JCitt't/e (M), berween Tuifm and Kajbgar, be was there 
killed, by order of its princs '. 


' JoTiHi ap. De la Croix, p. 47, jc feq, ' Gavbil, ubi 

fupr. p. to. 

(M) Til hard to fay what SuUMa, which belonged t* 

place this ii : jibiP/ebm«i Kham KaHjtbara, .a lord of the tribe 

fays, that he Tctkedto the citv of JCuUt/«i who.infteadof pro- 

ol khatin ifii. Ktiax), iaUttU teding,pntlu(n to^atk. Bm 


C. I. RtigM «/JengblxKWb. . 347 

With this acoonnt the weftern hiftorians agne, but re- ~A. D, 
btt the feveral mattert more at large ; they tell us, dut ^tsoj. 
prince Karafl>ar,-wbo commanded the van-gnard of Ti^jfiVi '■"'V*^ 
army, be^o the battle, by attacking that cs the enemy, head- 
ed by Jetmiia, The ccnfli^t was the more bloody, as the pcr- 
iboal hatred betw'xt thofe two generals was very gre« j b«t 
KATofbar was at length overthrown. Then Suida Btbadr, 
at the head of the veteran troops, jdned with the ffti-nc^gwEr, 
or TatATi, fo vigofoufly charged Vang KhM'i main Mdjt, ' 
that diey gave bKk *, and Jemuka, who advanced to AifUn 
them, was obliged. aUo to ^vegronnd. At the £uiie ^ts»„jj^tttt ' 
the two mngs 3l Temujin'a army, cmimanded by tbe prltic^f,6m. 
ffnUti and Iria, attacked the two wii^; of the ennmy.'-aDd 
for three hoars both Ma behaved with extracrdinary bravery. 
'The Kara-its fisaght with fo much courage, that the vidc^ 
feemed often ready to declare in thfni &voar. But, in- tte 
.end; \\xMogids gained it (N) : for Ttmtgm,- when he &w it 
wa« time to advance with bis corpsrde-rejierve, where he waa 
.with the prince his fon, fell on vnth fpch fury, that the Kanf 
itt begui to give back, and break their mks on ajl fides ; nor 
conld their Khln> and prince Sumhrn, rally <htm . agate' ; £» 
Ifaat tbey were at lad obliged to follow tbdr flying' aimy. 
who fell in heaps before the poxfaiqg enemy. This -vii&xxj 
ra^dy enriched tbe Mt^guls, who, befides the plunder of the 
ravage, took abundaiwe of prifoners, and a great number 
irf horfes *. 

This dgy, which wa* fetal to yang Kh4n, proved the ijioft Vang 
prolperons to Tna^in, who was ^n forty years cf age j^.***" 
for it put falm into pofli^CMt <^ the kingdom of the-Aa-^"* 
ra'itt, and all Kfurakif^, The vanqmHwd not only loft 

* Da LA CaoiX, p. 55, Ic (eq. 

Recording to DtUCnix, after fiuck them in the groand tt 

yemovine id dilguiff frop) one fonie diftance. Aftu thii they 

country to another, and think- began to read their conjura- 

ing himfelf nnfafe at KSfiigar, tions, during which the ftickt 

he retDmed vofiiti, where he approached; and bavioK fought, 

waa pat to death the fame year Vmcant remained undermoll i 

for a (py. which prefaced the viAory to 

(N) MtrM P«/« reports, that Cingii. This piece of jug{;1e Is 

this prince ordered the aftrolo- fti]lmureaiD0ogthe7'iir:f«,<^'- 

ceri and magiciaqi lo try kii mw, and other JVa^mmmiVah na- 

nte hy'waodi: they fplit a tions, which they call Ja tht 

pieceofgreencanein two; then ^Mii whereof 7A<tinw( gives ai 

writing the name of Cinpi on accoaw in hi* travcti to thcL«. 

1^, »u4 of I^Wm 9d thf othpr, vmt. 


L l,_< l;,L.OO'^IC 

$49 Hifiory of.^ Mogul or Munglfm^/m Bi IIL 

A. f>. -40,00b men, killed in the battle ( but the bcft troc^ Tx^iich 
l»a- remained went oyer to his enemy. As he was wounded in 
**^""'the fight, he iraa otdiged to quit the command (rf his ann^, 
-iritb defign to retire to Karakorem^, bitt feeing himf^ por- 
food by a troop of MtguU, he fled for refuge to his enemy 
-Tttyyan KhSn. This retreat was much wondered at, as tfiat 
Khin'bated him ; and there were in his court levera! great 
Haymm lords, whom he had ill treated : tfacfc \arA& did not 
Saai. to a^raratc (he injuries which he had done their coun- 
try ; aad even to altege, that his flying thither was only with 
ajodidoiis defign t6 tuia them, by Rawing the view's an- 
ger npoQ the NApHBu.- 
,itfftn TJTTAN KhAt, •vh.o WasnaturaBy tinoeiierou's, readily 
^Wi. MTC car » thdr adirfce, M put theGrand Khan to dearti. As 
looD as he was (ozed, they held a c(5uncU, at which their 
fAadt took care not «> be prelent ; imagining, by thtt 
tneaiiG, to aroid the charge of having violated the law of fia- 
tkMis and hoffritality.- He even pretended to be difpltafed 
•t hts enemy'l dcsth-t'twt when Vang KhSn's head Was prc- 
fented him, he coaM ftot conceal his joy, nor contaia from 
fafoMng him with Wortts fell of fcbrn and fpite '. 
- SoMB authors relate this matter very differently ; acct^- 
b^ to diem, VAng KhSn/hamg <m the road to Ta/Vstt JBMk, 
be"vas met by ^nmii/yWid Ta^rdka, two Naymdn chiefs; 
whakaowing there had always beenanimt^ty between "llaft 
and their Khin, flew him, with all his attendants j bat that; 
oD prefenting his head (O) toTayyan- X/i^'i he blaihed much 
the aAioA, faying, that Vang KhSo, having beeii a great 
frmee, and vmerahle for hit age, they had im^ better firved 
fir- hit guard, than bttn his -execulkmert. ■ F«^her t& ho- 
nour the memory of fo great a prince, he had his head in* 
chafed in filver, and [Placed updn his own feat, with his fact 
turned to die door ". 
IGt dtPU' TS MUJIN, when informed of Vang Khan"^ death, -frithf 
wiiifiiK- out lofs of time continued to feize his domipjons, as his right 
•■■ by conqueil ; and Sankun being no-where to be found, he re- 

mained peaceable poflejlarof all Has Kara-it territories. About 

' Jov(Hi ap. De la Croiic, p. 56. Abu'lchazi, p. 77. 
• Ibid. p. 77. 

(O) Bocb De la Cnis and prcfageswcrednwii is ixfwm 

JiiVighaxj KkdM neatiori-tbe of Tenuijia. The fitH fayi, tki* 

eircmnliance of tbe loiigne bappened whto the headwat 

dtraAiiig iEfetf fev«ral times ooi fraih ) the latter, wbCn it wai 

BftheiDOutbifiomwhenceJbnt diy. 

' -■ . . ^ 

. I , L.OOQIC 

the end of the year (P) bereniraedu>hif qwacoDntrr,wbef« A.I>. 
tie was received widi acdamations by all tlw Me^d £ha^, who 
came to pay their aclutowlegemcats to hinii for Jwvipg deli- ^ 
vered tbem from the tyranny oiVai^ Kimt vhom thtgiGitUed 
the peHecutor of their luiion. 

After this Hakemba, a brother of Vang Kbia, came tOHakem- 
•Ser his fervice to Temujin, and a dai^hta in marriage, bj^. 
The Grand Khan recdved him faToorably, gave him the eatn'^iti, 
ploymeht he deftred, and accepted of liis daughter with joy a 
at the lame time telling him, " that he owed him a katt 
" treatment, in return for that which his brother had ^k» 
" to him in his misfortunea. That although both f^Mig KhM 
** and pi'ince SankHn had, without caufe, coufpired aguoA 
" his life, yet he never blamed them, but imputed all tbctr 
" perfcctitioDS to Jemuka ; nor had, on that fcore, one jot 
" the Ids rcfpeA for thdr memories, tiian if they had always 
" oxitinued his friends. " Tmmjin fully deilgned to have 
married his daughter ; but percdving that the captam of hia. 
guards, whom ^ nnch cfteemcd, was fall^ in love vith 
that piinccTs, he gave her to him for a wife. 

TAYYJN, Khan of the Piaymins, one of the mofl confi-Jerofika 
derabte princes of Karakitay, wag alarm'd aifd aneafy at haajiirt nf 
fpn<iiblaw's furpriung fortune, ootwithftanding the barmoi^ 
^cre bad been of long time between them. WhiJe h^ 
thought* were employ^ on this fabjef^, JtmMa, who b«t 
efcaped out of the late battle, with the remains of yaitg 
Khm'i anny, and moA of the officers, arrived at bit coan t 

(P)I&thetextof£«Cm>,p. fion it muft be obfaTEd, tlot 

6i,\t\t,aboutil>ttHdafthrytar the aattiora followed by D* l» 

tZOl, hoHg forty-nine ytan tf Crerx, fpin Oi|t to ten year» 

m. Bat,3ifxorA\ngto/iiu/ghazi length the affairs, which ihofe 

Kb£n, p. 78. he was no more made txhoi hy jihClgbiaJ KhSn 

dian forty jearsof age when he comprize within the compaTs of 

gained the viAory ; and wai ac- one yaar ; for the fcn-mer putr 

tnowlegedbyiheMsfu/ifortheir FengKbaB'i plot to fcize Ttmu' 

Khin, in the country of A^m- ^rnin He]. j88,theUtterin $98, 

Monisra, where be ihtn refided. A. D. 1201. at which time tb« 

HeplacestbiseveotiDtheAfiviiy Khin. fays he was fony ; but 

year of the Heg, and of ine Z)< la Crelx, that he had ea> 

Ilejrah 599' which anfwert to teed into his forty-eighih yew. 

tiieyeir ol Chrill izoz; at the Whence thi» ditference happen- 

cnd of which Di la Croix alfo ed is not fo eafy to dctermiae ; 

puts it : To that here the chro- but we conclude Jtl^hhau 

DoIoK]' of thefe two authors, Khan'i account to be moS ex- 

wbicn difagreed before, coin- ail, as the Cbintfi hiftory gives 

cidei, and thenceforward tal- biy the fpace of a year to the 

liei pretty well. On tbii occa- (June ttanraAiom. 


350 H0»ry efihtiAogA w Mun^ Empirt. B. IH 

A. I>. Sfld btii^ knows to be a manof great st»lidcs, was Tcrywell 
i>«3- Fecaied. As he had a fabtil wit, and vas Qdlled in all the 
^■■v^^arts of conm, he endeavoured to ftirop his jeaioofy i^ainft 
Tntmjin. He repre&nted him uimaa of unbounded ambition, 
thiuber who quarrelled with princes, for a pretence to invade their 
"'*'• dominions ; as well as the moft m^ratefiil and perfidious : 
all^ir^ that he contrived to deprive both Vang Khan aocf 
Sangun of their empire and lives, at the fame time that they 
loaded him with their fiivours. Tayyan Khin knew this to 
be all calnmnj ; yet, urged more by his own fears than Je-' 
mJUta's follidtations, he rcfolved to makewar on Temujin. To 
this purpofc he i»x)pofed a league with fomc other SIhSiis, 
whole iotereft it was to put a ftop to the new emperor's 
growing greatnefs : into which Tuktabey, and the other Mer- 
kit (Q_) Khins, the Khan of the Virats, and he of the Kerit, 
Who was a relation of Vang Khkn, prefently entered ; and 
Jem&ha engaged for the whole tribe of Jajerats (ot Jcyg- 
htrati) n. 
fieftfi Among the reft, Tayydn Khin had likewile InvitM jilaht 
JifirvertJ. (or Alaku), to join M>dth him and prince Jemika, in order to 
curb the power of Ttrngin. This Alakut (R) was chief of 
the white Tata, who dwelt to the fouth-fouth-eaft of the 
ntonntain ,fhay. TbeTe Tata are different from the Tatari .• 
that name bdi^ fometimes given by the Chinefet to the 
people in general inhabiting beyond the great wall ; and 
at other times to certain pardcnlar hords, whereof fomc 
vere called Tata of the waters (S), Ctuate aln^oft due north 
of Korea ; others white Tata, (rf' whom wc are fpeaking. 
Their chief, Alakui,' was a dcfcendant of the antient Tarl^ 
princes (T) ; and having had a very great eAcem fbrTmu/rn, 
be detained the melTenger who came from Tayyin KhM, and 
gave the Mogul prince notice of the propolal. Hereupon his 
brother Kanchekin, prefling him to take fpeedy affd v^orons 
OKafures, he monnted his horle ; and, followed by his dunceft 

° Dt LA Caoix, p. 60, & feq. 

KQJi In Atufgbaxi Khan, meotioni Sm. Mfguli, or Megmlt 

Xlarkati. *fihe lualer. 

(R) In aitu/t, A-ia-u.tfi: (Tj Called, by the C»W». 

D/ /a Criii;r fajTs, he was Khan Tbjw. They dwelt to the 

of the Ankuts, or Vnkats, as north welt, of ruf/nR, and were 

AhSlghaxi Khan. In the text very formidable to the Chintfi 

of t>i ia Croix the Karluki are chemfelves in the fixth cenni^, 

put TD by fome miftake. as hath been related before, p. 

(S) Oi $m Tata. RuifujOri 35. 


C.I. Rtign of Jcn^Hh^n: 351 

ftddier*, marched to the moantmo /fitn^-i^)' (U), vbatTdji' A.D. 
yon was incamped with his Naymam ; who, though mnch > '<>4- 
OKirc numeroui, were defeated, and their' Khio fbia: on 2" "*■ "" 
which many herds declared for the viftor, who before ^*^"~^w*''* 
reftrained liy fear. This happened in the year 1 304 ; and * 
next year Tanujin heg/m to make incurfions on the territoiiei 
of the king of /^a *. 

With regard to thii new viftory, (he weftem Jfiatie 
.Mlloriani tell at, that Jlakus, having fent Tayyan Khon't 
letter, containing all the partknlars <^ the cooTpiracy, with 
the names of the bcfiwe- mentioned Ehaos, to Traw/in ; this 
latter CMiveited a coandl, in which he would have his eldeft 
(on Jtgi, othervife called Tujbt, to affift ; and, the defigns 
of die confederates being n^e known, war was refotved 
on (X). The army aflembled in the banning of the year 
(Y) : loon after which Temujin \xffa\ his march ; and, 
having palled his own frontiers, came at length to the river 
Altay (Z). Where no troops appearing, to difpute the paf- 
fige, he was liirprized ; becanfe he moft have fuiFercd much, ^^y ^^. 
had there been ever fo few to have oppo{ed him. Januka ^^^ 
would have had Tayyan Kh&i go meet the enemy, and not/iaj„_ 
wait their comir^; fen* that in (o ddng he would prevent A. D. 
the Moguls from ravaging his country, and his own mea 1Z04. 
£roin flying, by leading them ki from home. But the Nay- 
man Kh&n, inilead of hearkening to his advice, flattered him- 
fclf, that the farther the Mogult advanced, the lefs able they 
wonld be to light ; and, on the contrary, that lus troc^, 
being in full fbength, would eaUty get the viflory. 

While he deluded bimfelf with tbefe vain im^natioos, 
the Mogult, who were well fnpplied with proniioQs and 
forage, approached his camp. But when his officers brought 
hioi word how formidable the enemy was, he began to re- 
pent that he had not followed the counfel of Jemuka ; who 
yet ihewed not the leaft difcontent, nor appeared Icis zealous ' 

* Gaobil, ubi fopra, p. to, Afeq. 

(U) A chain of moantaini, fatigoe of the former expe£- 

th« mott eafiern part, in I«. tiim : but that Daritiaj Oifigatt 

50" long, near 17* weft of Pi- or Balaj, JngbiK Kbani nncis 

i(*;. Tbe chief monDtain be- by the father^ fide, offered to 

longing to it, ii ia lat. 46° 50' fnmiQi ifae whole anpy with 

long. 14° 38' weft. GaiiBil. horfet of his own ; which obvi- 

{X) AhiTgha^ Tayi, that the ated the objeAion. 

heada of tribe* alleged, that (V) Hi la Croix place* this 

they were not in a cbndiiion to anir in Mr/. 600, A.D. i;;o]- 

undertake any thing, till their {Z) Now called Sihi, ac- 

kories were recovered fion (he cording 10 Btatini. 

- for 

L i,.< t.L.OO'^iC 

Hijiety of. thi Mcigul of Mun^ Sm^re. B. m. 

-for tte <!rafe ft "The tMrovmiet bang ift Tif^t, and drxwn 

up ki order, prince Jigi, and one d Us uDdes, JujAat, 

''bigan the ^^t, widi great vigour: but Kajbhtk, Tayyan 

KhAn'i km, fnAaioed the Ibodc without giving grouodj 

Thefe two yotn^ princes, vhom the lore of glory cqiudty 

inflamed, ftrore to tigoallze thdr lldll and valour. Thn 

brave rdiftance which the van-guards made on both fidc^ 

by d^ees e^aged the othsr corps, and txwight on a ge- 

ueral battle. The iig^ lalled inm. fitn-rire to fun-fet, uM 

gftat obftioacy ) but at kft the Moguh, breaking the «ae- 

tfties raaka, pat them to ffight, and made a terrible Haugluer 

of then. Tayyait Kiin, who performed all the parts of k 

good general, was, at the beginning of the battle, mortaHy 

Enlhluk teonnded, and died Ibon after. Kujbluk, his Ion (A), aod 

/"■«• T^a. Bey (B), fled, -with all thofcwbo efcaped the Iworda 

of the dtcmy. As for JettUika, fpurred on by his hatred to 

the Giand Khin, he Hgnalized himfelf by a choufand hcrcaC 

Jem&ka actions : but his rage made him ventore too far, for he yna 

txtcuitd. taken prifoner ; and after the battle had his head ftmck 

' ofi*(C), as the principal cauTe of all the lasc dlftraAions. 

fii/Nay. The kingdom of the vanquifhed bemg thus fabdued bf 

mans rt- Temujin, who brought under his obedience a vafV traft oif 

^if*d, land, he returned to Karaiiorom ; where, during the Wkiier, 

his court was tilled with ambafladors, who were fent by dtdr 

naflers, either to congratulate him, afk his prote^on, or 

iiibmic to his government. Almoft all the KaktUb (D) tribe) 

in the eaftern parts put themfelves under. his proceftion : but, 

to the north, forae Khans, jealous of their liberty, aCkd even 

iwu€ />fi;gv/ tribes, who were nv^ out of his reach, reefed 

lo afk his fevour. Tukta Beg, who was once a very powd'' 

' De laCkoiz, p. 70,^ (eq. Ado'lokazi, p. 80, fc feq. 

(A) According to the Ci/a^fi their prcfent fovereign, whff 
Siftory, he w^ ioa of Btyrak, caufed him to be drawn limb 
7ayyan'i brother. frran limb. 

(B) '&Y Aba Ithazi Khan ca\\- (D) By thefe feem to be 
cd Ttita Bf£&, who fled to meant the irilie* who condoiicd 
fajrak, aoomer Khan of the PagoMs, or who were not Mt- 
ilttpnani, and Tayyatii eldclt hammeiiani, whcR our hjftonaiW 
brother. wrote. DeLiJJt, \a\attatxiw 

. (C) It appear* oot, Irom the hiftory of Jcxghix KhSn, 

Jhu'lghirx.iKlie'i, p, 86, that he places them to the north of ihfl 

wasinthia battle: but afterTiij^ river SaghaUan',' or Amur, in 

ytni Jdran's death he returned to Karaketay, viiiQTcKarakatayet- 

\u tribe : who, cooTtdering him ver wat. But that map it fall 

ms the caufc of the war, earn- of groftcrron. 
ed him bound to JenghiK Khan,. 

3 f«l 

C. 1^ ReigHO/Jeaf^zKyaa^ 353 

fill prince, coold not bear to lee the fudden graQdeur of the A. D. 
new emperor, ftrove all he could to foment .their hatred >i05. 
agajnft him. On the other hand/Tflw^/Zn,, looking on, him ^*"V^J 
as hli worll enemy, rdblved to turn his arms agnail this. . ^ 

Khan, who had fo highly injured him. Accordingly, early 
in the fpring (E), he fet out at the head of a powerful army 
againft die flUrkiti (or Markati). 

TVKTA Sey'-vti not infeuibie of the provocations \xfhi\Htt- 
had ^ven 7em&jin : yet his envy flattering him with hopes of kit* de- 
foccas one dme or other, he alfo made great preparations ot/itU. 
war ; and was joined by fome Tanjuts (or Tayjuti), with 
prince Kajbiuk. But when he heard that Tem^ln approach- 
ed hi» capital city Kq/bin, with an anny, the like or whicii 
was never feen before in Mogulifiin, his heart failed him ; 
and he, vnth his cldeft Ion, fled to Boynik, Tayyan Khan's 
brother, to whom Kafbluk, his nephew, had already retired 
for^ter q. 

'Thb Graud Ehin by this means <baad none in the fleld 
to oppole him. However, the city of Kajinn (F) Teemed re- 
folvea to Aand a long fiege ; but although, at Hrfl, the inha- 
tutantt made a rigorous re f iflance, yet diey were in a ihort 
time obliged to wrrender ; and Tenagln, haring put all to 
the fword who had been in arms againA him, razed the 
fbrtrels. After this he took an oath of fidelity from all the 
tribe of Ka/bin, as well as others of the Merkit tribe ; tad 
all the Khins whom he pardoned fwore to obey him. 

The Grand Khin, having gniflicd the omquefl of MtmJ- USStmry 
ifiAn, returned to his capital Karaieram ; where, it&^ia^rtpiU- 
on the vaft number of his acqnifitions, he judged it proper '''"'i' 
to r^ulatc his empire. With this riew he called a general**^' ^H 
dyet, which he appointed to be held on the firft day of fpring *■ ^■ 
the next year, when tlie fun entered Jries ; to which were "°S* 
fnmmoned all the great lords, both Mogul and Tatar. In 
the interim, to ellablllh good order in the army, he dlrided his 
foldlers into fevcral Tomans, Hezarchs, Sedehs, and Dehchs j 

* Aau'LK. ap. De la Croix, p. 74, tc feq^. 

(E) DtUCnix places thiiin weft borden of CiiM, to which 
Aefprinf^of theyear 124. it fccmt to be D^ar: fince, p. 

(F) It IS not eafy to fix the 91, Ardift, in the borders of the 
fite of this city, p. 91 and jti. Ntrfmam and Mtrkit, was near 
The COQntry of Tangui ii bid ?#»;«/) Otd Kamfiea (which iS 
to have borne that name. Dt known to be Kan-tbt^, in the 
Zj^, in his map prefixed, places province of Sktn-fi, m China), 
it to the foutb of tlte Najiadm was the capital of Tfurgur. 
country; but far from thcoonh- 

MoD.HisT.VoI.IV. A a that 

U^ory «f tie Mogul #r Mur^ Empire. B. IIT, 

that is, bodies of ten thoufand, one thoufand, one hundred, 

attd of ten," mea : with their refprflive offices, all fubordi- 

"* nate to die generals who commanded the Tomans ; and thele 

■were to aft under one of his wvn fon». He next turned his 

thought to making new laws; whereof Re ordered a memoriat 

to be drxwn up, which he communtcuied to his prtvy-coondl, 

- before he efpofed it in the general dyct. 

Temftitn At length, the day of holding it being come, the princes of 

ii^alUd, the blood and great lords met K the place appoitued, dreflcd 

in white. Then the Grand Khan, dmhed like the reft, fitting 

down on Ks throne, with his d-own on ffis head, was tompli- 

mented by the whole aHemUy, who wHhed the connnuance of 

his health and profpertty. After this they confirmed the Mogut 

empire to htm and lus fncceflbrs ; adding all thofe kingdoms 

and nations wlitch he bad {ubdued, the defcendants of whole 

▼anquifhed Khao» were deprived of all right or tide to any 

of them. When he had thanlud them for thefe marks <S 

isix and refpeft, be dddared his refoltition to add to the 

' xntient laws fome new od^, which he commanded that they 

fhould obTervc ; and which we have inferted at the eod ca 

his rdgn '. 

A. D. After this, ici the tenth month of the year 1206, the 

1 206. princes of the fam^ of Temiijln, the chiefs of hiOTds, and 

mnd ec- generals of the army, a'dembled at the fource of the river 

iMBVilegedOrion. All the troops were divided into nine bodies, each of 

which having fet up a pavilion and difplayed a ftandard, 

^ey adiDowleged Temfijin fcr their fovereign, by this general 

cry, Chingf^z Kohan (G). After which he nomaiated MuiuU 

and Porchi bJs two chief generals and prime miniiters. From 

this event the Chinefe hiuory commences the empire of tlie 

Mongot (or Mongl) conqueror *, 

ABU'LGHAZI Kbda, conformable to the CS/«(/* hiflo- 
ilans, raves Temujin the empire and name of Jenghiz KhSx 
at thfi lamc time : but De la Crvix places thofe events three' 
years afunder ; the firft in 1 202, juft after the defeat and 
death of yang Khan (in which year Aii'lgsbazi places both), 
the latter in 1205. They likewife relate them with different 
circumltances. With regard to Temujin bciag acknowl^ed 
favereigny /ibfflghazi Khdn only (ays, that, in the year 599, 

• MuKOMB, KoHDAMiR, Abu'l. ap, I>c U Croix, p. 76, 
it feq. ■ Gav^ii,, ubifupra, p. it, & fcq. 

(G) In the Princli, fching- afcribe extraordinary qaalitici, 
}i £t. Which i) not a Mongol and make iti appearance tlie 
«,-ord; but a found exprelTing prefage of good ]udc. 
the «rv of a bird, t« which they 


. „.. ..L.OOQIC 

C i: Reign of JeaQhtzKhin: 3^5 

called by the Moguls TongHz, or the hog, Jenghiz Khin be- A. D. 
ing full forty years old, all the tribes of Moguls who had "06. 
fubmicted to him, acknowlegcd him for their £h^n in the^—* V— ^ 
<;ountry of JVaanwniura ';■ where at that time he rcfided ; '" f/*"'* 
pa wluc^ pccafiDQ he gave his fubjefts a grear fcaft. De la '^** 
Croix enlarges mtich on the fubjc^; and informs us, that 
Temujin laid hold 6f the opportunity which hb viftory over 
Vang Kh4n aftbrdcd, to ftrengthen his intereft wl^ the 
people ; who, gained by his eloquence, and the encomiums - 
of .his .fHfinds, refolved to chufe him thrir Grand Khaa. 
The Khans who were already in his intereft importuned the 
other £hins to yield to the requeA of Ttm&jin, whofe pre- 
fents were Hill more prevalent. Notice having been given to 
the sbfent Khins, of what 'was agreed on in this great afTem- 
bly, they repaired to Dilon Jldak, in the province of Teka 
Moguli^, to perform the ceremony of his iaauguratioo. 
There Temijtn, pladng himfelf on a plain feat, fet for h'lmfir Gran^ 
upon an eminence, harangued the people with his afaaiKhin ef 
eloqueiice. After which they fet him on a black felt carpet 
fproid on the ground ; and then the perfon who was »p- - 
pointed to give the peoples fuffi-age pronounced aloud thdr 
pleafure : firft he told him, " that the authority or power, 
" which was ^ven him, came from God ; who would not 
" fail to profpcr him,, in cafe he governed his fubjc^s well : 
" but that, U^ he abufed his power, he fhould render himfelf 
" miferable, as the hlaclc felt, on which he fat, intimated to 
" him." After this remonArance, feven Khins lifted him up, 
with an air of ceremony, and bore him to a throiie,. which 
was prepared fisr him in the midft of the aJlembly. Then 
they proclaimed him emperor, with the title <^ Grand Khan, 
or Khaan, (^ all the Mogul tribes ; and bowed their knees ^ 
Dine times before lum, in tolcen of obedience i after which 
the people pcHbrmed the ^ame ceremony, accompanied with 
acclamations of joy. 

The new emperor jnomifed on his part to gQvern them Mognli 
with as much julVice as mercy, and d^nd them againA allosi I't^* 
their enemies ; always to procure their good and cafe ; to '^^ 
acquire gk^ fin* them, and make their names known' to all 
. the earth. As he had much rcafon to commend t!tt S^- 
JHogu/t, or Tatart, he declared, that, in reward of their 

' Asu'lOHAZI KflAN, .p. 78. 

(H] To make tUs agree widi tbe fearce of the Ontn y and in. 
tbs foregoing Ciintfi acctnint, deed the country ef the Megu/i 
Di/** W^ and Tiiti Mt^ui Iccins to bare been there-' 
tnuft bavt'been fituate about abouTi. 

A a 2 fctvicei, 

Hilary efihtUo^ltrUat^ Empire. .B-Ht 

fcrviCCT, he woul^ join thdr nime in his dtle, by ffilog 
hinrfaf Grand Khan of the M<^ls and Tatan. When the 
^ceremony was over, he diftributed prefenn, both to greit lai 
finall. He likewire nude magnificent eoterakmcDU (I); 
which, according to the ctiftom of thofc nadons, ondned 
fcM- fcveral days together. After thi» be dibi&d (be 
affembly. ^^, 

Kamtd CoiSpERRiNG the name of JsngUz Khiit, dhfflpm 
lenghiz Xhia rdates, that, during the ceremony of the inaogunriw, 
khM, one Koiza {or Kokja), fon of fltMgBJb Jzka (or gU), bythc 
firft venter, father-in-law of Teimjin, came to Um, nd i- 
Clared, " that he came from God to tell them, thufton 
« thenceforth he (houW taJte the name of Jenghit (K), mJ 
" order his fabjefts to call him JeagIAz Khan" (L). Be 
ftjretold at the feme time, that all his posterity (hoold be 
KhSns, from generation togenerMiem. ■ This Ktiza \AA to 
go baie-footedm winter, and very thin (rf doaths : but »k 
fuffered no injury by it in his he^tb, as others wotdd \tst 
done, they fumamed him the imagt of Cod. Hegneoot, 
■ that a white horfe came to him, from time to time, wtei 
carried himup to heaven, where he converted with tlwDd^'. 
Many bdieved that K^<t was fct on by Temijin to play tto 
game. However that be, from this time forward be t^McJ 
the name of Jftighiz Khin ; which we ihall sic &r ti» 

tmrrvt- TowARiw the end of the y^ iiot a dyet wasoBw. 
«,. wherein the ^Mitga/ lords, who were in^e fccret <rf Ae in- 
tended reveladon, fuppwtcd it fo ftrongly, that the Mtpit 
every-whcrc gave credit to it; and alrwly kwked op«»' 
the refl of the world as bdo(^|u^, by dime i^t. to didr 

■ Di laCboii, p. 6i, ft feq. » AbvYfaral ***** 

KOND, ap. cuBd. p 64. Abu'lohazi, p. 78. 

(I) At thi) feall, accordine he named tiim ytn^nx Oh 

to AiitJibaKi Khan, hffaffamed 7Hht Tangri ; but Mfrhmd at 

the name oi JtngkixKben, at olheis fay, 7«f/ 7aipi («»» 

the inftance of JtTs JE(t. D'Mrritbt, p. 379. ^"^.j' 

(KJ Our royal author, eic- Tuti Taugn) wai the b»»» « 

Etainiog thii name, faye, that the propML 'De UCni»^^ ■. 

Jn, intbe iMafv/ language, fig- tkat34u-i««iJ-caUi biaa Af f<«- 

nifies great ; and the termin*- gri, Thii figwfiei tht fm 4 

tion sfiiK, making the fuperla- GbJ, and feeniB defignedibru 

tivei JinghtK is at much as to explanation oi Im* T*^ ; 

fey tbi maft grtai. Dt la Craix iidiich perbapi, after all, %■- 

fays, it figDifiea t^e Khfin of fies ihi image ef Gti, andvat 

Kbins. Kaija'l fnmame. 

(L) Ah£ifarm, p. 281, favi, , 

■ ■ , ... . L.oiwlc . 

Ci. RtlgM ef Jen^hKUn^ 357 

Craod Ekan. In this perruaTioo they breathed nothing but A. t>. 
w ; and even thought it a crune againft heaven in thofe iseS. 
{races who reliAed, in defence of thwr own domjniont '. * i-\-0 

Bur toietnrn to the Ci^/n^ hiAoHans, The year laofiBoyruIc 
. vat farther memorable for the uitire defeat of Pohgu [or KMn dt- 
MiyrakJ, broriierof Tiiy^an, Kfaanof theJVo/JBjn;;.. ft\sioti/'»taL 
(ti) KttjUuk, and TVo (or raktd Bey J, lord of the MariiU, 
retired to the river Irtijh; where the former had ftiU a 
pnmitA party : but, in 1 3o3, Chingfnz Khan, having jit- A. D. 
ucked then both, dew Toio with his own hand, and Xujb' "c^* 
hi fled iaiQ the kingdom of the AT/Zon (N). This viftoty 
pot him in a conditbn to fubdue tbe reft d the hords, which 
m flood out S 

The Perfian hiilomns fay, that Boyrak, being purfucd, 
*as taken, and put to death in the camp. After this, ac- 
cording to jfkA'khazi Khan, Kujhluk and Tckta Beg retired 
to the river Irtifi. But De ta Croix, who quotes Mlrkond, 
badamtr, and jih&'lk<tyr, for his authorities, fajrs, they re- 
iKKcd to Ard\jb, a fortrds on the frontiers of their refpec- 
lite tenitorics in the tribe of Merkit ; where they detigned 
Ki rtcmit their fcattered forces, with fome others who were 
left behind : but thai, two years after (O), JengMz Khin, 
to prevent their having time to fortify themfdves, marched 
^nA them is the raid^ of winter. Thole princes, amazed 
31 hij fudden arrival, and not bdng flrong enough to oppofe 
Km, retired under the fortrcfs of Jrdifb : but Jenghiz Khan, 
fot all the rigour of the feafon, and difficult roads, foon ap- 
peared before that place, and itu-dng them to come to an en- 
e^ment, quickly pat them to flight. . Tu^r^ jB/^ was killed 
n the aftion : h\xt Kujblui, wth fome expert foldiers, efcaped KuOiIiit 
to Turke^an, where he was kindly received by GurkhSn (P), 'fiofn, 
a very powerful monarch; who, touched with the misfor- 
tunes of this young prince, gave hiu his daughter Ic mar> 

'' Di La Ckoii, p. 90. ' Gaubil, ubi fupra, p. ii, 

* MiRKoitn, Asu'lkayk. ap. De la Croix, p. 91, te feq. 
Abu'lchaz), p. Sf, Sc feq. 

{M) Tbeweftem..^^''^' coming origliMlly from Kara- 

t(n make bin the foa of Taj- Hiay. 

jmKhin, a« has been obfcrved (O) This it placed in itic 

ia 1 fanner dckc. year 1 207 by Dtta Crelx. 

(N) This muft be twdcrllood (P) He was fovereign both of 

of thi KilmM fetded in LiltU the (Vefitm Kitan, or Karaii- 

iiiihSria\ of whom an account tajam, and Turktfiant and ge- 

will be given hereafter. They icrally refloat A'^/ijar. 
Weic ciiUed Karabt^mty. at 

A» 3 0»ii 

L i,_< t.CoogIc 

I 358 Ktfiorj of the Mogul or Mongl ^pire. B, III,, , 

A. D. OcR readers cannot tut be furprifcd at the great difagreei- 
1Z08. ment among the authors before us,- concerning the place of 
'"1'V—^aftion ; fomc making it to be at a river beyond the r^^hs »rf" 
^'fif^* the MoguJj ; others at a forfccfs at a great diftance from 
'* thence, not far from the borders of Tangut and Kitay. 
Whether thofc who aflert the latter as faft (for we take the 
concurrent teAlmony of ^h&'lgbazi KhAn, and the Chitujy 
hiftorians, to be a proof that the Irtijb was the fcene erf" 
1 aflion), had it from the mimoirs of PulM, or Hnding wily & 

bare name of a place, fnpplied the want of a dcfcription by 
conjeflures of their own, we will not venture abfolutely to 
determine : but this latter looks to be the cafe, fince Ardifb 
and IrtiJb are written with the lame Mogul or even Arabic 
charaders : oaA De la Croix does not cite FadlaJlah, who 
wrote his hiftory from the mcnKrirs and affiftance of PuUd- 
which feems to fhew, that he (ays- nothing to fupport 4b6 
matter in queftion. 
Joyghe- JENGHIZ KUn, in his approach to the IrtiJb, paOed 
»at» and ne«r the habitations of the Jiygherati and Xarliki ■■ the firft 
Karlik* fubjeft to KonaJia Begin ; the latter, to Arjldn Khan j who, 
fthmt. not being in a condition to oppofc his forces, both fubmitted 
to him, and conducted him to the camp of Kuchluk and 
Tvkta. Beghi. In his return from this expedition he fum- 
rooned Urui Indl, chief of the Kerghis : who likewife fub- 
mitted, and fent him a Ainngar, or ihonkar, for a prefent ^. 

C H A P. II. . , 

Jengbtz KhSn im^ades' tbe Kingdoms of Hya, 
Kitay, and Turkcftdn. 

Tenehiz ^'¥ ^HE Grand Ehan, faaWng finifhed tbe conqueft of 
khanin- I MogulifiAn, or that part of Tartary inhatMted by 
nffi/ts -*■ the various tribes of people compt-chended under the 

name of Moguls and Tatars, (extending from tbe borders of 
what is called Eajlern Tatary to mount Altay in the weft), 
b^n to think of invading th« countries out of Tartary 
to the fouth. Which, unlike the de&rts he had alreadyfub* 
dued, where no wf^-ks of Hone appeared to ftop the progrels 
of an enemy, were full of fortified dties, and ibx>ng places,. 
as well as inhabitants. A confideratlon which at once pre- 
fcnts to the reader's mind the diiRculty of the enterprize, to 
people as yet, it may beprefumed, unexperienced in the art 

^ Asti'LcuAzi KxAJi, P' 85, &(eq. 


C. I. ' kei^n «^ JirtgWKhaxu I5f 

of taking town%; and fhew3 the gemus of the prince who A. D, 
formed fo grand a dcfign. ' *o9- 

yENGHiZ Khan, who, as hadialready been obfer¥ed,V'V*y 
iiad, in the year 1305, began t^ make incurfions upon the™J^/"* 
territories of |mc king (or emperor) of Hya ; in 1209, at-^ **>*• 
tacked his dominions, with ddign to reduce them under hJs 
obedience : but, after forcing leveral pofts near the great 
wall, Li-gdH-t/ven, to (avehi9x:apital/whidi-7«i^Afz Aiii 
was preparing to attack, fubnuttfd to become bis tributary;' 
«s wiH be rehted hereafter '. 

Al most at the fame time that ptiHce conquered the coun- 
ti'tci^f JCrtUr md/Ca/hin j whkhiaft name, we are told, for- 
merly the rogton of Tangut bore"" : but where thofe couih 
fries lay is hard to determine. If any fnch there were, they 
mud, by the circumftances of the hifiory, have been in the 
oeighboorhood of Kampitm, either betongiog to the province 
«f Bhen-Ji, or on its borders. 

The. (amc year, Parchukortt TWn (A), prinoe of IgCriThtl^n 
filled Id'tkut (B), flew die Kitim (C) oflkers, who were in his''«*lf » 
city; and, going ia perfon, put himlelf uoder Jenghtz 
Khin's protection ; who gave him a daughter in marriage ', 

The occafion of this proceeding is related by the Perfian 
kiftorians. They tell ue, that l£h&t, Kham of the Oygtrt; 
«r Ig&rs, diough a very powerful prince, was yet tributary 
«o CurkAn, Jcing of Turkeft^; vtho afually kept a derpga 
among the OygSri, to gather his tribute. Shutaakem, who 
at that time was his office*, exa^ing more than his maker's 
due, the prince, on the people's complaints, fpoke to him. But 
the other, ionead of fotbetring, threatened Jdik&t : who, to . 
' revenge the infult, had him afutdinated ; and, then to fkreea 
himfelf from Gttrkhan's refentmett, fent to aflc the Grand 
Khan's protefli«i. The envoys overtook Jenghti KbSn ia 

. ■ Ia the hillory of the ^ and £>/<«. ^ DblaCroiz, p.. 
92. * Gausu., p. ij. 

(Al Jlfflghaxi KBSn nanes porting hiing/tnt, and kuT. tht ' 
luDi Banajik Idikut Kbia, p. jpirit, or /aul. . Atui/ara;, p. 
36. iS}, wiitcg L£i£i i that is, tie 

{B) JM'Ualr and Jbltl/araj lord »f the tmfirt. 
fay, that J£iut fignifiei tbt ^C) Thefc were the U'tjlem 
«'l"'"f prince i but AhulghatA Kitait, or Lyau, fettled to the 
Khan explaina it, a frti man, call of Kafigar, then fubjefl ta 
mat fubiia t9 any hetfj. So he CmrkhSn, kSig olTuriiJidn and 
fays it lisniJics in the language the Kitan ; whofe country- was 
of the Uziris; bvt fmtly lit bam ^Km caUti Karahinj. 
J^irit, in the Turkijb. Us im- 

A a 4 '^* 

L .. . Cookie 


360 ninety of tbiMogiil or Mun^Bt^ire, B.nn 

A D. the country of Tangut, where he was gone to reduce SJU- 

mo, dafii; who, mth uunc other KhsLns, had revolted frcmi Urn i 

V'V'-^amons the reft vas the KhSn of Krekir, vhofe tcmtmcs he 

intirely ruined. \ 

fiMt H Tat. Mogul emperor, ^ad of an opportutiity to make 

* igUz CurkhAn uorafy, who was never x frkod to mm, and had 

DOW made an aUlance with KafihJi, rectJved the Oy^ (or 

Jgir) envoys much better than ocherwiTe he would have 

done ; and fent them back with two perfons, to alTure their 

Ehan of his fricndfliip and prote^on. IdUtit, charmed 

with this generous behaviour, Arait went himfelf, with coftlj 

pTefents, to offer his-fer\iee to Jengbtz Khan : whore(»ved 

H^- 607. bim ^di affeOion ; and afterwards, to reward his fidelity, 

A. D. gave him one of his daughters in marriage. Gurkbhi, oa 

laio. the news of Shtewakan's death, had threatened IdMt with 

fire and fword : but, hearing he was become the Grand 

Khan's fon-in-law, he {mothered his r^, for fear of draw-o 

jng the Mogfd forces agaipft himfelf''. 

— , , JDIKUT was of an antient family among the chiefs of 

f,g„tri ^ ■§*■ *"'**' ^'^ above 500 years {landing. They firft 

A/iMid, poflelled the ouiatry where the S^nga rifes. In proce6 of 

time they became mafters of the country of Kau-cbang, Igir^ 

or Kyau-chev/, haag the fame with that of Tu^in, m UttU 

Bukharia. The CImufe geographers agree, that the country 

of Igir (yigir, or Cfyg^J, was fituated where Tutf4n now 

Aands ; but feem nnacquainted with its extent. The Gune 

authors ^rthex inform ns, that the Ipirj underftood the 

Chine/e charaAers, and bad the books of Kong-fi-t/e, or ATon- 

Ju^ 1 that tbey hooonred the fpurit of heaven, had many 

Bonzas among them, and fcJlowed the Chintje kalendar. The 

chief dnr, where I£kAt rcHded, was called He-chew ; the 

ruins of which flill remdn, feveo or eight leagues to the 

eaft of Tur/an: To the north of this Idt city lay Bljbbd- 

Bg, whiph all the oriental writers make the captal c^ the 

J^«f J ; whofe territories, acceding to Jb^lghazi Khin, exi 

tended- to the Irtifi : tot they were divided into throQ 

branches ; fome living in towns, others in the fields^. 

KeKitin JBNGHIZ Khitn, being now at peace with all his 

i„rt»r/. n^hboors, and ftrengthcnea by the acceflion (rf fo many 

Minces, wbo cither fubmitted to, or joined in league with 

him, refolved 10 lh%ke off the yoke of the JTm i to vfaom 

* MiKKviTD, ABo't>KATR, ap. Dc la Croii, p. 91, tt ftq, 
Aio'i«ii. p. S7. * Qavsji., p. "i J, }8, fc 4au . ' Aru'^oii. 


C. 2.^ J^A^^JengMzKhtn.' 361 

at this time the Moguis were tnbtttary,(D), as duy htd been A. D. 
before to the Kitin. Somedme before the Mwtglt (E) and mo. 
other hords of Tatary bid ad^nowleged that prince fbrV'VT^ 
their foTerwgn; Tay-bo, emperw of the JTin, feat Tmg-tfi, ajr?^'* 
prince of the blood, to the dty of l^ng-cb^w (now called 
KbAkM-bUtm ' ), to receive from them ue annoal tribute. 
On this occaTioD Yong-tji made Oight of Tm^tn, and ad- 
vifed frsmiog fome j^vtence to put him to death. But the 
emperor rejefted the propofal ; which coming to Tmilftn't 
can, he rel<riTed to be revenged (m the wither cf it. 

WANG -TEN-KING, emperor <rf the Kn, dyli^ in 
the tenth moQth, tong-ifi, who fucceeded him, fimt, the fol- 
lo^riog year (taio), an officer to vtitx JenglAz Kidn to pay 
tlie tribute. That fNrince demanded, whom he came from t 
vid bdi^ told, frcKn Teng-tfi, then emperor, he abfidatelyr/^^ M 
refuted : faying, he was hunfelf a fovereign, and would never /«; tri- 
4cknowl^ Tong'tfi fw his mafler. It it Jmd, added, the^'"''- 
Khan, by way of fncer, that the Cliinefe oug/it to have tbt 
iaa of heaven for their foafitr \ iut, at prefent, they hmu not 
bov/ to thife a man. Haiifig fpofcen thoTe words, he mounted 
his horie, and rode towards the north. Yong-tfi was ftraogdf 
nettled at theic cutting expreffions, Jenghti Khin had other 
reafoiu to be difpIeaTed with the Kin, Among the reft, 
Clnng-pu-hay, a prince of his houfe, had bcQn flain by them, 
in 1206 ; to revenge which injury (F) the l^vngh waited for 
AD opportunity ; belides, their Khan was told, Yong-tji in- 
tended to have him foiled. Thefe things determined him 
to go and encamp along the Keruton ; where he aflembled '^'^ « 
It formidable army, onnpoled o£ veteran troops. From theneef m' ^'*[f 

■ See before, p. zSi. 

(D) TnthoteDlhtnoiilhofthe f^ilitr/ among the predeceflbn 

yearii47,tbeeinperoroftbeJtj'ir, of J*ngblK Khan, ai given br 

unable to fubdoe the Mtngtii, Jh^l^h^xi Khin, and other ori- 

wai obliz^ to make peace with ental auUurt. 

, them. Their eWcf twa) then (E) They arc always olle4 

jitlepiialifj, and called himfelf JI6yir in the Chim/i hijloryi ,' 

emperor. Thii(hewt,thatfiDce which Ihewa, that the word 

th^n the power of the Jittmgtlt Mtni had obtained only in (he 

had been weakened: for the weft of .^. 

hiftofy of Jnilmt Kb«* fayi (FjTheweftem^a/Kwriten 
pa£tivct^, that, in his Omci 

Ihey paid tribute to the Kin. ^ 

Gauiil. hill. DeGtaiciii, p. ao. none ia particular> 
Then i* no lucb prince u4*it' 


362 Uifiery eftU Mbgol or Miingl Em^re. B* IIL- 

fi. D. he ordered Chepe Naym (G), and Telu Keiay (H), M march 

isii. towards the border* of Shan-Ji and Pe-tbe-U: who, harii^ 

*■— V - ■^(^ferred the coHocry, and made fome fjxnls, retarned to the 

main army **. 

The Kin had coofideraUe forces va Lyau-tong, which 'vi% 
the balwark of their empire. In the Suae province, and 
cotiDtries dependiDg cm it, there IHU remained alio a great 
aumbcr of ki-tAn, and many princes of the family of the' 
Lyau, whom they had deprived of the emfnre. But as Teag- 
t/i grew jeaktitt of ihaa iince the rife of Jenghtz KiAn, be 
comimuidcd double the nomber of ffyu-che (or Kin J families 
to be pat in all places vfaere they vere fettkd, is order to 
watch thdr motions. After this precaution, which gave a 
general difcoutcnt to the Kit^a, the emperor caofed notice to 
be giwn enry-viiere, that the intended to attack 
him, raifed powerful armies, and poflcd troops in all the 
f<»tilied plaos on both iidcs of the great wall, from the 
Whang-he to Lyau-tong. 
imiadit In the fpringt and 6rft month of the year 121 1, /Irjlht, 
th* Kin. prince, of the Karhikt {V) in the weft, came with a body (rf 
troops, to offer his fervice to Jeng^z KhAn ; and IdiHt, 
prince cf Ig£r, to confult the pre^'vation of his country.- 
The army began its march folithwards, the banning of the' 
fecond month : on which Yeng-tfi fent to make propofals v£ 
peace (E) ; but they were rejefted. Chepe with the chcMceft 


* GAiTBit, p. 13, & feq. 

(G) He was one of die Me- of the LfM, whofe name was 

fuft befl generals. The title of »/». Gtadii/. 

^ofan [io alfo it iswntteo in (I) So we explain Jfilmi, 

JhSlgbaxi Kbdn'iVi^ry, bat prince of Ala- lu; whu:h laft 

Hfviaa, by Dt la Craix), is «ordG(rii£i/w3s at a lofs about, 

given onljt to princes of the This Jrfiati, Khan of the Kar- 

rei^nini; family, fons in-law of Inks, or Karliii, is mentioned 

Khans, or gieat lord^, who are by Mu'lghajd Kljin and Di la 

chiefs "of hordi. Cmhil. Croix, as repairing to Jenghi^ 

(H) YelitKahaj {written alTo Kbdn abi^ut the fame time widi 

Ttlu Kolay, perhapi by miilakc], IdikOt. 

was a great tniDdarin, or officer, (K) AiS'lghazi Ktaa n\axts, 
of the Kin eniperor ; who, be- that Jcngbi^ Klin fent to fum- 
ing fent to fettle feme affairs mon Altua Khan to fubmit 1 
With JtnghiK Khan, was ib and that this prince, falling in- 
dtarmed with hisri, that he en- to a paiTion. faid to the ambaf- 
tcred into his iervice. He was fador, Tou helie^t, ftrbaps, jtu 
a prince cf the imperial have ln/i ivith tmt ef jmr fttt^ 


C.a^ itflipie/JenghizKham 363 

of the troops forced the pofts of the great vkll (L), to A.D. 
the wjrth-weft and north-eaft of ^ay-tong-fA (M), whilft ■"'>■ 
others fcized the fortrefles ' without -the barrier. MiMh ' "^^ "^ 
xook the pofts about Pau'gan, and Ten-long, In Pt-che4u 
Chapar lurprUed the garrifon of Ku-yang-quan (N), an iin- 
portaot place.: and yenghiz KhAn defeated a confiderable 
body d the Kin, near Siuen'taha-fA ; whidi dty he tod^ 
vith the fortrcDes aboot tay-tong-f^, then called Suiting, of 
/jfttf viitfttm court, all in Shan-Ji : in Ihort, the Mungli made 
incnrlions as &r as the capital. 

HASAR Wha-chm^ prince <rf the Hmkirats (or Kvnka-^i* Kititf 
»-«(j^, Jtnghtz Kh2m^% brother-in-law, who had been leot to ««»*- 
the frontiers of Lyau-tmg (O), to found the pulfes of the 
mt&n lords, and. attack tlie Kin on that fide; fonnd the 
prince Telu Lye^v-ko at the head of an hundred thou&ntl 
men, r^dy to declare in favour of his mafter. In teftimony 
of his fiDcerity, that princCf afccnding the tnountain Kin (P), 
fecriiiced a white hone and black ox, broke an arrow, and 
made ao oath to be faithful to Jenghtz Khin. tyew-ko, 
who was of tbe royal &mily of the Lyau, a good officer, 

Turkilh ht'i^s. MiT/gh. Wft. (O) Di /a Cnix, p. too,(zyf, 

Turii, tec. ^. Sg. Or, ai Di la J^ngbiK Khin fent three of his 

Ctmx has it. Tour mafitr Iriais fona to attack Kiijt, which he 

vu m if ht thought i^i n Turk, calls X#rM.- bat itmaftbsi.^Aii. 

fr a Mogul. HilL Gtngb. p. long, as w^ll from the circum< 

100. fiances of the hiftory, as tha 

(L) ^ai^iAhuhhavJKhaH,-^. dercripcioQ of h, which he 

44, and Di U Creix, p. lot, pYtiiiomFaMallab; Viz. that 

fay, that Alakh, Khan of the it •wei Jitualt tt tht nertb af 

Unguts, or Anlut, opened one China, ani had ihi fia m tb* 

of the great gates of the wall, tajt : that the uantrj cvniaiiud 

of which he bad ttie cnllody, to uleut 700,000 inhaiitmtt ; and 

Jen9bi% Khan. bad been atixayi gavtratd by Ut 

(M) In the province of 5£ii«- etvn kingi, -wba lutre fimttinut _ 

T, iaCiina, 111.40° ij' long. maSeri afCiunlk fral6erK,hty)i 

1° Ij' weft of Pt-king. Note, ii;Utb, in iti turn, via$ mafter 0/ 

fi, iaCiina, 111.40° ij' long, mafteri afCiunlk fral6erK,hty)i 
3° Ij' weft of Pt-king. Note, ivbieb, ia ill turn, %uat mafter y" 
Fa, at the end of the name of a it. That Lyax-iBitg n Kuril, ap. 

place, denotes a city of the firfl pears funlier, from what is faid, 

rank in Cbina; cbmv, one of p. loS, OtAt MuA/i Gayaai {v/bo 

the fecond ; and bjin, one of is Muhuli) was lent to Kwje, ' 

the third rank : fuon, a fort- with a body of troops, to hin- 

refs; ktWy a gate 01 firait of der t}ie forces of that country 

tbe moant^Di. to join Altun Kian. 

(N) A fortrefs nine leagnei (P) According to the Cbintfi 

north-north eaIIof^f-i{(«i|;; and genoraphers, \^ or 5a leagues. '. 

J>n.i(»f is three OT four north of norHi t>i_Mugdrn, capital of * 

£u jang-fMat, Gaubil, Ljad-te"^- Cauii/, 


g6^ Hilary tf tht Mogul «rMui^ Empire. B. HL 

A. D. Mid hid foaiiy nibls; ptanktA ax the UK^mtks whtdi the 

1313. lOtdn daily rccdwd from cbc Kin, took ums, as Iboo as be 

1k^%**^ heard that the Mttngls intended to make war npoa chem. 

The Khia, to prevent Lyew-ia fr(»n being drawn off agm, 

made liim Tcry advantageous offers, and coaferred on hm 

die dde of king ( 0) ; fomiflung IVha-chen and C&^ vrith 

good troops, u> alSu bloi. Lyevj-h ordered himfc^ to be 

produmcd king vdvere-evcr be cune; and, haniq; tskcn 

many places, marched a^laft the Km anny, over which be 

obtained a fignal viAory. Hereupon many Xi/^ lords iboak 

off their yoke, and {eweral cities {ubmitted to him. . After 

whidl he reduced Ttmg-Hng (R), or Lyau-yang, a cit^ cf 

Lyaii-Umg. This great fuccefs Iwelled the repntatioa of the 

sew Kitm king; and made the Kin raije onmerous forces, to 

(are tliat pnmoce '. 

Tenditz In laia, 7»i^Mz A^ Aibdued tf^M-ciSrw (S) ; aod VK^ 

KuTi hAU, the foftreHes withoat the great wail, iiear the Wbat^- 

vmuHiitJ: ho. When the Mungls had reduced all the ftrong pdacd 

A-D. between that dty and the river, they jvepared to beliqge 7«r- 

izia. ttmg'/4. To prevent them, Tcne-tJ lent HtgoMA, or A7:/2<^ 

^f, and tf^nn-^ra, at the head (» 300,000 men. The Khan, 

by advice of MtMi, mvcbcd to meet this anny, which 

was encamped near the mountain YehA (T), where^ they were 

attacked by the Mungls ; who, notwithlbmding the fuperi- 

oiity of their nnmbm, defeated tiiem. In autumn he in- 

veflxd Tay-tvig-fA"*, where, although the govemtH: Ht^aH 

fled, he met wi& more reTiftance than he expefled. At laft, 

having in a vigonms attack loft many men, and been dan- 

gerouOy wounded by an arrow, he raifed the Ji^e, and re* 

tired into Tatary .■ ^ter which the Kia retook Paugan, Swat' 

vis'/A, and eveo iOi-yang-quan. * 

I Gavbil, p. 14, ttkq. 

(QJ That is. Khan, orVang, ^td aiu!43ddegrceariaiitDJe, 

wepitTiiine, of Lfou-tetig., now deftroyed. But, p. 18, 

(R) That it, the eallem Gaull/ more juftly placet it 

court, lat. 41* so' long. 6" 56' almoft north of Pt-king, or 

nR of Pt-iiHg. In the map of north- north- weft. It fecnii 10 

the Jefoits it i» placed on the havt been Ptn-beiin, whofi; 

Berth fide of the river %ilt/a, ruins arc feen about tweoif 

which fails into the Lyam ; and miles, fouth by weft, from thofe . 

IS a diftinA town from Ljau- of Sban-tu, one of the aacieat 

yt^, which lies three miles to capitals of Tatary. See before, 

die fonth, and was then a great p. 28 1 . 
city. (T] Setcn or eight leagoet 

(S) of Tatary, nq^h- weft, or weft -north -welt, of 

caft of Peiingi between tht Stuta-uiha-Ju. Caah't. 


C. 2'. Rtign of Jenghlz Kh;^.' $6$ 

JENCHIZ. Khin, who. In this di^iwe, wu comforted ' A. D. 
by the news he received from Lyau-tang, being cured cf hii •*• J- 
wonnd, re-entered China in 1213 ; recovered Svjen -vtha-f& '""■^TT* 
•Qd Pau-gan ; defeated an army of the Kin, after a bloody^fl'^ '* 
battle (U), near Whay'lay (X); and one of his generals took .^ ^q 
K£-Pe-ke-w{Y). After this battb, theKhin, not able to en- ,213.' 
ter Pe-che-li by Ru-yaag-qiian, iisrced the fortrefs of T/**'"- 
quan, and took /-ci^ and Cho-chrw (Z). However, £'<6r^. 
In his return from Lyait-tong, paHed on fa Nan-keiu {a place 
of impratance), and took Ki-yaag-quan, which is not far 
diftant. On the other fide, in the ferenth Aobth, a great 
battle was fought at the mountain U-whey'/ia, near ^uan- 
tbdng'hyen (A) % wherein the Km were ovprthrowi^ widi a . - 
great daughter. 

In tlie dghth month, H&jahU, generaliflinw of the KirtThitm^ 
troops, who had been cafliiered in 1211, for badlerwces,/'«'"«wrt 
and rclVorcd, feized on the pCrlbn <£T<mg-tfi; and,' ibon^'^ 
after, caufed him to be murdered. The true caufe of the 
fuccefles whidi attended the Mun^ was, diat general's 
hatred to thole who were the occalton of his dilgrace (the 
year before) ; which laOed twb months^' ^fter being re- 
placed, he was ordered to encamp to the Hot'th of the court : 
but, inftead of endeavouring to flop the enemies progreTs, 
minded nothii^ but hunting, dot regarded the emperor's. 
Order. At length he march^ with his army to the imperial' 
city, under pretence of preventing a confplracy which he bkd' 
difcorered. Bang arrived before it, be fent horlemen to the 
palace, to cry aloud, that the Afangls were at the dty gites : he 
next put to death fuch as he fufpefied ; and, having difpofed 
Us troops in different quarters, the officen both cii^ and 
military afCfled him ; not imagining that lie had a defign to 
dethrone their prince ; but as foon as he had fecnred the 
gates of the city, he feized the palace, and confined the em- 
peror ; then depofed and put him to death. After this, find- 
vg he could not get himfelf declared emperor, he inthroned}^ Ho^^ 
San, a prince of the blood. TheTe dillrafVions determinedjaku* 
ymghtz Khdn to bcfiegc the imperial city. C/repe, after 

(U) This was (he battle, (V) A faroom ftirtrcrt at one 

perliaps, in which the Perfian of the gatei in the great K-all, 

writen (ay, that ^Sn Khan, See before, {>. iSo. ' 

jwned by tlie force* of Kutjt, (Z) A city in the Aeft bor- 

lofi men. ivn of Pi^t£tli. Tfi-kin-^uaif 

(X) Pouror iiveleagiiMwell i» i; miles weft of /-fArui. 

of Ku-yoHg-man. The£eUwai (A) A ciiy in the borders of 

firewed wicn dead bodies for Siaii-ji tm6 Pt:ht It. ^ 
four lea^uci togedm. 

$66 tJifieryoftbeUio^crMwi^Emfirt. ftllL 

' A. D. taking Ku-yang-quaa, &t i<smxi wub 50,000 cfaoJm horfe 
1213. to join thcarmy. But the van-giurd, coming jo die tint 
^•"•yT'^TJau (B), and, eadeavoaring to |»ls the bridge, wu intirdy 
defi»ted by H&jiki ; who was carried in a car, bdi^ ban ia 
the foot. NeA day, bong hindered &om marchii^ hinM, 
1^ his wound <^Ding, he ordered Ou-bu-katt-Ju to adnm 
inth 5,000 troops, to oppqfe the enony ; bat that gencnl 
72/ 4^0/^ ooming too late, H£jai& would hare put him to death ; whidi 
£*Jtua. ^ emperor, knowing him to be a good officer, w<nU wt 
fuller. Then HijakA laid to him, j^ yott. beat the aumj, I 
y/iU Jpare you ; if you are drfeateJ, youJbaU £e. Ku-k 
matched againA the enemy ; bat a ooith wind arifiog, vHk 
blew the £uid into his foldiers eyes, he was oblig^ (a re- 
enter the city 'nith lofs. As be todc it for grvmd, that^i- 
iam wout^d put him to death, be t^ui with his troops to ibt 
geoeml's palace : who, being apprized of his defign, gota 
□is garden-wall ; but, ialUng, t^o&e his I^. The IbldJtn 
having killed him on the fpot, Kau-ki earned bjs hod B> 
the gate of the imperial palace, and faireodered bim&if lo 
the mandarins, in order to be condemned to death ; t»t tbe 
emperor publiflted an edifV, wherein he chai^^od Higeki «it!i 
feveral crimes, and cooimendcd Kau-ki y wlu»n be umIc 
generalillimo in his room ''. 
n«Kin hl-CAN-raVEN, Ui^offfj-^ finding himfcjf prfy 
hard by the MungU, demanded aid of the Kin ; who refilled i^ b 
frejii. haTit^occafionthemfelvesformtxetroopsthanth^bad. Vat- 
upon the Hya, after they had made a treaty with th^ Kaub, 
befcre-roentioned, in taio, declared war agalnft tlie J&i 
with whom they had been at peace for fouHcore yean, tod 
, attacked Kya-chew (C), in Shen-fi. The fame year, I^jM- 
tjven dying, Li-t/un-l^u, his relation, fucceedcd him. TMi 
prince, more fuccefsful than his predecelRx', redwxd Sig- 
• ebtvs (D), at the end of 1213. 

SiKCQ the time Jenghtz KhM began to iavade the 1^ 
empire, ■ many Cbinefi officers, who had been taken priTooetv 
entered into his lervice. Thefe he fhe^red a great cfteen iar, 
and gave them parties.*^ thdr own nation to command, ib 
he now refolved to attack the enemy on every Cdc, he nriwl 
the Chine/t aitd Tatarian troops together, f[»mii% oot of 

■■ Gaubil, p. tS, &feq. 

(B) A canal, whofe waters, (C) Lat. ^V & long. 6* 4' ' 

coming from Chang-pang-cbew, weft of Pe-Ung. I 

pafTed by the imperialcity [ (D^ lDS<^-i(aJlb. Lat.JS* | 

from which the bridge codd 22' long. 9° 5' weft. 

not be far. 

S '^'"^ 

a: Reignof JeaghizKhio: 367 

them four armies. One he ordered to incaoip to the north of A. D. 
Ten-king, the imperial city : another to ravage the country '*'4' 
to (he north and caft, as far as Lyau-tong : the third, under '"""V*"^ 
three of his fons, was to deClroy all to the fouth and fouth- 
■well, as far as the fl'^ang-Jio ; while he himfelf, .ivith Tuky, 

■ his fourth fon, marched through Pe-che-li to Tft-nan-fH, the 
capital of Shan-tang. 

The Kin, for thdr defence, fent their befl tcoops toGrtat Jt- 
gnard the difficult p^lTages of rivers and mountains ; oblige-. ««^i«»- 
ing all people fit to bear arms to retire into the clues. The 
Khdn, being informed of this, ordeied his generals to take 

■ all the old men, women, and children, out of the^ villages 
aiid onfortifieJ towns, and fet them irj the front of ihc 
army. The people from the walls, on hearing the voice, of 
dielr friends and relations, refufed to defend theinfelves, to 
their dellruftlon. The defolaCion was general throughout 
Shan-ft, that part of He-nan to the north of the Whang-hOf 
Pe-cht-H, and Stan-long. The Mungis plundered 
llroyed more ifian ninetj'' cities ; reduced to aihcs an iiiGnite 
number of towns and villages ; took all.the gold, filvers and 
filk, they met with ; and maflacred thoufands of ufelefs peo- 
ple : carrying into flavery a vaft number of young women 

and children. The fpoil which they took in catde wfe ih- ...- 
cAimable *, and in all thofe f^dous countries there were but 
ten cities which the Mungls could not fubdue : among which , 
in Pt'che-li Were Ten-king, the imperial city, Tong-chewt 
Chin^'ting-fU, and Tay-ming-fi. All this devaftation hap; 
pened in the year 1 21 3, 

In 1214, Jenghiz Khin, being returned from Shan'ti;ng,Thecspii . 
aflcmbled all his troops in one body, and iuvefted rfn-A(ng-,'i/i*«f^- 
!a the fourdi month ; pitching his camp on the north fide. a'-. 
His generals pretTed him, without delay, to fcale the walls, *■ ^* 
and ruin the city : but the Khan, having had other views in **'4- 
bis mind, inflead of following their counfel, fent an officer 
to tell the Kin emperor, that his mafter was willing to re- 
turn into Tatary : however, that, to appsafe the anger of 
the MungI troops, it was neccflary to make theai confiderable 
preTents ; adding, that he ought to confider Ten-king was 
almoft the only place which remained in his podelEon tothc 
north of'thcWAfl/i^-Aa, Oneof the^i'n miniftcrs, provokedat 
this meffagc, propofed to march out and fight the army of 
Ta'cbe (E) : faying, that many of tlie Mungl foldicrs were 

(E) One of the names given gion, at prefcnt pnfleflVd by il;c 
by the Chiptfe It) tjir.t large re- Mangli and Ko.'ka;. /. 


3 68 Hifiory of the Mogul «r MungI Empire. B. lU.' 

A. D. lick ; and that ihcy were not ia x canSXixoa to witbftaiut % 
1 21 2. vigorous attack '. 
* ""V™"^ Another mimAer 'whs againfl this advkx : (aying, that 
"J ^ tbc7 had every thiiu; fo fear, if they loft a battle; and bat 
'**"■' little good to cxpeft from a,viftory. He added, " that the 
*' troops in the city had nothing in view but to quit it,~ as 
" moft of them tud bmilies « their own : that the beft 
** meafure therefore was to accept of peace; and when the 
" Mungls were retired, they fhould be better able to 'ooofnlt 
" whaf was proper to be done." The emperor, approTing 
this connfel, feot a lord to the Mungl camp, to deiire a 
peace ; wherdn it was Atpnlated, tliat a daughter (F) of the 
late empercM' Tong-tjt ftiQuld be (pven to Jengbtz Khan ; vridi 
500 youi^ bOTs, and as many ^Is, 3,600 norfcs, iillE, and 
* a great fum of mo'ney. As foon as the conditicns were per- 
formed, the Khin raifed the liege ; and, departiag by the 
way of Ku-yong-quan, commanded all the young chiMrai, 
whom he had oken in the four provinces of Sban'ttng, Ha- 
via, Pe-che-H, and Shan-fi, to be majlacred. 
n< nt- After the retreat of the Mungh, the anpenv San de- 
ftrv n- dared to his council, that he refolved to remove his court vo 
mrvti tbi Pyen-fyang{G), inHeoan. Tu-fla-ni, awife and faithful mioi- 
"*"• fter, reprdcnted, that, in fuch cafe, the northern proviooes 
would be loft. Ke obferved, that l^awtong bong very ftroog 
bylituation, it was eafy to maintain themlwes there : that ao 
jDfxe was to be done, than m make new leries, fortify the 
court, fill the garrifon, and recruit the troops of that pro- 
vince. Moft irf the grandees were of his opinion : but die 
emperor faid, that as the treafury was exhaufted, the troops 
weakened, and cities round the capital deftroyed, Ten-Hfigwti 
DO place of fecurity for him. Accwdingly he departed, widi 
his fasulj and fome troops ; leaving the prince, who was to be 
bis fvccellbr, to encourage , the inhabitants. 
hiiai The Kin monarch had {boo occafion to repent this bad 
tanff ftep. Being arrived at Lyang'hyang (a city five league* 
fw*». feuth-weft df Pe-king) he demanded back frtHD his troops 
tbdr borfcs and cuiralfes. The major part of them, refilling va 
obey, new thdr general, and ch<^e three others in his ftod : 

' Gaubil, p. 30, &fc^. 

(P) Tiie Perfian, tiz. iiifto^ [G) Called alio N^-iing, or 

rians fay, peace was made on tht teurt «f tbi feMb, and fliU 

thofe conditions ; but not that Pjtn. It flood nearly where 

Pe-iing, 01 Xbait Sa/ii, wai in- K^fmg.f», the cipiul of A- 

Vcfted. mem, at prefeot flaoai. GtmbS. 


C, 2* Rtigit p/ jenghtz Kh4n. 

iftcr which they returned, and feized the bridge of ti-ievt 
(H), From thence JCanta, one of their generals, fent a cou- 
rier to Jengbiz Kh&n, who was then encamped at the city ^ 
Whan-ciew, in Tatary, to offer liimftlf and his troops at h'li 
fcrricc. As ioon as that prince was apprifed of the emperor's 
Kireat, he was much incenfed ;' complaining that he had bcert 
"faav«d by the Kin, ftnd thereupon refolved to re-enter Chi' 
M. With this view he fcn^his general M'lngan, with a ^ 
pot force, to join fCinta, and bcC^C Ten-king (1). When 
ilat news rtached the emperor, he ordered his fon to leave 
itat city, and repair to Pyen-hiang. This alio was againit 
the idvice of his mirfifters, lupport^d by the «xamp-'e of 
Kag-Tuhang, or Hivn-t/ong, a Chincfe craperor of the Tang 
we (£). The departure of the prince difcoUraged the gar- 
nfco, not only cX Ten-king, but of other ftrong places'". 

The rapid conqucft ot the Munglt, and retreat of the Ain Statt rf' 
anjeror, gave great uncafinds to the Chinefe moriarchs of the Chinas 
"^ race ; who were then mailers of the fonthern prOTinccs 
uC^, called by foine authors /lian/i, viz. ^an-tmg,irA 
JfK ifle of Hay-nan, ^mng-fi. Tun-nan, Se-chmm, ^ey-chevi, • 
aa^uang, Kyang-fi, Chf-kyang, Fo-kyen, aud almoA jlll Ky 
ug-awt, where the Kin had a few cities. In Shcti-fi they 
folJeflisd the country of Hapg-cheng-fu, befides fome places 
in the diftrift of Kang-chang-fu, and On the borders of Se- 
tkvtn. The great wars which they had carried on agalnit 

■* Gauiili ubi fuyr. p. 1), & feq. 

(Hi Now called ff'/tn-it. great revolution ii oile of tht 

TIk Kyao, or bridge, ti two mollcuridus paru oftheCiimfi 

Mgou wed- Tout h-well of Pe- annalg ; and givCj ConfiderabU 

^l, and a very Eat otie. light into the hiftory and geo> 

C«i(7. gr«phy of the cauDtrtes Betwceil 

:l) Oiled, by the orientfll Sk-n-fi and the Cajplai, fea. It 

I'^ition, KhSn-balU, that it, ippeari that, ID thofe tiinei, ft 

^dlj a/ tit KIsSn ; or Khan- great kumber of Arab and /*/r- 

fe/i, the fiatt, or rcfidina, »f fan vcOeli frequented the port 

(^ £Wi. SoBie write Bali^ now called A!i^ii/<i». Gauiii. — 

iBd Haw. for BaJii and kf-aa. 1 his lafl remark confirms Ki' 

(K| Who retiring from Sien- nauJot'iArcUxnri Relatiem, (Jc 

HiaSt-tbtiitn, left his fon be- p. 3, & fe^. of the rebeUlon 

>ir)d him, to defend the pro- above- ttiemioned. Some atf- 

•*•«. in 736, Q&n-hjhan fc- count is giveh by Da HalJe, 

Miofc ijoiooojnen iromTur- vol. i. p. zj, 5: 199. See xieW 

^■B', and the Mohatr-.meilan C Heft. voy. A trav. 410. vol, tr. 

touiKriM. came to aid the em> p. 438- noted. 
pire. The pinitulars of tbis 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV. Bb ih« . 

Hifiory of the Mo^\ or Mungl E^ipifi. B<IU. 
the Kin, had forced them to make a' fhamefut peace, 'Where- 
by they were to pay a yearly tribute (L) in filk and filteri It 
*' was refoived therefore, at [his junfturc, to rcfufe teodeiing 
the tribute any longer : but the propo&Is made by the kii^ 
of Hya, to join forces agdnft the Kin, were rejeftcd. 
Canqutfit Th e Ai/i poffefied in Lyau-iong an army of 1 00,000 men, -vbo 
in Lyan- had retaken many places, fubdued the preceding years by king 
f^'^S- » Lyrw'ko ; and, among the reft, Lyau-yang ■■ but in the ninth 
month, MihAli, followed by the general /W/-, of the herd of 
Shan-tfu, entered that province, in order to fuccour the 
prince, and cut off the communication with Pe-che-li, whicJi 
wase^Aed. Thchugeprmyoftheftn,being filled with trai- 
tors, difperfed ; and the inferior ofScers killed their geoeral. 
King Lyrw-io recovered Lyau-yang ; and Peeking, now called 
Jtfagdlm, furrendered to/V/uW/i. This general put to the Iward 
agreat number of fubmitting foldierS, underpretcncc that they 
came In too late : bnt flopped the (laughter, on being tc^, 
that, fuch a condufl would hinder many other places from 
jielding. Towards the end (rf the year, the city <rf" Tong- 
ciew (M), an important poft, to the eaft of Ten-king, far- 
rendered to the Mungh, The emperor of the Kin hxnttg 
been obliged to lay taxes on the people, it fomiihed feveral 
lords with a pretence, foine to dirow otT their dependence, 
and others to fobmit to the Mungh. 
Lyew- In 1 2 1 5 many (rf the Kit&n advifed Lyevj-ko to be declared 

xa'tJUt- emperor, independent of the Mungli .- but that prince reje^cd 
*(J'' the propofal, as contrary to the oath which he had taken, to 

he Jenghiz Khin's fubjcft. At the fame time he fent his fan 
Sye-m to the KhSn, with ninety Waggons loaded with rich 
]»^ents (N) ; and a lift of the funilics Which had fubmitted 
to him, amotmting In all to 600,000. Towards the end <£ 
the year he came in perfon, to do hom^ to the Mungl fo- 
rerdg^ Mean dme the emperco- of the SJn, being informed 
(^ the diftreis Ten'Ung was in, lent a great quantity of pro- 
▼iftons, with forces for its r^ef : but the firftcoavoy, under 
the elcort of an inexperienced general, arriving at Paciew 
(0) bis army was there defeated j on the news whereof the 

(L} The emperor Kau-tfing, Pt-ha, about twelve miles eaft 

' lA the articles of peace made in of Pt-iiiif, and its port 

1144, with the emperor of the (N) "Iliey were expofed'on 

Kin, fobfcribed bimfelf a fub- Felta for feVen daya, to give 

]e£t, and tributary of hit. See heaven notice of what was 

•Bfirt. tab. chron, linic, p. 73, done. 

(M) In Ft (biU, on the river (O) 29* %' loi^. o** &. 



C. 2. - Re/£HofJcnghkKhk6, -gyi 

other gaierals fled, and left all the provifioos a prey to tEe A. D. 
enemy ". laij. 

The two geaerals, who commanded in Ten-king, ttctc* - w -^ 
Wan-yen Chang'-whty (P) and Mo-nyen Chin'chtng ; the for- ^"j*- 
tner of whom, out of all hope of fuccours, or withftanding ^/"'f 
the enemy, propofed to the latter to die for their country. "_• 
Mo-nyen, on whom the troops immediately depended, r6- 
fufing, Chang-nuhcy retired iR a rage, and told a Mandarin ' 
hia refolntJon. The firil day of the fifth, month he wrote a 
petition to the emperor, wherein he touched on matters <£. 
government ; anJ mentioned the crimes of a bad minifter, 
whom his mafter made ufe of, meaning Kau-ki, who flew 
Hujakii. He finUhed, by confeHtng himfeif guilty of death, 
" for not being able to fave the imperial dty {C[_). This done, 
with a compofed air, he called together all his domeftics, and 
divided all his efTeifts among them : then ordering a cup of 
pdfoa to be tiled, he wrote a few words. Aitcr which, 
commaadiog the Mandarin who was with him to leave the 
room, he drank it off; and died before his friend was gotten 
-many paces from the houfe. 

The fame evening the emperor's wives, knowing that Mo- Thttt^ttt^ 
nyen was preparing to leave tlic city, came Co acquaint falm; that '*^- ' 
they would go out along with him. He fcemed pleafi^ with 
the propo(al ; but faid he would go before, to (hew them the 
way. Tlie ladies, confiding in his promife, returned to the 
palace : but Mo-nyen, not caring to be troubled with their 
company, marched off, and left them behind.- On that ge- ■ 
neral's departure, the Mungl army entering the city, a great 
number of the inhabitants and Mandarins pprifhed in the dif- 
order which enfued, A troop of foldiers fet lire to the pa- 
lace, which continued burning for a whole month. Jengilz 
K/iiti, who was then at IVhan-cheiv, in Tatary, fent to com- 
pliment the general Min-gan on the occafion ; ordering him 
to difpatch into Tatary the lllks, gold, and illvcr, found io 
the imperial treafury. Mo-nyen arriving at Pau-ting-fit, in 
Pe-che-li, told thofe who accompanied him, that they fliould 
never have gotten thither, had he undertaken to condufi the 
ladies of the palace. When he came to Pj/on-Iyang, the em- 

"Gaubil, p. 15, & feq. « 

{P) Hewa» a prince of the . to flay himfelf on thi» occafion j 
blood J the family name of the he ought to have done his ut- ' 

Kia being JTMn-^ri-n. moft, and died in defence of the 

(Q^) It was ftlfc patriotifm city, if he coald not fave it. 

Bb a peror 

37» ffi^sry cf the Mogul wMongl Empirt. B. IK. 

A. D. peror^ (R), though extremely troubled at the lofs of his ca- 

iai6. pita! city, did not fpeak to him about it, and gave him a ve- 

^■*"v—"-'ry confidcrable employment t but (hortly after he was put lo 

death, for having been engaged, as it was fajd, in dangerous 

deligns. On the other hand, his majefty, having read Chang- 

■whey's petition, declared him Vang, or Wang, that is, king. 

Ho-nan MIN'-GAN, who was ordwed to fcarch for a Mandarin 

iifvadcd: of the royal race of the Lyau, or Kitan, called Tefu-chtt- 

t/ny (S), having found him, coadnjl^d him to Jenghlv^ KhAn ; 

who, at the firft interview, conceived a high efteem for this 

great man, and fet him at the head of his affairs. San-ir- 

j>a being fent with 10,000 horfe to befiege Ton-quan (T), a 

famous pafs in the mountains, between Shen-Ji and Htman, 

marched throngh the territories of the king of Hya ; who ftill 

conti'iued the war agalnft the Kin, and this year wrcfted from 

them the city of Liii-tau-JS (U). He took his rout by Si-gan-fi 

(the capital of Shen-ft) ; but falling in his attempt on Totf 

?'tian, marched to Ti-chfM, in Ho-nan, through crofs roads, 
uli of deep torrents, over which they made oridges with 
their pikes and halberds. At lalV aiTivlng, after many diffi- 
culties, in fight of Pyen-lyang (X), capital of that province, 
the Kin troops fallied, and made him retire to Shen-chrw (Y), 
on' the {Vhaiig-ha ; which beitig frozen, San-kfjya crof&d it, 
and efcaped. The emperor San, alter this, fent to defirc 
peace of JengM^. Kh&n ; who propofed fuch hard conditions, 
that he could not accept of them. Mean rime Mihuli and 
Wtr, in hyawtong, dlfpcrfed, with much addrefs and cou- 
rage, fe\'eral parties which endeavoured to (hake off the Mun^ 
yoke '■ 
Many I« lai^ the Munglt took their meafnres fo right, that 

//«(« 7on-quan was forced in the tenth month : after which they 

iei(ii. ported themielves between the city Tu-chciv and the mountain 
Song (Z). The court being greatly alarmed at this, one of 
(he cenfors of the empire reprefented to his A'f'nmajerty, that 

"Gaudil, p 17, i fcq. 

. (R) The oriental hiSorians fame with Kcetf^^g-fi i though 

fay, upon the loA oT Kbumhaiii in a I'oi mer note he fays it was 

he pciK>nc4 himfelf: near it. 

(S|r./ji was the family name (Y) A city of 1^/0 nan, fifteen 

of the KiiSti emperors. Gaab. leagues call north eaft of 'TtKg- 

I (T) 1 at, j+° 39' long.. 6° qiu.n. GaubH. 

17' well ofPe ihg. {X) A famous mountain, to 

(U) In S/.-e«-/i lat. 35" 20' the noith-eail f.f>H (imw. GVic 

lonj. 1 1" 10' weft. hi/. Raihot. n tlould fecm, to 

(X) Here G'^vf.V fayi it is the the no; th weft of thai city. 


C. 2. Reign ff/Jenghiz Khan.' 373 

Pyen-fyang would, be reduced in the fame minner as Yen-king A. D. 
was, unlefs he took the field with the ganifon, which was >2"6. 
very numerous ; feized the port of Ton-qtuin, fortified the "•" ■' 
frontiers of 5Atr/i^, and pafli^es of the /Wj^^^-Zro,- unlefs al- 
fo he hindered the Mungis from gaining footing in Ho-nan, 
and making iiuoads thither, by which they mined the in- 
habriants. On the contrary, the minifler Chii-hu Kau-ki per- 
fuaded the emperor to think only of fecuring the capital : 
which conduft, fays the hiflory, ruined the dominion of the 

AIUHULI, after the parts of Lyau-tong towards Lyau- A rtMlitm 
■ yig (A) had been conquered, ordered Chong-ping, one of J"*!^'! ' 
the generals in that province, to march into China, and join 
the other troops : but Ixing informed that he was a traitor, 
had him put to death, in the end of the year 1215. Here- 
upon Chang-chi, to revenge his brother's death, revblted, and 
took King-cinu (B) ; with moft of the other cities of the pro- 
vince, included between the great wall of China, the river 
Lyait (C), the wooden palifade (D), and the fea. After this 
hecaufed hlmfelf to be proclaimed king; and, in 1216, de- 
clared for the Kin, who gave him the command of their 
troops in Lyau-tong. MuhCtii, who had retaken ^tang-ning- 
hyen (E) the preceding year, at the end of this befi^cd King- 
(hevi (>'). Ciang-chi had good troops ; and the place being 
very lirong, MihiSli ordered IVSr to go and attack an import- 
ant pod on a neighbouring mountain, while another general 
Ihould be ready to cut off the troops detached from the city 
to fuccour it. a^ir having obeyed his orders, Chang-chi fal- 
lied out with part of the garrifon : hereupon flknkii-pihiria 
placing himfelf between that poll and the city, gave notice 
thereof to M&huli, who lay towards ^laitg-ning. This gene* 
ral, marching all night, by break of day came up and attacked ^MubGIit 
Chang-chi oft one fide, while MonkH did the fame on the other ; 
fo that he was entirely defijated. Yet efcaping back to the ci- 
ty, he defended it gallantly for more than a month ; when 
an ofitcer of the garrifon feized and delivered him to the 
Mungis : wlio cut off his head, and took pofielTion of the 

(A) Lat, 41° 17' long. 6° with a ifttodcn palifade, or 
56^ eaft; then a great city, fence. 

Geuii/. (E) Lat. +1'' 39' long. f» 26' 

(B) Lat.4i''8' loiig.4''45' eaft. 
KiA of Pr- king. Gauhil, {F} Lat 41° 6' long. 4*- 44' 

(C) Called alfo Sira Murtit 
\i>) Lyau-iong is furrounded 

B b 3 The 

374 Bifiory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. B. IIL 

A. D, The Mungh, after a great ftnigglc to get footing in Ho- 
iii6, tian, at kit abandoned that province 1 and pafling thc/'WiiM^- 
■' Ao, under the conduct of Sa-me-ho [Q), lurnamcd Patiiru, or 
, marched towards Ping-yatig-fH, in Shen-Jt : 
'■ but Su-ting, who commanded the troops there, having ga- 
thered thofe from the dependent places, met and dented 
them *". 

This is the account of Jenghlz Kh&n'i firfl expedition in- 
to Kitay, tranfmltted to us from the Chineje hiftorians. We 
fliall now fubjoin a view of that given by the wcAern Ajia- 
tics, that our readers may the better compare them, and judge 
of their merit. 

These authors tell us, that JenghinKh^ being ready to 

aaXex Kitay, in i2io, divided his army into two bodies; and 

that, keeping the moft coafiderable with himfelf, he gave the 

' command of the other to three of his fons, Juji, Jagatay^ 

and Oktay -. that thefe princes marched through the Kahn&ki 

|Curje,0r country (H), towards Kurje \ which being unprovided with 

Lyau' troops, who were gone to join Alt&ti_ KhSn, they made terri- 

*'"'£* ble devafiations in the towns, and carried off all the cattle; 

that Jengb'tT. Khhn, marching by the 77/, a river of Karakitay, 

entered IQtay at the great gate in the wall of China, which 

Aiakus, Ehan of Ankat, to whofe care it was committed^ 

opened to him : tliat he fpared all the